Race and intelligence

related topics
{theory, work, human}
{rate, high, increase}
{black, white, people}
{country, population, people}
{specie, animal, plant}
{work, book, publish}
{school, student, university}
{group, member, jewish}
{style, bgcolor, rowspan}
{disease, patient, cell}
{household, population, female}
{food, make, wine}
{math, number, function}

The connection between race and intelligence has been a subject of debate in both popular science and academic research since the inception of intelligence testing in the early 20th century, particularly in the United States. Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests performed in the US have consistently demonstrated a significant degree of variation between different racial groups, with the average score of the African American population being significantly lower—and that of the Asian American population being higher—than that of the White American population.

At the same time, there is considerable overlap between these group scores, and members of each racial group can be found at all points on the IQ spectrum. Similar findings have been reported for related populations around the world, most notably in Africa, though these are generally considered far less reliable due to the relative paucity of test data and the difficulties inherent in the cross-cultural comparison of intelligence test scores.

There are no universally accepted definitions of either race or intelligence in academia, and the discussion of their connection involves the results of multiple disciplines, including biology, anthropology, sociology, and psychology. Many factors that could potentially influence the development of intelligence have been advanced as possible causes of the racial IQ gaps. It is generally agreed that both genetics and environmental and/or cultural factors affect individual IQ scores. There is currently no consensus whether genetics play a role in racial IQ gaps, or whether their cause is entirely environmental.

The claim that a significant portion of the racial IQ gap has an ultimately genetic origin have been advanced by several psychologists, including Arthur Jensen, J. Philippe Rushton and Richard Lynn. The American Psychological Association in a 1996 report stated that the US racial IQ gap was not the result of bias in the content or administration of tests, nor simply reflect differences in socio-economic status, but that no adequate explanation of it had so far been given.[1]


Full article ▸

related documents
Social class
Emotional intelligence
John Dewey
Functionalism (sociology)
Noam Chomsky
Unification Thought
Dialectical materialism
History of logic
Edmund Husserl
Unconscious mind
Henri Bergson
Transactional analysis
Theodor W. Adorno
Cognitive science
Paul Feyerabend
Alfred Adler