Remember: the resume is a tool to get an interview - it will not get you a job. It is your first marketing tool.
Curriculum Vita vs. Resume
CV: A full list of your professional and educational history. Usually each experience with detail is included.
Resume: A summary of your experience and skills that is most pertinent.
A resume is selective about what is highlighted about your background and experience depending upon the position being targeted.
How long is it?
CV: Usually several pages
Resume: Usually one page; sometimes two pages with extensive experience
When do you use it?
CV: Used for academic positions and research positions
Resume: Used for every other type of job outside of academia and research science
Do you include your publications?
Resume: No, unless position is research in industry or similar type of position
How important is style and layout?
CV: Although content is most important, and some say that style is not as important, style does matter
Resume: Style and content are important
Other information to include?
CV: title of your dissertation, overview of your dissertation, titles and description of courses you have taught, all of your awards, your advisor and committee members' names, your references, conferences attended and publications.
Resume: none of the above, except some of your most noteworthy awards, and in some cases your thesis title