Peace of Westphalia

related topics
{government, party, election}
{war, force, army}
{church, century, christian}
{law, state, case}
{area, part, region}
{son, year, death}
{city, population, household}
{game, team, player}

The term Peace of Westphalia denotes a series of peace treaties signed between May and October of 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic.

The Peace of Westphalia treaties involved the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III of the House of Habsburg, the Kingdoms of Spain, France, Sweden, the Dutch Republic, the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, and sovereigns of the Free imperial cities and can be denoted by two major events.

  • The signing of the Peace of Münster[1] between the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain on 30 January 1648, officially ratified in Münster on 15 May 1648.
  • The signing of two complementary treaties on 24 October 1648, namely:
    • The Treaty of Münster (Instrumentum Pacis Monasteriensis, IPM),[2] concerning the Holy Roman Emperor and France and their respective allies.
    • The Treaty of Osnabrück (Instrumentum Pacis Osnabrugensis, IPO),[3] concerning the Holy Roman Emperor, the Empire and Sweden and their respective allies.

The treaties resulted from the first modern diplomatic congress, thereby initiating a new political order in central Europe, based upon the concept of a sovereign state governed by a sovereign. In the event, the treaties’ regulations became integral to the constitutional law of the Holy Roman Empire.

The treaties did not restore the peace throughout Europe, however. France and Spain remained at war for the next eleven years, making peace only in the Treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659.



Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs, provided by the Holy Roman Emperor and the Spanish King, were to be started in Cologne in 1636. These negotiations were blocked by France.

Cardinal Richelieu of France desired the inclusion of all its allies, whether sovereign or a state within the Holy Roman Empire. In Hamburg and Lübeck, Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated the Treaty of Hamburg. This was done with the intervention of Richelieu.

Full article ▸

related documents
English Revolution
Palestine Liberation Organization and Hamas
Federica Montseny
Abdel-Razak al-Yehiyeh
Robert Guéï
Francesc Macià i Llussà
Dési Bouterse
Pope Gregory XVI
Rolf Ekéus
Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
Hallstein Doctrine
Cabinet-style council
Fritz Kuhn
United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
Francis Simard
State legislature (United States)
Foraker Act
Politics of Mayotte
Foreign relations of Senegal
Theodoor Herman de Meester
Big Stick Ideology
Foreign relations of Seychelles
Paavo Lipponen
Social Democratic Party
Foreign relations of the Marshall Islands
General Trades Union
Pete Peterson
Politics of Serbia and Montenegro
María de Lourdes Santiago