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Journal Issue: Children and Electronic Media Volume 18 Number 1 Spring 2008

Media and Children's Aggression, Fear, and Altruism
Barbara J. Wilson

Endnotes

  1. Victoria Rideout and Elizabeth Hamel, The Media Family: Electronic Media in the Lives of Infants, Toddlers, Preschoolers, and Their Parents (Palo Alto, Calif.: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2006).
  2. Amy Halberstaadt, Susanne Denham, and Julie Dunsmore, “Affective Social Competence,” Social Development 79 (2001): 79–119.
  3. Aimee Dorr, “Television and Affective Development and Functioning,” in Television and Behavior: Ten Years of Scientific Progress and Implications for the Eighties, edited by David Pearl, Lorraine Bouthilet, and Joyce Lazar (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982), pp. 199–220; Norma Deitch Feshbach and Seymour Feshbach, “Affective Processes and Academic Achievement,” Child Development 58, no. 5 (1987): 1335–47.
  4. Francine Deutsch, “Observational and Sociometric Measures of Peer Popularity and Their Relationship of Egocentric Communication in Female Preschoolers,” Developmental Psychology 10, no. 5 (1974): 745–47; Barbara Wilson and Joanne Cantor, “Developmental Differences in Empathy with a Television Protagonist's Fear,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 39, no. 2 (1985): 284–99.
  5. Donald Hayes and Dina Casey, “Young Children and Television: The Retention of Emotional Reactions,” Child Development 63, no. 6 (1992): 1423–36.
  6. Aletha Huston and others, “Perceived Television Reality and Children's Emotional and Cognitive Responses to Its Social Content,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 16 (1995): 231 –51.
  7. Ann Knowles and Mary Nixon, “Children's Comprehension of a Television Cartoon's Emotional Theme,” Australian Journal of Psychology 42, no. 2 (1990): 115–21.
  8. Huston and others, “Perceived Television Reality” (see note 6).
  9. Gerry Ann Bogatz and Samuel Ball, The Second Year of Sesame Street: A Continuing Evaluation (Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service, 1971).
  10. Sandra Calvert and Jennifer Kotler, “Lessons from Children's Television: The Impact of the Children's Television Act on Children's Learning,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 24 (2003): 275–335.
  11. Audrey Weiss and Barbara Wilson, “Emotional Portrayals in Family Television Series That Are Popular among Children,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 40 (1996): 1–29.
  12. Judith List, Andrew Collins, and Sally Westby, “Comprehension and Inferences from Traditional and Nontraditional Sex-Role Portrayals on Television,” Child Development 54, no. 2 (1983): 1579–87.
  13. Susan Fiske and Shelley Taylor, eds., Social Cognition (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  14. Jennifer Jenkins and Keith Oatley, “The Development of Emotion Schemas in Children: Processes That Underlie Psychopathology,” in Emotion in Psychopathology: Theory and Research, edited by William Flack and James Laird (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 45–56.
  15. Jeanne Meadowcroft and Byron Reeves, “Influence of Story Schema Development on Children's Attention to Television,” Communication Research 16, no. 3 (1989): 352–74.
  16. John Wright and Aletha Huston, “Occupational Portrayals on Television: Children's Role Schemata, Career Aspirations, and Perceptions of Reality,” Child Development 66, no. 6 (1995): 1706–18.
  17. Leanne Findlay, Alberta Girardi, and Robert Coplan, “Links between Empathy, Social Behavior, and Social Understanding in Early Childhood,” Early Childhood Research Quarterly 21 (2006): 347–59.
  18. Carolyn Saarni and others, “Emotional Development: Action, Communication, and Understanding,” in Handbook of Child Psychology, vol. 3: Social, Emotional, and Personality Development (New York: Wiley, 2006).
  19. Grace Martin and Russell Clark, “Distress Crying in Neonates: Species and Peer Specificity,” Developmental Psychology 18 (1982): 3–9.
  20. Wilson and Cantor, “Developmental Differences in Empathy” (see note 4).
  21. Lawrence Kurdek, “Structural Components and Intellectual Correlates of Cognitive Perspective Taking in First- through Fourth-Grade Children,” Child Development 48 (1977): 1503–11; Michael Chandler and Stephen Greenspan, “Ersatz Egocentrism: A Reply to H. Burke,” Developmental Psychology 7 (1972): 104–06.
  22. Norma Feshbach and Kiki Roe, “Empathy in Six- and Seven-Year-Olds,” Child Development 39, no.1 (1968): 133–45.
  23. Huston and others, “Perceived Television Reality” (see note 6).
  24. Raymond Mar and others, “Bookworms versus Nerds: Exposure to Fiction versus Non-fiction, Divergent Associations with Social Ability, and the Simulation of Fictional Social Worlds,” Journal of Research in Personality 40 (2006): 694–712.
  25. Joanne Cantor, “The Media and Children's Fears, Anxieties, and Perceptions of Danger,” in Handbook of Children and the Media, edited by Dorothy Singer and Jerome Singer (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2002), pp. 207–21.
  26. Ibid.
  27. Douglas Gentile and David Walsh, “A Normative Study of Family Media Habits,” Applied Developmental Psychology 25 (2002): 157–78.
  28. Mark Singer and others, “Viewing Preferences, Symptoms of Psychological Trauma, and Violent Behaviors among Children Who Watch Television,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 37, no. 10 (1998): 1041–48.
  29. Judith Owens and others, “Television-viewing Habits and Sleep Disturbance in School Children,” Pediatrics 104 (1999) [www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/104/3/e27].
  30. Kristen Harrison and Joanne Cantor, “Tales from the Screen: Enduring Fright Reactions to Scary Media,” Media Psychology 1, no. 2 (1999): 97–116.
  31. Cantor, “The Media and Children's Fears” (see note 25).
  32. Rachel Melkman, Barbara Tversky, and Daphna Baratz, “Developmental Trends in the Use of Perceptual and Conceptual Attributes in Grouping, Clustering, and Retrieval,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 31, no. 3 (1981): 470–86.
  33. Cantor, “The Media and Children's Fears” (see note 25).
  34. Ibid.
  35. John Wright and others, “Young Children's Perceptions of Television Reality: Determinants and Developmental Differences,” Developmental Psychology 30, no. 2 (1994): 229–39.
  36. Joanne Cantor and Amy Nathanson, “Children's Fright Reactions to Television News,” Journal of Communication 46 (1996): 139–52; Stacy Smith and Barbara Wilson, “Children's Comprehension of and Fear Reactions to Television News,” Media Psychology 4, no. 1 (2002): 1–26.
  37. Stacy Smith, Katherine Pieper, and Emily Moyer-Guse, “News, Reality Shows, & Children's Fears: Examining Content Patterns, Theories, and Negative Effects,” in Blackwell Handbook of Child Development and the Media, edited by Sandra Calvert and Barbara Wilson (New York: Blackwell Publishing, forthcoming).
  38. Betty Pfefferbaum and others, “Post-traumatic Stress Two Years after the Oklahoma City Bombing in Youths Geographically Distant from the Explosion,” Psychiatry 63, no. 4 (2000): 358–70.
  39. Mark Schuster and others, “A National Survey of Stress Reactions after the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks,” New England Journal of Medicine 345, no. 20 (2001): 1507–12.
  40. William Schlenger and others, “Psychological Reactions to Terrorist Attacks: Findings from the National Study of Americans' Reactions to September 11,” Journal of the American Medical Association 288, no. 5 (2002): 581–88.
  41. Michael Otto and others, “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Following Media Exposure to Tragic Events: Impact of 9/11 on Children at Risk for Anxiety Disorders,” Journal of Anxiety Disorders 21, no. 7 (2007): 888–902.
  42. Conway Saylor and others, “Media Exposure to September 11: Elementary School Students' Experiences and Posttraumatic Symptoms,” American Behavioral Scientist 46, no. 2 (2003): 1622–42.
  43. Smith and Wilson, “Children's Comprehension of and Fear Reactions to Television News” (see note 36).
  44. Ibid.
  45. Cantor and Nathanson, “Children's Fright Reactions to Television News” (see note 36); Smith and Wilson, “Children's Comprehension of and Fear Reactions to Television News” (see note 36).
  46. Ibid.
  47. Eugenia Peck, “Gender Differences in Film-Induced Fear as a Function of Type of Emotion Measure and Stimulus Content: A Meta-analysis and a Laboratory Study,” Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 61(1-A), (2000): 17.
  48. Jeffrey Johnson and others, “Association between Television Viewing and Sleep Problems during Adolescence and Early Adulthood,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 158 (2004): 562–68.
  49. George Gerbner and others, “Growing Up with Television: Cultivation Processes,” in Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research, edited by Jennings Bryant and Dolf Zillmann (Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002).
  50. Stacy Smith and others, “Violence in Television Programming Overall: University of California, Santa Barbara Study,” in National Television Violence Study, vol. 3 (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1998), pp. 5–220; Barbara Wilson and others, “Violence in Television Programming Overall: University of California, Santa Barbara Study,” in National Television Violence Study, vol. 1 (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1997), pp. 3– 268.
  51. Barbara Wilson and others, “Violence in Children's Television Programming: Assessing the Risks,” Journal of Communication 52, no. 1 (2002): 5–35.
  52. Nancy Signorielli, “Television's Mean and Dangerous World: A Continuation of the Cultural Indicators Perspective,” Cultivation Analysis: New Directions in Media Effects Research, edited by Nancy Signorielli and Michael Morgan (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1990): pp. 85– 106.
  53. Jennings Bryant, Rodney Carveth, and Dan Brown, “Television Viewing and Anxiety: An Experimental Examination,” Journal of Communication 31 (1981): 106–19.
  54. Jacob Cohen, Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Second Edition (Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988).
  55. Michael Morgan and James Shanahan, “Two Decades of Cultivation Research: An Appraisal and Meta-Analysis,” Communication Yearbook 20 (1996): 1–45.
  56. Daniel Romer, Kathleen Jamieson, and Sean Aday, “Television News and the Cultivation of Fear and Crime,” Journal of Communication 53, no. 1 (2003): 88–104.
  57. Smith and Wilson, “Children's Comprehension of and Fear Reactions to Television News” (see note 36).
  58. Barbara Wilson, Nicole Martins, and Amy Marske, “Children's and Parents' Fright Reactions to Kidnapping Stories in the News,” Communication Monographs 72, no. 1 (2005): 46–70.
  59. Ibid.
  60. David Finkelhor and Richard Ormrod, “Kidnapping of Juveniles: Patterns from NIBRS” (Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2000).
  61. Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Kidnapping of Juveniles” (www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/ibrs.htm [March 5, 2003]).
  62. CBS News Polls, “Poll: America's Cultural Divide” (www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/11/22/opinion/polls/main657068.shtml [March 15, 2007]).
  63. Elliot Turiel, “The Development of Morality,” in Handbook of Child Psychology, vol. 3: Social, Emotional, and Personality Development, edited by Nancy Eisenberg, William Damon, and Richard Lerner (New York: Wiley, 2006), pp. 789–857.
  64. Marina Krcmar and Patti Valkenberg, “A Scale to Assess Children's Moral Interpretations of Justified and Unjustified Violence and Its Relationship to Television Viewing,” Communication Research 26, no. 5 (1999): 608–34.
  65. Wilson and others, “Violence in Television Programming Overall” (see note 50).
  66. Marina Krcmar and Edward Vieira, “Imitating Life, Imitating Television: The Effects of Family and Television Models on Children's Moral Reasoning,” Communication Research 32, no. 3 (2005): 267–94.
  67. Wilson and others, “Violence in Television Programming Overall” (see note 50).
  68. Marina Krcmar and Stephen Curtis, “Mental Models: Understanding the Impact of Fantasy Violence on Children's Moral Reasoning,” Journal of Communication 53, no. 3 (2003): 460–78.
  69. Judy Dunn and Claire Hughes, “‘I Got Some Swords and You're Dead': Violent Fantasy, Antisocial Behavior, Friendship, and Moral Sensibility in Young Children,” Child Development 72 (2001): 491–505.
  70. Pew Research Center, New Concerns about Internet and Reality Shows: Support for Tougher Indecency Measures, but Worries about Government Intrusiveness (Washington. D.C., April 2005).
  71. Smith and others, “Violence in Television Programming Overall: University of California, Santa Barbara Study” (see note 50); Wilson and others, “Violence in Television Programming Overall” (see note 50).
  72. Wilson and others, “Violence in Television Programming Overall” (see note 50).
  73. Fumie Yokota and Kimberly Thompson, “Violence in G-Rated Animated Films,” Journal of the American Medical Association 283 (2000): 2716–20.
  74. Kimberly Thompson and Kevin Haninger, “Violence in E-Rated Video Games,” Journal of the American Medical Association 286 (2001): 591–98.
  75. Albert Bandura, Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1986).
  76. Rachel Barr and others, “The Effect of Repetition on Imitation from Television during Infancy,” Developmental Psychobiology 49, no. 2 (2007): 196–207.
  77. Albert Bandura, Sheila Ross, and Dorthea Ross, “Vicarious Reinforcement and Imitative Learning,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67, no. 6 (1963): 601–07.
  78. Albert Bandura, “Influence of Model's Reinforcement Contingencies on the Acquisition of Imitative Responses,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36 (1965): 589–95.
  79. Bandura, Social Foundations of Thought and Action (see note 75).
  80. L. Rowell Huesmann, “Psychological Processes Promoting the Relation between Exposure to Media Violence and Aggressive Behavior by the Viewer,” Journal of Social Issues 42 (1986): 125–39.
  81. Craig Anderson and others, “The Influence of Media Violence on Youth,” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 4 (2003): 81–110.
  82. Congressional Public Health Summit, “Joint Statement on the Impact of Entertainment Violence on Children,” July 26, 2000 (www.aap.org/advocacy/releases/jstmtevc.htm [July 31, 2007]).
  83. Chris Boyatzis, Gina Matillo, and Kristen Nesbitt, “Effects of ‘The Mighty Morphin Power Rangers' on Children's Aggression with Peers,” Child Study Journal 25, no. 1 (1995): 45–55.
  84. Albert Bandura, Dorthea Ross, and Sheila Ross, “Imitation of Film-Mediated Aggressive Models,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 66, no. 1 (1963): 3–11; David Hicks, “Imitation and the Retention of Film-Mediated Aggressive Peer and Adult Models,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2 (1965): 97–100.
  85. L. Rowell Huesmann and others, “Longitudinal Relations between Children's Exposure to TV Violence and Their Aggressive and Violent Behavior in Young Adulthood: 1977–1992,” Developmental Psychology 39, no. 2 (2003): 201–21.
  86. Haejung Paik and George Comstock, “The Effects of Television Violence on Antisocial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis,” Communication Research 21, no. 4 (1994): 516–46.
  87. Brad Bushman and Craig Anderson, “Media Violence and the American Public: Scientific Facts versus Media Misinformation,” American Psychologist 56 (2001): 477–89.
  88. J. Cooper and Diane Mackie, “Video Games and Aggression in Children,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 16 (1986): 726–44; Daniel Graybill and others, “Effects of Playing Versus Observing Violent Versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Aggression,” Psychology: A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior 24 (1987): 1–8.
  89. Steven Kirsch, “Seeing the World through Mortal Kombat-Colored Glasses: Violent Video Games and the Development of a Short-Term Hostile Attribution Bias,” Childhood 5 (1998): 177 –84.
  90. Craig Anderson, Douglas Gentile, and Katherine Buckley, Violent Video Game Effects on Children and Adolescents (Oxford University Press, 2007).
  91. Ibid.
  92. Craig Anderson, “An Update on the Effects of Playing Violent Video Games,” Journal of Adolescence 27 (2004): 113–22.
  93. William Kronenberger and others, “Media Violence Exposure in Aggressive and Control Adolescents: Differences in Self- and Parent-Report Exposure to Violence on Television and in Video Games,” Aggressive Behavior 31, no. 3 (2005): 201–16.
  94. Ibid.
  95. John Archer and Sarah Coyne, “An Integrated Review of Indirect, Relational, and Social Aggression,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 9, no. 3 (2005): 212–30.
  96. Sarah Coyne and John Archer, “Indirect Aggression in the Media: A Content Analysis of British Television Programs,” Aggressive Behavior 30 (2004): 254–71.
  97. Sarah Coyne, John Archer, and Mike Eslea, “Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 88, no. 3 (2004): 234–53.
  98. Huesmann and others, “Longitudinal Relations between Children's Exposure” (see note 85).
  99. Nancy Eisenberg, Richard Fabes, and Tracy Spinrad, “Prosocial Development,” in Handbook of Child Psychology, vol. 3: Social, Emotional, and Personality Development, edited by Nancy Eisenberg, William Damon, and Richard Lerner (New York: Wiley, 2006), pp. 646–718.
  100. Sandi Smith and others, “Altruism on American Television: Examining the Amount of, and Context Surrounding, Acts of Helping and Sharing,” Journal of Communication 4 (2006): 707–27.
  101. Wilson and others, “Violence in Television Programming Overall” (see note 50).
  102. Lynn Rossellini, “Lords of the Rings,” US News & World Report 126 (1999): 52–59.
  103. Joyce Sprafkin, Robert Liebert, and Rita Poulos, “Effect of a Prosocial Televised Example on Children's Helping,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 20 (1975): 119–26.
  104. Lynette Friedrich and Aletha Stein, “Prosocial Television and Young Children: The Effects of Verbal Labeling and Role Playing on Learning and Behavior,” Child Development 47, no. 1 (1975): 27–38.
  105. Jerome Singer and Dorothy Singer, “‘Barney & Friends' as Entertainment Education: Evaluating the Quality and Effectiveness of a Television Series for Preschool Children,” in Research Paradigms, Television, and Social Behavior, edited by Joy Asamen and Gordon Berry (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1998), pp. 305–67.
  106. Maria McKenna and Elizabeth Ossoff, “Age Differences in Children's Comprehension of a Popular Television Program,” Child Study Journal 28, no. 1 (1998): 53–68.
  107. Marsha Liss, Lauri Reinhardt, and Sandra Fredriksen, “TV Heroes: The Impact of Rhetoric and Deeds,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 4 (1983): 175–87.
  108. Gene Brody, Zolinda Stoneman, and Alice Sanders, “Effects of Television Viewing on Family Interactions: An Observational Study,” Family Relations 29, no. 2 (1980): 216–20.
  109. May Martini, “‘What's New?' at the Dinner Table: Family Dynamics during Mealtimes in Two Cultural Groups in Hawaii,” Early Development and Parenting 5 (1996): 23–34.
  110. Kelly Schmitt, Daniel Anderson, and Patricia Collins, “Form and Content: Looking at Visual Features of Television,” Developmental Psychology 35 (1999): 1156–67.
  111. Stanley Baran, Lawrence Chase, and John Courtright, “Television Drama as a Facilitator of Prosocial Behavior: The Waltons,” Journal of Broadcasting 23 (1979): 277–84.
  112. L. Theresa Silverman and Joyce Sprafkin, “The Effects of ‘Sesame Street's' Prosocial Spots on Cooperative Play between Young Children,” Journal of Broadcasting 24 (1980): 135–47.
  113. Brian Coates, H. Ellison Pusser, and Irene Goodman, “The Influence of ‘Sesame Street' and ‘Mister Rogers' Neighborhood' on Children's Social Behavior in the Preschool,” Child Development 47, no. 1 (1976): 138–44.
  114. Bradley Greenberg and Dana Mastro, “Children, Race, Ethnicity and Media,” in Blackwell Handbook of Child Development and the Media, edited by Sandra Calvert and Barbara Wilson (New York: Blackwell Publishing, forthcoming).
  115. Bogatz and Ball, The Second Year of Sesame Street (see note 9).
  116. Charlotte Cole and others, “The Educational Impact of Rechov Sumsum/Shara'a Simsim: A Sesame Street Television Series to Promote Respect and Understanding among Children Living in Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza,” International Journal of Behavioral Development 25, no. 5 (2003): 409–22.
  117. Marie-Louise Mares and Emory Woodard, “Positive Effects of Television on Children's Social Interactions: A Meta-Analysis,” Media Psychology 7, no. 3 (2005): 301–22.
  118. Anderson, Gentile, and Buckley, Violent Video Game Effects (see note 90).
  119. Wright and others, “Young Children's Perceptions of Television Reality” (see note 35).
  120. Huesmann, “Psychological Processes” (see note 80).
  121. Barbara Wilson and Audrey Weiss, “The Effects of Two Reality Explanations on Children's Reactions to a Frightening Movie Scene,” Communication Monographs 58, no. 2 (1991): 307–26.
  122. Barbara Wilson and Kristin Drogos, “Preschoolers' Attraction to Media Characters,” presented at the 2007 annual meeting of the National Communication Association convention, Chicago.
  123. Antronette Yancey, Judith Siegel, and Kimberly McDaniel, “Role Models, Ethnic Identity, and Health-Risk Behaviors in Urban Adolescents,” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 156 (2002): 55–61.
  124. Huesmann, “Psychological Processes” (see note 80).
  125. Otto and others, “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms” (see note 41).
  126. Singer and Singer, “Barney & Friends” (see note 105).
  127. Joanne Cantor and Barbara Wilson, “Media and Violence: Intervention Strategies for Reducing Aggression,” Media Psychology 5, no. 4 (2003): 363–403.
  128. Amy Nathanson and Joanne Cantor, “Reducing the Aggression-Promoting Effect of Violent Cartoons by Increasing Children's Fictional Involvement with the Victim: A Study of Active Mediation,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 44 (2000): 125–42.
  129. Joanne Cantor and Barbara Wilson, “Helping Children Cope with Frightening Media Presentations,” Current Psychological Research & Reviews 7 (1988): 58–75.
  130. Wilson and Weiss, “The Effects of Two Reality Explanations” (see note 121); Joanne Cantor and Barbara Wilson, “Modifying Fear Responses to Mass Media in Preschool and Elementary School Children,” Journal of Broadcasting 28 (1984): 431–43.
  131. Cantor and Wilson, ”Modifying Fear Responses” (see note 130).
  132. Wilson, Martins, and Marske, “Children's and Parents' Fright Reactions” (see note 58).
  133. Deborah Phillips, Shantay Prince, and Laura Schiebelhut, “Elementary School Children's Responses Three Months after the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: A Study in Washington, DC,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 74 (2004): 509–28.