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Journal Issue: Special Education for Students with Disabilities Volume 6 Number 1 Spring 1996

Special Education for Students with Disabilities: Analysis and Recommendations
Donna L. Terman Mary B. Larner Carol S. Stevenson Richard E. Behrman

Endnotes

  1. U.S. Congress, Committee on Education and Labor, Select Subcommittee on Education. Hearings. 93rd Cong., lst sess., 1973.
  2. Mills v. Board of Education, 348 F. Supp. 866 (1972).
  3. Public Law 94–142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 1975.
  4. National Center for Education Statistics. 120 years of American education: A statistical portrait. T.D. Snyder, ed. Washington, DC: NCES, 1993, p. 44, Table 12.
  5. Louis Harris and Associates, Inc. The ICD survey III: A report card on special education. New York: International Center for the Disabled, 1989.
  6. Special education's special costs. The Wall Street Journal. October 20, 1993, at A14.
  7. Shapiro, J.P., Loeb, P., Bowermaster, D., et al. Separate and unequal: How special education programs are cheating our children and costing taxpayers billions each year. U.S. News and World Report. December 13, 1993, pp. 46–49, 54–56, and 60.
  8. Artiles, A., and Trent, S. Overrepresentation of minority students in special education: A continuing debate. Journal of Special Education (1994) 27:410–37.
  9. National Association of State Boards of Education. Winners all: A call for inclusive schools. The report of the NASBE Study Group on Special Education. Alexandria, VA: NASBE, October 1992.
  10. Fuchs, D., and Fuchs, L.S. Special education can work. In Issues in educational placement: Students with emotional and behavioral disorders. J.M. Kauffman, J.W. Lloyd, D.P. Hallahan, et al., eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1995.
  11. Council for Learning Disabilities. Concerns about the full inclusion of students with learning disabilities in regular education classrooms. Washington, DC: NJCLD, 1993.
  12. National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. A reaction to full inclusion: A reaffirmation of the right of students with learning disabilities to a continuum of services. Washington, DC: NJCLD, 1993.
  13. Renick, M.J., and Harter, S. Impact of social comparisons on the developing self-perceptions of learning disabled students. Journal of Educational Psychology (1989) 81:631–38.
  14. Coleman, J.M. Self-concept and the mildly handicapped: The role of social comparisons. Journal of Special Education (1983) 17:37–45.
  15. Wagner, M. Outcomes for youths with serious emotional disturbance in secondary school and early adulthood. The Future of Children (Summer/Fall 1995) 5,2:90–112.
  16. Wagner, M., ed. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students: A summary of findings. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1995.
  17. Wagner, M. The contributions of poverty and ethnic background to the participation of secondary school students in special education. Unpublished report to the Office of Special Education Programs, Department of Education, based on data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students, 1995.
  18. Ysseldyke, J. Classification of handicapped students. In Handbook of special education, research and practice. Vol. 1: Learner characteristics and adaptive education. M. Wang, M. Reynolds, and H. Walberg, eds. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1987, p. 253–71.
  19. Procedural safeguards under the IDEA are spelled out in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 34, Subtitle B, Chapter III, Part 300.
  20. "Multiple disabilities" is an IDEA category for students whose educational problems are so serious that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one impairment, for example, severe mental retardation combined with blindness. This is a relatively small category, accounting for 2% of IDEA-eligible students. Many other students have disabilities in more than one area, albeit less serious.
  21. "'Learning disabilities' is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be the result of central nervous system dysfunction, and may occur across the life span. Problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction may exist with learning disabilities but do not themselves constitute a learning disability. Although learning disabilities may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions (for example, sensory impairment, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance) or with extrinsic influences (such as cultural differences or insufficient or inappropriate instruction), they are not the result of these conditions or influences." National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. Letter to NJCLD member organizations, 1988.
  22. Freedman, M. Commentary: The elevator theory of special education: With diagnosticians as gatekeepers, are we overlabeling our children? Education Week. February 15, 1995, p. 44.
  23. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: APA, 1994, pp. 46–53.
  24. Levine, M. Neurodevelopmental dysfunction in the school-aged child. In Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 15th ed. R. Behrman, R. Kliegman, and A. Arvin, eds. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1996, pp. 100–107.
  25. Morgan, W.P. A case of congenital word blindness. British Medical Journal (1896) 2:1378.
  26. Deutsch-Smith, D., and Luckasson, R. Introduction to special education: Teaching in an age of challenge. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1995.
  27. Arnold, J.E. Hearing Loss. In Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 15th ed. R. Behrman, R. Kliegman, and A. Arvin, eds. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1996, pp. 1806–12.
  28. Oyer, H.J., Hall, B.J., and Haas, W.H. Speech, language and hearing disorders: A guide for the teacher. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1987.
  29. Goldstein, H., and Hockenberger, E. Significant progress in child language intervention: An 11-year retrospective. Research in Developmental Disabilities (1991) 12:401–24.
  30. Professionals and clients often prefer terms such as "developmentally delayed" or "developmentally disabled" rather than "mentally retarded" to refer to this population. The term "persons with mental retardation" is used here because this is the term used in the IDEA's statutes and regulations. Young children who are developmentally delayed should not be assumed to have mental retardation because many factors, such as temporary or permanent hearing loss, may be responsible for developmental delays. Among older elementary students, adolescents, and adults, the terms "developmentally disabled" and "mentally retarded" can generally be considered to be synonymous.
  31. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: APA, 1994, pp. 39–46.
  32. Shonkoff, J. Mental Retardation. In Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 15th ed. R. Behrman, R. Kliegman, and A. Arvin, eds. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1996, pp. 128–31.
  33. Drews, C., Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Decoufle, P., and Murphy, C. Variation in the influence of selected sociodemographic risk factors for mental retardation. American Journal of Public Health (March 1995) 85,3:329–34.
  34. Artiles, A., and Trent, S. Overrepresentation of minority students in special education: A continuing debate. Journal of Special Education (1994) 27:410–37.
  35. Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Drews, C., Decoufle, P., and Murphy, C. Mild mental retardation in black and white children in metropolitan Atlanta: A case-control study. American Journal of Public Health (March 1995) 85,3:324–28. Researchers were from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Georgia Division of Public Health, and Emory University.
  36. Hack, M., Taylor, H.G., Klein, N., and colleagues. School-age outcomes in children with birth weights under 750g. New England Journal of Medicine (September 1994) 331,12:753–59.
  37. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 34, § 330.7(b)(9).
  38. Kauffman, J.M., Lloyd, J.W., Baker, J. and Riedel, T.M. Inclusion of all students with emotional or behavioral disorders? Let's think again. Phi Delta Kappan (March 1995) 76:542–46.
  39. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 34, Subtitle B, Chapter III, Part 290.
  40. EdSource. Clarifying complex education issues. EdSource report. Menlo Park, CA: EdSource, June 1995, p. 8.
  41. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: APA, pp. 78–85.
  42. Swanson, J., Lerner, M., and Williams, L. More frequent diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. New England Journal of Medicine. (October 5, 1995) 333,14:944, p. 944.
  43. Tousignant, M. Children's cure or adults' crutch? Rise of Ritalin prompts debate over the reason. Washington Post, April 11, 1995, at B1.
  44. Swanson, J.M., McBurnett, K., Wigal, T., et al. The effect of stimulant medication on ADD children: A "review of reviews." Exceptional Children (1993) 60:154–62.
  45. Council for Exceptional Children. CEC policy on inclusive schools and community settings. Reston, VA: CEC, 1993.
  46. Council of Administrators for Special Education. Position article on delivery of services to students with disabilities. Albuquerque, NM: CASE, 1994.
  47. National Education Association, Council for Exceptional Children, and American Association of School Administrators. NEA-CEC-AASA statement on the relationship between special education and general education. Washington, DC: NEA-CEC-AASA, 1987.
  48. Parrish, T. What is fair? Special education and finance equity. CSEF Brief No. 6. Palo Alto, CA: Center for Special Education Finance, Fall 1995.
  49. National Council on Disability. Improving the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Making schools work for all of America's children. Washington, DC: National Council on Disability, 1995.
  50. Office of Special Education Programs. Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Seventeenth annual report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1995, p. A-159, Table AD1.
  51. McLaughlin, M.J., and Warren, S.H. Resource implications of inclusion: Impressions of special education administrators at selected sites. College Park, MD: Institute for the Study of Exceptional Children and Youth, University of Maryland, 1994.
  52. Bear, G.G., and Proctor, W.A. Impact of a full-time integrated program on the achievement of nonhandicapped and mildly handicapped children. Exceptionality (1990) 1,4:227–37.
  53. Martin, E.W. Learning disabilities and public policy: Myths and outcomes. In Better understanding learning disabilities: New views from research and their implications for education and public policy. G.R. Lyon, D.B. Gray, J.F. Kavanagh, and N.A. Krasnegor, eds. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, l993, pp. 325–42.
  54. Lloyd, J.W., and Kauffman, J.M. What less restrictive placements require of teachers. In Issues in educational placement: Students with emotional and behavioral disorders. J.M. Kauffman, J.W. Lloyd, D.P. Hallahan, and T.A. Astuto, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1995.
  55. Gersten, R., Walker, H.M., and Darch, C. Relationships between teachers' effectiveness and their tolerance for handicapped students: An exploratory study. Exceptional Children (1988) 54:433–38.
  56. Affleck, J.Q., Madge, S., Adams, A., and Lowenbraun, S. Integrated classroom versus resource model: Academic viability and effectiveness. Exceptional Children (1988) 54:33948.
  57. McCaul, Edward, Technical Assistance Coordinator for the Network Systems for Training Education Personnel (NSTEP) Project of the National Association of State Directors of Special Education. Telephone conversation, February 6, 1996.
  58. Martin, E. Case studies on inclusion: Worst fears realized. Journal of Special Education (1995) 29,2:192–99.
  59. Blackorby, J. Participation in vocational education by students with disabilities. In The secondary school programs of students with disabilities: A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. M. Wagner, ed. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1993.
  60. Shaywitz, S.E., Fletcher, J.M., and Shaywitz, B.A. Issues in the definition and classification of attention deficit disorder. Topics in Language Disorders (l994) 14:1–25.