TUBERCULOSIS THERAPEUTICS: ENGINEERING OF NANOMEDICINAL SYSTEMS FOR LOCAL DELIVERY OF TARGETED DRUG COCKTAILS
Series: Final Public Oral Examinations
Location: Eisenhart Room (E-Quad G201)
Date/Time: Tuesday, April 17, 2012, 9:15 a.m. - 10:45 a.m.
In this thesis, a multifunctional nanocarrier drug delivery system was investigated and optimized for the improved treatment of tuberculosis by promoting the intracellular delivery of high payloads of antibiotics. To meet the needs of a patient population which continues to grow by close to 10 million people a year, innovative therapeutics must be formulated by robust and scalable processes. We use Flash NanoPrecipitation for the continuous precipitation of nanocarriers by block copolymer directed assembly, which enables the development of nanocarriers with tunable properties. Stable nanocarriers of Rifampicin and a hydrophobic Rifampicin prodrug have efficacy against tuberculosis in vitro that is equivalent to the soluble Rifampicin. To overcome poor in vivo efficacy of the recently discovered antitubercular drug SQ641, we co-encapsulate SQ641 and Cyclosporine A in a stable aqueous nanocarrier suspension, which enables drug administration and enhances intracellular accumulation and antitubercular efficacy relative to SQ641 in solution.
Since the macrophage mannose receptor is involved in the phagocytosis of tuberculosis bacilli, we modify the surface of nanocarriers with mannoside residues to target specific intracellular accumulation in macrophages. The surface density of mannoside terminated polyethylene glycol chains was controlled between 0 and 75% and in vitro cellular association reveals a 9% surface density is optimal for internalization mediated by the mannose receptor. We explore the preparation of large, porous aerosol carrier particles of with tunable deposition characteristics by Spray Freeze Drying with ultrasonic atomization for direct dosing to the lungs. Nanocarriers are loaded at 3 - 50 wt% in mannitol particles with constant size, limited nanocarrier aggregation, and 63% dose delivered to the lungs, as determined by in vitro cascade impaction.
There has been a lag in the development of new technologies to facilitate development and commercialization of therapeutic nanocarrier formulations. We present three translational technologies. (1) The intrinsic dissolution rates of drug nanocarriers are determined using a novel assay, based on high surface area lipid sink particles and magnetic separations, to improve in vitro/in vivo correlations. (2) The interactions of nanocarrier formulations with whole serum and the surface polymer conformation is correlated to in vivo clearance. General rules are proposed for the design of nanocarriers produced by Flash NanoPrecipitation with extended circulation times for targeted delivery. (3) In Hydrogen Bonding Coacervate Precipitation, polyethylene glycol coated nanocarriers are controllably flocculated with the addition of polyacids to enable rapid filtration and drying.
In summary, this research outlines approaches to the customization of nanocarrier drug delivery systems to specifically improve outcomes in tuberculosis therapy. New assays and processing techniques for transitioning formulations from bench research to the clinic are developed. The methods are flexible and can be applied to target various diseases, coupled with rational design of nanocarrier payloads, surface functionality, and dosing route.