Journal Issue: Unintentional Injuries in Childhood Volume 10 Number 1 Spring/Summer 2000
Defining Community-Based Interventions
In this article, community-based interventions are those that target a group of individuals or a geographic community but are not aimed at a single individual. This definition includes cities, municipalities, and schools. It excludes interventions delivered in clinical settings and interventions targeting areas as large as states or countries, since injury prevention strategies focused at these levels are covered elsewhere in this journal issue (see the articles by DiGuiseppi and Roberts, and by Schieber, Gilchrist, and Sleet.)
Community-based interventions employ a broad array of strategies that include education/behavior change, engineering/ technology, and legislation/enforcement. Educational strategies increase awareness of injury risk or the importance of risk-reducing behaviors, and they may include media broadcasts, public service announcements, classroom instruction, or written material. Behavioral strategies have the same goal and may involve incentives, negative feedback, and modeling. Alternatively, the goal of engineering/technology interventions is to alter the physical environment (such as placing speed bumps on neighborhood streets or installing smoke detectors in homes) or modify the design of safety devices (such as bicycle helmets or child passenger restraints). Finally, legislation/enforcement interventions involve the passage and enforcement of new laws or the increased enforcement of existing laws.