XPS (ESCA),ISS, RHEED
PHI 5100 ESCA Spectrometer
Pictured above is a PHI 5100 ESCA Spectrometer with a Dual Anode X-Ray Source custom-modified to include ISS and RHEED capability. XPS is routinely used for surface elemental quantification to 0.1 atom % and oxidation state identification. Because of its non-destructive nature, XPS is a powerful technique for compositional analysis and, when used in an Angle-resolved mode with or without Ar+ ion sputtering, is capable of rendering compositional depth-profiles and moderate film thickness measurements.