Journal Issue: Marriage and Child Wellbeing Volume 15 Number 2 Fall 2005
1. Nancy F. Cott, Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation (Harvard University Press, 2000).
2. Matthew D. Bramlett and William D. Mosher, Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the United States, Vital and Health Statistics, Series 23, no. 22 (Hyattsville, Md.: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, July 2002).
3. Julie DaVanzo and M. Amar Rahman, “American Families: Trends and Correlates,” Population Index 59 (1993): 350–86; Sara S. McLanahan and Lynne M. Casper, “Growing Diversity and Inequality in the American Family,” in State of the Union: America in the 1990s, vol. 2, Social Trends, edited by Reynolds Farley (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1995), pp. 1–45; Lynne M. Casper and Suzanne M. Bianchi, Continuity and Change in the American Family (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2002), pp. 7–8.
4. Steven Nock, “The Divorce of Marriage and Parenthood,” Journal of Family Therapy 22, no. 2 (2000): 245–63; Hendrick Hertog, Man and Wife in America: A History (Harvard University Press, 2000).
5. John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), p. 251; George A. Akerlof and Janet L. Yellen, “An Analysis of Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in the United States,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 2 (1996): 277–317.
6. Charles F. Westoff and Norman B. Ryder, The Contraceptive Revolution (Princeton University Press, 1977).
7. Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965); Eisenstadt v. Baird, 405 U.S. 438 (1972); Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973); Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003).
8. Mary Ann Glendon, The Transformation of Family Law (University of Chicago Press, 1989), p. 96; Harry D. Krause and David D. Meyer, Family Law (Eagan, Minn.: Thomson/West, 2003), p. 96.
9. Levy v. Louisiana, 391 U.S. 68 (1968); Glona v. American Guarantee and Liability Insurance Co., 391 U.S. 73 (1968); Weber v. Aetna Casualty and Surety Co., 406 U.S. (1972); Gomes v. Perez, 209 U.S. 535 (1973); Jiminez v. Weinberger, 417 U.S. 628 (1974); Matthews v. Lucas, 427 U.S. 495 (1976); Trimble v. Gordon, 430 U.S. 762 (1977); Fiallo v. Bell, 430 U.S. 787 (1977); Lalli v. Lalli, 439 U.S. 259 (1978).
10. Hertog, Man and Wife in America (see note 4).
11. Larry L. Bumpass and Hsien-Hen Lu, “Trends in Cohabitation and Implications for Children's Family Contexts in the United States,” Population Studies 54 (2000): 29–41.
12. Steven L. Nock, “A Comparison of Marriages and Cohabiting Relationships,” Journal of Family Issues 16 (1995): 53–76.
14. Emile Durkheim, Suicide: A Study in Sociology (trans. John A. Spaulding and George Simpson), edited with an introduction by George Simpson (New York: Free Press, 1997) (originally published in French, 1897).
15. Ibid.; David C. Ribar, “What Do Social Scientists Know about the Benefits of Marriage? A Review of Quantitative Methodologies,” Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003), p. 1.
16. Linda J. Waite, “Does Marriage Matter?” Demography 32 (1995): 483–507; Linda J. Waite and Maggie Gallagher, The Case for Marriage: Why Married People Are Happier, Healthier, and Better Off Financially (New York: Doubleday, 2000).
17. Noreen Goldman, “Marriage Selection and Mortality Patterns: Inferences and Fallacies,” Demography 30, no. 2 (1993): 189–208; Ribar, “What Do Social Scientists Know?” (see note 15).
18. Reviews are found in John E. Murray, “Marital Protection and Marital Selection: Evidence from a Historical-Prospective Sample of American Men,” Demography 37, no. 4 (2000): 511–21; and Lee Lillard and Constantijn Panis, “Marital Status and Mortality: The Role of Health,” Demography 33 (1996): 313–27.
19. Steven L. Nock, Marriage in Men's Lives (Oxford University Press, 1998).
20. Waite and Gallagher, The Case for Marriage (see note 16).
21. Antony W. Dnes, “Marriage as a Signal,” in The Law and Economics of Marriage and Divorce, edited by Antony W. Dnes and Robert Rowthorn (Cambridge University Press, 2002).
22. Philip N. Cohen, “Cohabitation and the Declining Marriage Premium for Men,” Work and Occupations 29 (August 2002): 346–63.
23. Andrew J. Cherlin, “The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 66 (November 2004): 848–61; Paul R. Amato,“Tension between Institutional and Individual Views of
Marriage,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 66 (November 2004): 959–65.
24. Steven L. Nock and Paul W. Kingston, “The Family Work Day,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 46 (1984): 333–43.
25. Steven L. Nock and Margaret F. Brinig, “Weak Men and Disorderly Women: Divorce and the Division of Labor,” in The Law and Economics of Marriage and Divorce, edited by Anthony W. Dnes and Robert Rowthorn (Cambridge University Press, 2002); Steven L. Nock, “The Marriages of Equally Dependent Spouses,” Journal of Family Issues 22, no. 6 (2001): 755–75.
26. Gary S. Becker, A Treatise on the Family (Harvard University Press, 1981); Margaret F. Brinig, Carl E. Schneider, and Lee E. Teitlebaum, Family Law in Action: A Reader (Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing Company, 1999).
27. Durkheim, Suicide (see note 14); Nock, Marriage in Men's Lives (see note 19); Steven L. Nock. “Time and Gender in Marriage,” Virginia Law Review 86, no. 8 (2000): 1971–87; Waite and Gallagher, The Case for Marriage (see note 16).
28. Robert A. Nakosteen and Michael A. Zimmer, “Men, Money, and Marriage: Are High Earners More Prone than Low Earners to Marry?” Social Science Quarterly 79 (1997): 66–82; Nock, Marriage in Men's Lives (see note 19); Robert F. Schoeni, “Marital Status and Earnings in Developed Countries,” Journal of Population Economics 8 (1995): 351–59; Sanders Korenman and David Neumark, “Does Marriage Really Make Men More Productive?” Journal of Human Resources 26 (1991): 282–307; Kermit Daniel, “The Marriage Premium,” in The New Economics of Human Behavior, edited by Mariano Tommasi and Kathryn Ierulli (Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 113–25.
29. Shoshana Grossbard-Schectman, On the Economics of Marriage: A Theory of Marriage, Labor, and Divorce (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993); Sanders Korenman and David Neumark, “Marriage, Motherhood, and Wages,” Journal of Human Resources 27 (Spring 1992): 233–55; Michelle Budig and Paula England, “The Wage Penalty for Motherhood,” American Sociological Review 66 (April 2001): 204–25.
30. Cherlin, “The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage” (see note 23); Kathryn Edin, “What Do Low-Income Single Mothers Say about Marriage?” Social Problems 47 (February 2000): 112–33.
31. James House, Karl Landis, and Debra Umberson, “Social Relationships and Health,” Science 241 (July 29, 1988): 540–45.
32. Lillard and Panis, “Marital Status and Mortality: The Role of Health” (see note 18); Lee Lillard and Linda Waite, “Till Death Do Us Part: Marital Disruption and Mortality,” American Journal of Sociology 100 (1995): 1131–56; Eugene Litwak, Peter Messeri, and others, “Organizational Theory, Social Support, and Mortality Rates: A Theoretical Convergence,” American Sociological Review 54 (1989): 49–66; Murray, “Marital Protection and Marital Selection” (see note 18).
33. Janis K. Kiecolt-Glaser and Tamara Newton, “Marriage and Health: His and Hers,” Psychological Bulletin 127 (July 2001): 472–503.
34. Ingrid Waldron, Mary E. Hughes, and Tracy L. Brooks, “Marriage Protection and Marriage Selection—Prospective Evidence for Reciprocal Effects of Marital Status and Health,” Social Science and Medicine 43 (1996): 113–23; Inez Young and others, “A Longitudinal Study of Health Selection in Marital Transitions,” Social Science and Medicine 46 (1998): 425–35; see Waite and Gallagher, The Case for Marriage, chapter 4 (see note 16), for a review of sex differences.
35. W. Bradford Wilcox, Soft Patriarchs, New Men: How Christianity Shapes Fathers and Husbands (University of Chicago Press, 2004), p. 36.
36. Christian Smith, American Evangelicalism: Embattled and Thriving (University of Chicago Press, 1998); Robert Wuthnow, The Restructuring of American Religion (Princeton University Press, 1988).
37. Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God (New York: Ballantine, 2000), p. 312; R. Kent Weaver, Ending Welfare as We Know It (Brookings, 2000), pp. 104–05.
38. See the Coalition for Marriage, Families and Couples Education, www.smartmarriages.com (accessed February 2005); Center for Law and Social Policy, www.clasp.org (accessed February 2005); Institute for American Values, www.americanvalues.org/index.html (accessed February 2005); Brookings Institution,
www.brookings.edu/default.htm; Heritage Foundation, www.heritage.org/research/family/index.cfm; Urban Institute, www.urban.org/; and the National Marriage Project at Rutgers University, marriage.rutgers.edu/default.htm (accessed February 2005).
39. Theodora Ooms, Stacey Bouchet, and Mary Parke, Beyond Marriage Licenses: Efforts in States to Strengthen Marriage and Two-Parent Families (Washington: Center for Law and Social Policy, 2004).
40. Paula Roberts, I Can't Give You Anything but Love: Would Poor Couples with Children Be Better Off Economically if They Married? Policy Brief no. 5 (Center for Law and Social Policy, 2004). See also Laura Sanchez, Steven L. Nock, and James D. Wright, “The Implementation of Covenant Marriage Legislation in Louisiana,” Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law 9, no. 1 (2001): 192–223. The Oklahoma Marriage Initiative—including its history, funding, and objectives—is described and detailed on its website: www.okmarriage.org (accessed February 2005). See testimony of Howard Hendrick, secretary of health and human services, Oklahoma, before the U.S. Senate Finance Committee, May 16, 2002, regarding issues in TANF reauthorization (finance.senate.gov/hearings/testimony/051602hhtest.pdf [accessed February 2005]).
41. Ron Haskins, “Liberal and Conservative Influences on the Welfare Reform Legislation of 1996,” in For Better and For Worse: Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families, edited by Greg J. Duncan and P. Lindsey Chase-Lansdale (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001), pp. 9–34.
42. NOW (National Organization for Women) Legal Defense and Education Fund, “Welfare and Poverty: Marriage Promotion” and “Looking for Love in All the Wrong Places: The Case against Government Marriage Promotion,” both at www.nowldef.org/html/issues/wel/marriagepromotion.shtml (accessed February 5, 2005).
43. Will Marshall and Isabel V. Sawhill, “Progressive Family Policy in the Twenty-First Century,” in The Future of the Family, edited by Daniel P. Moynihan, Timothy M. Smeeding, and Lee Rainwater (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2004), pp. 198–230.
44. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, The Negro Family: The Case for National Action (Office of Policy Planning and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, 1965).
45. Weaver, Ending Welfare as We Know It (see note 37), pp. 104–05.
46. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PL 104-193); see www.access.gpo.gov/nara/publaw/104publ.html (accessed February 2005).
47. Kathryn Edin and Laura Lein, Making Ends Meet: How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and Low-Wage Work (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1997); Sharon Hays, Flat Broke with Children: Women in the Age of Welfare Reform (Oxford University Press, 2003).