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Journal Issue: Childhood Obesity Volume 16 Number 1 Spring 2006

The Role of Schools in Obesity Prevention
Mary Story Karen M. Kaphingst Simone French

Endnotes

  1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 (Government Printing Office, 2005); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health, 2nd ed. (GPO, 2000).
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Quickstats: Prevalence of Overweight among Children and Teenagers, by Age Group and Selected Period, U.S., 1963–2002,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54, no. 8 (2005): 203.
  3. DHHS and USDA, Dietary Guidelines for Americans (see note 1); Jeffrey P. Koplan, Catharyn T. Liverman, and Vivica I. Kraak, eds., Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance (Washington: National Academies Press, 2005).
  4. Action for Healthy Kids, The Learning Connection: The Value of Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity in Our Schools, 2004 (www.ActionForHealthyKids.org [July 7, 2005]).
  5. J. B. Schwimmer, T. M. Burwinkle, and J. W. Varni, “Health-Related Quality of Life of Severely Obese Children and Adolescents,” Journal of the American Medical Association 289, no. 14 (2003): 1813–19; A. M. Tershakovec, S. C. Weller, and P. R. Gallagher, “Obesity, School Performance and Behaviour of Black, Urban Elementary School Children,” International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders 18, no. 5 (1994): 323–27.
  6. National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation, Obesity in Young Children: Impact and Intervention, Research Brief (Washington: August 2004) (www.nihcm.org [July 7, 2005]); A. Datar, R. Sturm, and J. L. Magnabosco, “Childhood Overweight and Academic Performance: National Study of Kindergartners and First-Graders,” Obesity Research 12, no. 1 (2004): 58–68.
  7. Action for Healthy Kids, The Learning Connection (see note 4).
  8. National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation, Obesity in Young Children (see note 6); A. Must and others, “The Disease Burden Associated with Overweight and Obesity,” Journal of the American Medical Association 282, no. 16 (1999): 1523–29; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity (Rockville, Md.: 2001).
  9. National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation, Obesity in Young Children (see note 6); I. Janssen and others, “Associations between Overweight and Obesity with Bullying Behaviors in School- Aged Children,” Pediatrics 113, no. 5 (2004): 1187–94.
  10. L. Parker, The Relationship between Nutrition and Learning: A School Employee's Guide to Information and Action (Washington: National Education Association, 1989).
  11. G. C. Rampersaud and others, “Breakfast Habits, Nutritional Status, Body Weight, and Academic Performance in Children and Adolescents,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105, no. 5 (2005): 743–60.
  12. Action for Healthy Kids, The Learning Connection (see note 4).
  13. H. Taras, “Physical Activity and Student Performance at School,” Journal of School Health 75, no. 6 (2005): 214–18.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Phil Gleason, Carol Suitor, and U.S. Food and Nutrition Service, Children's Diets in the Mid-1990s: Dietary Intake and Its Relationship with School Meal Participation, Special Nutrition Programs, Report no. CN-01-CD1 (Alexandria, Va.: U.S. Dept of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, 2001).
  16. Trust for America's Health, “F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies Are Failing in America” (www.healthyamericans. org [March 22, 2005]).
  17. M. K. Fox, W. Hamilton, and B. H. Lin, Effects of Food Assistance and Nutrition Programs on Health and Nutrition, vol. 3: Literature Review, Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report no. 19-3 (Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 2004).
  18. Ibid.
  19. M. K. Fox and others, School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study II: Summary of Findings (Alexandria, Va.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation, 2001).
  20. Ibid.
  21. Gleason, Suitor, and U.S. Food and Nutrition Service, Children's Diets in the Mid-1990s (see note 15); Fox and others, School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (see note 19).
  22. Gleason, Suitor, and U.S. Food and Nutrition Service, Children's Diets in the Mid-1990s (see note 15).
  23. Ibid.
  24. Food Research and Action Center, “State of the States, 2005: A Profile of Food and Nutrition Programs across the Nation” (www.frac.org [March 22, 2005]).
  25. Gleason, Suitor, and U.S. Food and Nutrition Service, Children's Diets in the Mid-1990s (see note 15).
  26. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, “About the Child Nutrition Commodity Programs” (www.fns.usda.gov/fdd/programs/schcnp/about-cnp.htm [August 15, 2005]).
  27. Josephine Martin, “Overview of Federal Child Nutrition Legislation,” in Managing Child Nutrition Programs: Leadership for Excellence, edited by Josephine Martin and Martha T. Conklin (Gaithersburg, Md.: Aspen Publishers, 1999).
  28. Food Research and Action Center, “Income Guidelines and Reimbursement Rates for the Federal Child Nutrition Programs Effective July 1, 2005–June 30, 2006,” 2005 (www.frac.org [August 22, 2005]).
  29. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, “About the Child Nutrition Commodity Programs” (see note 26).
  30. U.S. General Accounting Office, School Lunch Program: Efforts Needed to Improve Nutrition and Encourage Healthy Eating, Report no. GAO-03-506 (May 2003).
  31. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foods Sold in Competition with USDA School Meal Programs: A Report to Congress (2001) (www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Lunch/CompetitiveFoods/report_congress.htm [May 25, 2005]).
  32. Federal Register 70, no. 136 (January 18, 2005): 41196–99.
  33. U.S. General Accounting Office, School Meal Programs: Revenue and Expense Information from Selected States, Report no. GAO-03-569 (2003).
  34. Ibid.
  35. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Healthy Schools for Healthy Kids (Princeton, N.J.: 2003).
  36. U.S. General Accounting Office, School Meal Programs (see note 33).
  37. Fox and others, School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (see note 19).
  38. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foods Sold in Competition with USDA School Meal Programs (see note 31).
  39. Koplan, Liverman, and Kraak, Preventing Childhood Obesity (see note 3).
  40. U.S. General Accounting Office, School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Available in Many Schools; Actions Taken to Restrict Them Differ by State and Locality, Report no. GAO-04-673 (2004).
  41. Food Research and Action Center, Competitive Foods in Schools: Child Nutrition Policy Brief, 2004 (www.frac.org [March 22, 2005]).
  42. Ibid.
  43. U.S. General Accounting Office, School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods (see note 40); H. Wechsler and others, “Using the School Environment to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating,” Preventive Medicine 31, suppl. (2000): S121–37; Simone A. French and others, “Food Environment in Secondary Schools: A la Carte, Vending Machines, and Food Policies and Practices,” American Journal of Public Health 93, no. 7 (2003): 1161–67; Lisa Harnack and others, “Availability of à la Carte Food Items in Junior and Senior High Schools: A Needs Assessment,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 100, no. 6 (2000): 701–03; Marianne B. Wildey and others, “Fat and Sugar Levels Are High in Snacks Purchased from Student Stores in Middle Schools,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 100, no. 3 (2000): 319–22.
  44. H. Wechsler and others, “Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000,” Journal of School Health 71, no. 7 (2001): 313–24.
  45. Ibid.
  46. French and others, “Food Environment in Secondary Schools” (see note 43).
  47. U.S. Government Accountability Office, School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Widely Available and Generate Substantial Revenues for Schools, Report no. GA0-05-563 (August 2005).
  48. Wechsler and others, “Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School” (see note 44).
  49. U.S. General Accounting Office, School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods (see note 40); French and others, “Food Environment in Secondary Schools” (see note 43); Harnack and others, “Availability of à la Carte Food Items in Junior and Senior High Schools” (see note 43); Lisa Craypo and others, “Fast Food Sales on High School Campuses: Results from the 2000 California High School Fast Food Survey,” Journal of School Health 72, no. 2 (2002): 78–82; Lisa Craypo, Sarah E. Samuels, and Amanda Purcell, The 2003 California High School Fast Food Survey (Oakland, Calif.: Public Health Institute, 2004) (www.phi.org [August 22, 2005]).
  50. French and others, “Food Environment in Secondary Schools” (see note 43).
  51. Ibid.
  52. Craypo, Samuels, and Purcell, The 2003 California High School Fast Food Survey (see note 49).
  53. Wechsler and others, “Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School” (see note 44).
  54. Craypo, Samuels, and Purcell, The 2003 California High School Fast Food Survey (see note 49).
  55. Martha Y. Kubik and others, “The Association of the School Food Environment with Dietary Behaviors of Young Adolescents,” American Journal of Public Health 93, no. 7 (2003): 1168–73.
  56. Karen Weber Cullen and Issa Zakeri, “Fruits, Vegetables, Milk, and Sweetened Beverages Consumption and Access to à la Carte/Snack Bar Meals at School,” American Journal of Public Health 94, no. 3 (2004): 463–67.
  57. S. B. Templeton, M. A. Marlette, and M. Panemangalore, “Competitive Foods Increase the Intake of Energy and Decrease the Intake of Certain Nutrients by Adolescents Consuming School Lunch,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105, no. 2 (2005): 215–20.
  58. U.S. General Accounting Office, Commercial Activities in Schools, Report no. GAO/HEHS-00-156 (September 2000).
  59. Patricia M. Anderson and Kristin F. Butcher, “Reading, Writing, and Raisinets: Are School Finances Contributing to Children's Obesity?” (Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2005) (www.nber.org/papers/w11177 [June 21, 2005]).
  60. U.S. Government Accountability Office, School Meal Programs (see note 47).
  61. U.S. General Accounting Office, Commercial Activities in Schools (see note 58).
  62. M. Nestle, “Soft Drink ‘Pouring Rights': Marketing Empty Calories to Children,” Public Health Reports 115, no. 4 (2000): 308–19.
  63. M. Nestle, Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002).
  64. American Beverage Association, Press Release: “Beverage Industry Announces New School Vending Policy” (www.ameribev.org/pressroom/2005_vending.asp [August 16, 2005]).
  65. U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, “Food Choices at School: Risks to Child Nutrition and Health Call for Action,” prepared by the Democratic Staff of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, May 18, 2004.
  66. L. A. Lytle and others, “Environmental Outcomes from the Teens Study: Influencing Healthful Food Choices in School and Home Environments,” Health Education & Behavior (forthcoming); Simone A. French and others, “An Environmental Intervention to Promote Lower-Fat Food Choices in Secondary Schools: Outcomes of the TACOS Study,” American Journal of Public Health 94, no. 9 (2004): 1507–12.
  67. Center for Science in the Public Interest, Dispensing Junk: How School Vending Undermines Efforts to Feed Children Well, 2004 (www.cspinet.org/schoolfoods [March 22, 2005]).
  68. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and U.S. Department of Education, Making It Happen! School Nutrition Success Stories (Alexandria, Va.: January 2005) (www.fns.usda.gov/tn/Resources/ makingithappen. html [June 30, 2005]).
  69. Texas Department of Agriculture, “School District Vending Contract Survey, 2003” (www.squaremeals.org [March 24, 2005]).
  70. U.S. Government Accountability Office, School Meal Programs (see note 47).
  71. Ibid.
  72. U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, “Food Choices at School” (see note 65).
  73. Ibid.
  74. U.S. Department of Agriculture and others, Making It Happen! (see note 68).
  75. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Guidelines for School and Community Programs to Promote Lifelong Physical Activity among Young People,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 46 (1997): 1–36; C. R. Burgeson, “Physical Education's Critical Role in Educating the Whole Child and Reducing Childhood Obesity,” State Education Standard 5, no. 2 (2004): 27–32.
  76. Ibid.
  77. Michigan Department of Education, “Brain Breaks: A Physical Activity Idea Book for Elementary Classroom Teachers” (www.emc.cmich.edu/BrainBreaks/default.htm [July 7, 2005]); International Life Sciences Institute, “Take 10!” (www.take10.net [August 18, 2005]).
  78. J. F. Sallis, “Behavioral and Environmental Interventions to Promote Youth Physical Activity and Prevent Obesity,” June 22, 2003 (www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/sallis/Sallis_PA_interventions_for_Georgia_6.03.pdf [May 30, 2005]).
  79. Burgeson, “Physical Education's Critical Role” (see note 75).
  80. DHHS and Department of Agriculture, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 (see note 1); National Association for Sport and Physical Education, Physical Activity for Children: A Statement of Guidelines for Children 5–12, 2nd ed. (Reston, Va.: 2004).
  81. Koplan, Liverman, and Kraak, Preventing Childhood Obesity (see note 3).
  82. National Association for Sport and Physical Education, Physical Activity for Children (see note 80).
  83. C. R. Burgeson and others, “Physical Education and Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000,” Journal of School Health 71, no. 7 (2001): 279–93.
  84. Ibid.
  85. J. A. Grunbaum and others, “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2003,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53, no. 2 (2004): 1–96.
  86. DHHS, Healthy People 2010 (see note 1).
  87. Burgeson, “Physical Education's Critical Role” (see note 75).
  88. National Association for Sport and Physical Education, Shape of the Nation: Executive Summary (Reston, Va.: 2001).
  89. President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest, Physical Activity Promotion and School Physical Education (Washington: September 1999) (www.fitness.gov/digest_sep1999.htm [July 7, 2005]); C. W. Symons and others, “Bridging Student Health Risks and Academic Achievement through Comprehensive School Health Programs,” Journal of School Health 67, no. 6 (1997): 220–27; R. J. Shephard, “Curricular Physical Activity and Academic Performance,” Pediatric Exercise Science 9 (1997): 113–26; J. F. Sallis and others, “Effects of Health-Related Physical Education on Academic Achievement: Project Spark,” Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 70, no. 2 (1999): 127–34.
  90. National Association for Sport and Physical Education and Council on Physical Education for Children, Position Paper: Recess in Elementary Schools, 2001 (www.aahperd.org/naspe/pdf_files/pos_papers/current_ res.pdf [July 7, 2005]).
  91. O. S. Jarrett, “Effect of Recess on Classroom Behavior: Group Effects and Individual Differences,” Journal of Education Research 92, no. 2 (1998): 121–26.
  92. Burgeson and others, “Physical Education and Activity” (see note 83).
  93. National Association for Sport and Physical Education and Council on Physical Education for Children, Position Paper (see note 90).
  94. Burgeson and others, “Physical Education and Activity” (see note 83).
  95. Symons and others, “Bridging Student Health Risks and Academic Achievement” (see note 89).
  96. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Coordinated School Health Program” (www.cdc.gov/ HealthyYouth/CSHP/ [July 15, 2005]).
  97. L. Kann, N. D. Brener, and D. D. Allensworth, “Health Education: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000,” Journal of School Health 71, no. 7 (2001): 266–78; National Association of State Boards of Education, National Commission on the Role of the School and Community in Improving Adolescent Health, Code Blue: Uniting for Healthier Youth (Alexandria, Va.: 1990).
  98. Koplan, Liverman, and Kraak, Preventing Childhood Obesity (see note 3).
  99. Trust for America's Health, “F as in Fat” (see note 16).
  100. Kann, Brener, and Allensworth, “Health Education” (see note 97).
  101. Ibid.; L. A. Lytle and C. Achterberg, “Changing the Diet of America's Children: What Works and Why?” Journal of Nutrition Education 27, no. 5 (1995): 250–60.
  102. U.S. General Accounting Office, School Lunch Program (see note 30).
  103. N. D. Brener and others, “Health Services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000,” Journal of School Health 71, no. 7 (2001): 294–304; D. D. Allensworth, “School Health Services: Issues and Challenges,” in The Comprehensive School Health Challenge: Promoting Health through Education, vol. 1, edited by P. Cortese and K. Middleton (Santa Cruz, Calif.: ETR Associates, 1994).
  104. Brener and others, “Health Services” (see note 103).
  105. The Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, George Washington University, “2002 State Survey of School-Based Health Center Initiatives” (www.healthinschools.org/sbhcs/survey02.htm [July 5, 2005]).
  106. Ibid.
  107. Ibid.
  108. The Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, George Washington University, “School-Based Health Centers: Background” (www.healthinschools.org/sbhcs/sbhc.asp [July 5, 2005]).
  109. L. M. Scheier, “School Health Report Cards Attempt to Address the Obesity Epidemic,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104, no. 3 (2004): 341–44.
  110. S. Bhandari and E. Gifford, Children with Health Insurance: 2001, Current Population Report P60-224 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2003).
  111. Brener and others, “Health Services” (see note 103).
  112. Scheier, “School Health Report Cards” (see note 109).
  113. Ibid.
  114. Koplan, Liverman, and Kraak, Preventing Childhood Obesity (see note 3); Scheier, “School Health Report Cards” (see note 109).
  115. Scheier, “School Health Report Cards” (see note 109); B. R. Morris, “Letters on Students' Weight Ruffle Parents,” New York Times, March 26 2002, p. F7.
  116. Koplan, Liverman, and Kraak, Preventing Childhood Obesity (see note 3).
  117. Scheier, “School Health Report Cards” (see note 109).
  118. Ibid.
  119. James Raczynski and others, “Establishing a Baseline to Evaluate Act 1220 of 2003: An Act of the Arkansas General Assembly to Combat Childhood Obesity” (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Public Health, 2005).
  120. Health Policy Tracking Service, a Thomson West Business, State Actions to Promote Nutrition, Increase Physical Activity, and Prevent Obesity: A Legislative Overview, July 11, 2005 (www.netscan.com/outside/ HPTSServices.asp [August 22, 2005]).
  121. J. A. Grunbaum, S. J. Rutman, and P. R. Sathrum, “Faculty and Staff Health Promotion: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000,” Journal of School Health 71, no. 7 (2001): 335–39.
  122. U.S. Department of Education and National Center for Education Statistics, “Elementary and Secondary Education—Table 82: Staff and Teachers in Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems, by State or Jurisdiction, Fall 1995 to Fall 2001,” Digest of Education Statistics, 2003 (nces.ed.gov/programs/digest /d03/tables/dt082.asp [July 5, 2005]).
  123. D. J. Ballard, P. M. Kingery, and B. E. Pruitt, “School Worksite Health Promotion: An Interdependent Process,” Journal of Health Education 22 (1991): 111–15.
  124. Mary Story and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, “School-Based Nutrition Education Programs and Services for Adolescents,” Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews 7 (1996): 287–302.
  125. Grunbaum, Rutman, and Sathrum, “Faculty and Staff Health Promotion” (see note 121).
  126. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Coordinated School Health Program” (see note 96); Grunbaum, Rutman, and Sathrum, “Faculty and Staff Health Promotion” (see note 121).
  127. C. A. Galemore, “Worksite Wellness in the School Setting,” Journal of School Nursing 16, no. 2 (2000): 42–45.
  128. C. C. Cox, R. Misra, and S. Aguillion, “Superintendents' Perceptions of School-Site Health Promotion in Missouri,” Journal of School Health 67, no. 2 (1997): 50–55.
  129. Grunbaum, Rutman, and Sathrum, “Faculty and Staff Health Promotion” (see note 121).
  130. A. Fiske and K. W. Cullen, “Effects of Promotional Materials on Vending Sales of Low-Fat Items in Teachers' Lounges,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104, no. 1 (2004): 90–93; K. Resnicow and others, “Results of the Teachwell Worksite Wellness Program,” American Journal of Public Health 88, no. 2 (1998): 250–57.
  131. Trust for America's Health, “F as in Fat” (see note 16); Health Policy Tracking Service, State Actions to Promote Nutrition (see note 120).
  132. U.S. General Accounting Office, School Meal Programs (see note 40).
  133. Health Policy Tracking Service, State Actions to Promote Nutrition (see note 120).
  134. U.S. General Accounting Office, School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Available in Many Schools (see note 40).
  135. Ibid.
  136. U.S. Government Accountability Office, School Meal Programs (see note 47); Dianne Neumark-Sztainer and others, “School Lunch and Snacking Patterns among High School Students: Associations with School Food Environment and Policies,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2, no. 14 (2005) (www.ijbnpa.org/content/2/1/14 [October 6, 2005]).
  137. Trust for America's Health, “F as in Fat” (see note 16).
  138. Ibid.
  139. Burgeson and others, “Physical Education and Activity” (see note 83).
  140. Health Policy Tracking Service, State Actions to Promote Nutrition (see note 120).
  141. J. C. Buzby, J. F. Guthrie, and L. S. Kantor, Evaluation of the USDA Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Program: Report to Congress, Report no. E-FAN-03-006 (U.S. Department of Agriculture, May 2003).
  142. Ibid.
  143. Koplan, Liverman, and Kraak, Preventing Childhood Obesity (see note 3); Simone French and Mary Story, “Obesity Prevention in Schools,” in Handbook of Pediatric Obesity: Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention, edited by M. I. Goran (Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, forthcoming); T. Lobstein, L. Baur, and R. Uauy, “Obesity in Children and Young People: A Crisis in Public Health,” Obesity Reviews 5, suppl. 1 (2004): 4–104; K. Resnicow and T. N. Robinson, “School-Based Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Studies: Review and Synthesis,” Annals of Epidemiology S7, no. 1997 (1997): S14–31; K. Campbell and others, “Interventions for Preventing Obesity in Childhood: A Systematic Review,” Obesity Reviews 2, no. 3 (2001): 149–57; Mary Story, “School-Based Approaches for Preventing and Treating Obesity,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 23, suppl. 2 (1999): S43–51.
  144. Campbell and others, “Interventions for Preventing Obesity in Childhood” (see note 143).
  145. D. L. Katz and others, “Public Health Strategies for Preventing and Controlling Overweight and Obesity in School and Worksite Settings,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54, no. RR-10 (2005): 1–8.
  146. T. N. Robinson, “Reducing Children's Television Viewing to Prevent Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association 282, no. 16 (1999): 1561–67.
  147. S. L. Gortmaker and others, “Reducing Obesity via a School-Based Interdisciplinary Intervention among Youth: Planet Health,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 153, no. 4 (1999): 409–18.
  148. J. James and others, “Preventing Childhood Obesity by Reducing Consumption of Carbonated Drinks: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial,” British Medical Journal 328, no. 7450 (2004): 1237 (erratum appears in British Medical Journal 328, no. 7450 [May 22, 2004]: 1236).
  149. French and others, “An Environmental Intervention to Promote Lower-Fat Food Choices” (see note 66); S. A. French and G. Stables, “Environmental Interventions to Promote Vegetable and Fruit Consumption among Youth in School Settings,” Preventive Medicine 37, no. 6, pt. 1 (2003): 593–610; Cheryl L. Perry and others, “A Randomized School Trial of Environmental Strategies to Encourage Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Children,” Health Education and Behavior 31, no. 1 (2004): 65–76; Simone A. French and others, “Pricing Strategy to Promote Fruit and Vegetable Purchase in High School Cafeterias,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97, no. 9 (1997): 1008–10; Simone A. French and others, “Pricing and Promotion Effects on Low-Fat Vending Snack Purchases: The CHIPS Study,” American Journal of Public Health 91, no. 1 (2001): 112–17.
  150. James F. Sallis and others, “Environmental Interventions for Eating and Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Middle Schools,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 24 (2003): 209–17; J. F. Sallis and others, “The Effects of a 2-Year Physical Education Program (SPARK) on Physical Activity and Fitness in Elementary School Students: Sports, Play and Active Recreation for Kids,” American Journal of Public Health 87, no. 8 (1997): 1328–34.
  151. Ashlesha Datar and Roland Sturm, “Physical Education in Elementary School and Body Mass Index: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study,” American Journal of Public Health 94, no. 9 (2004): 1501–06.
  152. French and Story, “Obesity Prevention in Schools” (see note 143).
  153. Ibid.
  154. Wechsler and others, “Using the School Environment” (see note 43).
  155. Martin Luther King Junior Middle School, “The Edible Schoolyard” (www.edibleschoolyard.org [May 20, 2005]).
  156. J. L. Morris and S. Zidenberg-Cherr, “Garden-Enhanced Nutrition Curriculum Improves Fourth-Grade School Children's Knowledge of Nutrition and Preferences for Some Vegetables,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 102, no. 1 (2002): 91–93.
  157. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Travel and Environmental Implications of School Siting, Report no. EPA 231-R-03-004 (Washington: 2003) (www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/school_travel.pdf [July 6, 2005)]).
  158. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Barriers to Children Walking and Biking to School—United States, 1999,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 51, no. 32 (2002): 701–03.
  159. Sallis, “Behavioral and Environmental Interventions” (see note 78).
  160. C. Tudor-Locke and others, “Objective Physical Activity of Filipino Youth Stratified for Commuting Mode to School,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 35, no. 3 (2003): 465–71.
  161. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Barriers to Children Walking and Biking to School” (see note 158).
  162. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Travel and Environmental Implications of School Siting (see note 157).
  163. Koplan, Liverman, and Kraak, Preventing Childhood Obesity (see note 3); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Travel and Environmental Implications of School Siting (see note 157); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Barriers to Children Walking and Biking to School” (see note 158).
  164. “The Walking School Bus Information Website” (www.walkingschoolbus.org/ [June 25, 2005]); Tudor- Locke and others, “Objective Physical Activity of Filipino Youth” (see note 160).
  165. Eugene Smolensky and Jennifer Appleton Gootman, Working Families and Growing Kids: Caring for Children and Adolescents (Washington: National Academies Press, 2003).
  166. Ibid.
  167. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Healthy Schools for Healthy Kids (see note 35).
  168. E. Obarzanek and C. A. Pratt, “Girls Health Enrichment Multi-Site Studies (GEMS): New Approaches to Obesity Prevention among Young African-American Girls,” Ethnicity and Disease 13, no. 1, suppl. 1 (2003): S1–5.
  169. Food Research and Action Center, “State of the States, 2005” (see note 24).
  170. Fox, Hamilton, and Lin, Effects of Food Assistance and Nutrition Programs (see note 17).
  171. M. T. Greenberg and others, “Enhancing School-Based Prevention and Youth Development through Coordinated Social, Emotional, and Academic Learning,” American Psychologist 58, no. 6–7 (2003): 466–74; National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, Committee on Increasing High School Students' Engagement and Motivation to Learn, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, and Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Engaging Schools: Fostering High School Students' Motivation to Learn (Washington: National Academies Press, 2004); K. L. Kumpfer and R. Alvarado, “Family-Strengthening Approaches for the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors,” American Psychologist 58, no. 6–7 (2003): 457–65.
  172. Ibid.
  173. National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, Engaging Schools (see note 171).
  174. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Guidelines for School and Community Programs” (see note 75); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Guidelines for School Health Programs to Promote Lifelong Healthy Eating,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 45 (1996): 1–37; H. Wechsler and others, “The Role of Schools in Preventing Childhood Obesity,” The State Education Standard 5, no. 2 (2004): 4–12.
  175. Koplan, Liverman, and Kraak, Preventing Childhood Obesity (see note 3).