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Journal Issue: Special Education for Students with Disabilities Volume 6 Number 1 Spring 1996

Learning Disabilities
G. Reid Lyon

Endnotes

  1. Office of Special Education Programs. Implementation of the Education of the Handicapped Act: Eleventh annual report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1989.
  2. Lyon, G.R. Research initiatives and discoveries in learning disabilities. Journal of Child Neurology (1995) 10:120–26.
  3. Lyon, G.R., ed. Frames of reference for the assessment of learning disabilities: New views on measurement issues. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1994.
  4. Lyon, G.R., and Moats, L.C. An examination of research in learning disabilities: Past practices and future directions. In Better understanding learning disabilities: New views from research and their implications for education and public policies. G.R. Lyon, D.B. Gray, J.F. Kavanagh, and N.A. Krasnegor, eds. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1993, pp. 1–14.
  5. Lyon, G.R. Learning disabilities research: False starts and broken promises. In Research in learning disabilities: Issues and future directions. S. Vaughn and C. Bos, eds. San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press, 1987, pp. 69–85.
  6. Moats, L.C., and Lyon, G.R. Learning disabilities in the United States: Advocacy, science, and the future of the field. Journal of Learning Disabilities (1993) 26:282–94.
  7. Lyon, G.R. IQ is irrelevant to the definition of learning disabilities: A position in search of logic and data. Journal of Learning Disabilities (1989) 22:504–19.
  8. Lyon, G.R. Toward a definition of dyslexia. Annals of dyslexia (1995) 45:3–27.
  9. Zigmond, N. Learning disabilities from an educational perspective. In Better understanding learning disabilities: New views from research and their implications for education and public policies. G.R. Lyon, D.B. Gray, J.F. Kavanagh, and N.A. Krasnegor, eds. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1993, pp. 251–72.
  10. Torgesen, J.K. Learning disabilities: Historical and conceptual issues. In Learning about learning disabilities. B.Y.L. Wong, ed. New York: Academic Press, 1991, pp. 3–39.
  11. Kirk, S.A. Behavioral diagnosis and remediation of learning disabilities. In Conference on the Exploration of the Perceptually Handicapped Child. Evanston, IL: Fund for Perceptually Handicapped Children, 1963, pp.1–7.
  12. Shaywitz, S.E., Fletcher, J.M., and Shaywitz, B.A. Issues in the definition and classification of attention deficit disorder. Topics in Language Disorders (1994) 14:1–25.
  13. Lyon, G.R. Learning disabilities. In Child psychopathology. E. Marsh and R. Barkley, eds. New York: Guilford Press, 1996, pp. 390–434.
  14. Fleishner, J.E. Diagnosis and assessment of mathematics learning disabilities. In Frames of reference for the assessment of learning disabilities: New views on measurement issues. G.R. Lyon, ed. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1994, pp. 441–58.
  15. Coles, G. The learning mystique: A critical look at learning disabilities. New York: Pantheon Press, 1987.
  16. Stanovich, K.E. The construct validity of discrepancy definitions of reading disability. In Better understanding learning disabilities: New views on research and their implications for education and public policies. G.R. Lyon, D.B. Gray, J.F. Kavanagh, and N.A. Krasnegor, eds. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1993, pp. 273–307.
  17. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. rev. Washington, DC: APA, 1994.
  18. Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Shaywitz, S.E., et al. The case for early reading intervention. In Cognitive and linguistic foundations of reading acquisition: Implications for intervention. B. Blachman, ed. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. In press.
  19. Francis, D.J., Shaywitz, S.E., Steubing, K.K., et al. Measurement of change: Assessing behavior over time and within a developmental context. In Frames of reference for the assessment of learning disabilities: New views on measurement issues. G.R. Lyon, ed. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1994, pp. 29–58.
  20. Fletcher, J.M., Francis, D.J., Rourke, B.P., et al. Classification of learning disabilities: Relationships with other childhood disorders. In Better understanding learning disabilities: New views on research and their implications for education and public policies. G.R. Lyon, D.B. Gray, J.F. Kavanagh, and N.A. Krasnegor, eds. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1993, pp. 27–56.
  21. Fletcher, J.M., Shaywitz, S.E., Shankweiler, D.P., et al. Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparisons of discrepancy and low achievement definitions. Journal of Educational Psychology (1994) 85:1–18.
  22. Wood, F., Felton, R., Flowers, L., and Naylor, C. Neurobehavioral definition of dyslexia. In The reading Brain: The biological basis of dyslexia. D.D. Duane and D.B. Gray, eds. Parkton, MD: York Press, 1991, pp. 1–26.
  23. Lyon, G.R., Gray, D.B., Kavanagh, J.F., and Krasnegor, N.A., eds. Better understanding learning disabilities: New views from research and their implications for education and public policies. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1993.
  24. Shaywitz, B.A., and Shaywitz, S.E. Measuring and analyzing change. In Frames of reference for the assessment of learning disabilities: New views on measurement issues. G.R. Lyon, ed. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1994, pp. 29–58.
  25. Shaywitz, S.E., Shaywitz, B.A., Fletcher, J.M., and Escobar, M.D. Prevalence of reading disability in boys and girls: Results of the Connecticut longitudinal study. Journal of the American Medical Association (1990) 264:998–1002.
  26. Fletcher, J.M., and Foorman, B.R. Issues in definition and measurement of learning disabilities: The need for early identification. In Frames of reference for the assessment of learning disabilities: New views on measurement issues. G.R. Lyon, ed. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1994, pp. 185–200.
  27. Blachman, B.A. Getting ready to read: Learning how print maps to speech. In The language continuum: From infancy to literacy. J.F. Kavanagh, ed. Parkton, MD: York Press, 1991, pp. 41–62.
  28. Senf, G. Learning disabilities as a sociological sponge: Wiping up life's spills. In Research in learning disabilities: Issue and future directions. S. Vaughn and C. Bos, eds. Boston: College-Hill Press, 1987, pp. 87–101.
  29. Lyon, G.R., Vaasen, M., and Toomey, F. Teachers' perceptions of their undergraduate and graduate preparation. Teacher Education and Special Education (1989) 12:164–69.
  30. Moats, L.C. The missing foundation in teacher education: Knowledge of the structure of spoken and written language. Annals of Dyslexia (1994) 44:81–102.
  31. Moats, L.C., and Lyon, G.R. Wanted: Teachers with knowledge of language. Topics in Language Disorders (1996) 16,2:73–86.
  32. Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities. A report to Congress. Bethesda, MD: The National Institutes of Health, 1987.
  33. Lerner, J.W. Educational interventions in learning disabilities. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1989) 28:326–31.
  34. Kavale, K.A. Potential advantages of the meta-analysis technique for special education. Journal of Special Education (1984) 18:61–72.
  35. Fletcher, J., Morris, R., Lyon, G.R., et al. Subtypes of dyslexia: An old problem revisited. In Cognitive and linguistic foundations of reading acquisition: Implications for intervention research. B. Blachman, ed. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. In press.
  36. Stanovich, K.E., and Siegel, L.S. Phenotypic performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of the phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Educational Psychology (1994) 86:24–53.
  37. Adams, M.J. Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  38. Adams, M.J., Bruck, M. Resolving the great debate. American Educator (1995) 19:7–10.
  39. Share, D.L., and Stanovich, K.E. Cognitive processes in early reading development: Accommodating individual differences into a mode of acquisition. Education: Contributions for Educational Psychology (1995) 1:34–36.
  40. Lyon, G.R., and Rumsey, J., eds. Neuroimaging: A window to the neurological foundations of learning and behavior in children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. In press.
  41. DeFries, J.C., and Gillis, J.J. Etiology of reading deficits in learning disabilities: Quantitative genetic analyses. In Neuropsychological foundations of learning disabilities: A handbook of issues, methods, and practice. J.E. Obrzut and G.W. Hynd, eds. San Diego: Academic Press, 1991, pp. 29–48.
  42. Pennington, B.F. Genetics of learning disabilities. Journal of Child Neurology (1995) 10:69–77.
  43. Shaywitz, S.E., Escobar, M.D., Shaywitz, B.A., et al. Evidence that dyslexia may represent the lower tail of a normal distribution of reading ability. New England Journal of Medicine (1992) 326:145–50.
  44. Torgesen, J.K. A model of memory from an information processing perspective: The special case of phonological memory. In Attention, memory, and executive function. G.R. Lyon and N.A. Krasnegor, eds. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1996, pp. 157–84.
  45. Torgesen, J.K., and Davis, C. Individual difference variables that predict response to training in phonological awareness. Unpublished manuscript. Florida State University, 1994.
  46. Wagner, R. From simple structure to complex function: Major trends in the development of theories, models, and measurements of memory. In Attention, memory, and executive function. G.R. Lyon and N.A. Krasnegor, eds. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1996, pp. 139–56).
  47. Dalton, R., and Forman, M. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 15th ed. R. Behrman, R. Kliegman, and A. Arvin, eds. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1996, pp. 91–93.
  48. Barkley, R. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford, 1990.
  49. Gilger, J.W., Pennington, B.P., and DeFries, J.D. A twin study of the etiology of comorbidity: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1992) 31:343–48.
  50. Bryan, T. Social problems in learning disabilities. In Learning about learning disabilities. B.Y.L. Wong, ed. New York: Academic Press, 1991, pp. 195–226.
  51. Bruck, M. Social and emotional adjustments of learning disabled children: A review of the issues. In Handbook of cognitive, social, and neuropsychological aspects of learning disabilities. S.J. Ceci, ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1986, pp. 230–50.
  52. Johnson, D.J., and Blalock, J., eds. Adults with learning disabilities: Clinical studies. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1987.
  53. Gresham, F.M. Conceptual issues in the assessment of social competence in children. In Children's social behavior: Development, assessment, and modification. P. Strain, M. Guralink, and H. Walker, eds. New York: Academic Press, 1986, pp. 143–86.
  54. Hooper, S.R., Montgomery, J., Swartz, C., et al. Measurement of written language expression. In Frames of reference for the assessment of learning disabilities: New views on measurement issues. G.R. Lyon, ed. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1994, pp. 375–418.
  55. Berninger, V.W. Reading and writing acquisition: A developmental neuropsychological perspective. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark, 1994.
  56. Graham, S., Harris, K., MacArthur, C., and Schwartz, S. Writing and writing instruction with students with learning disabilities: A review of a program of research. Learning Disability Quarterly (1991) 14:89–114.
  57. Gregg, N. Disorders of written expression. In Written language disorders: Theory into practice. A. Bain, L. Bailet, and L. Moats, eds. Austin, TX: PRO-ED, 1991, pp. 65–97.
  58. Norman, C.A., and Zigmomd, N. Characteristics of children labeled and served as learning disabled in school systems affiliated with Child Service Demonstration Centers. Journal of Learning Disabilities (1980) 13:542–47.
  59. Blachman, B.A., ed. Cognitive and linguistic foundations of reading acquisition: Implications for intervention research. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. In press.
  60. Blachman, B.A., Ball, E., Black, R., and Tangel, D. Kindergarten teachers develop phoneme awareness in low-income inner-city classrooms: Does it make a difference? Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal (1994) 6:1–17.
  61. Tangel, D.M., and Blachman, B.A. Effect of phoneme awareness instruction on the invented spelling of first grade children: A one year follow-up. Journal of Reading Behavior (June 1995) 27,2:153–85.
  62. Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K., and Rashotte, C.A. Approaches to the prevention and remediation of phonologically based reading disabilities. In Cognitive and linguistic foundations of reading acquisition: Implications for intervention research. B.A. Blachman, ed. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. In press.
  63. Torgeson, J.K., Morgan, S., and Davis, C. The effects of two types of phonological awareness training on word learning in kindergarten children. Journal of Educational Psychology (1992) 84:364–70.
  64. Foorman, B.R. Early interventions for children with reading problems. Progress Report. NICHD Grant HD 30995. Bethesda, MD: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, December 1995.
  65. Alexander, A., Anderson, H., Heilman, P.C., et al. Phonological awareness training and remediation of analytic decoding deficits in a group of severe dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia (1991) 41:193–206.
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  67. Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K., and Rashotte, C.A. Longitudinal studies of phonological processing and reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities (1994) 27:276–86.
  68. Iversen, S., and Tunmer, W.E. Phonological processing skills and the Reading Recovery Program. Journal of Educational Psychology (1993) 85:112–26.
  69. Foorman, B.R. Research on the great debate: Code-oriented versus whole-language approaches to reading instruction. School Psychology Review (1995) 24:376–92.
  70. Martin, E.W. Learning disabilities and public policy: Myths and outcomes. In Better understanding learning disabilities: New views from research and their implications for education and public policy. G.R. Lyon, D.B. Gray., J.F. Kavanagh, and N.A. Krasnegor, eds. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1993, pp. 325–42.
  71. Fairweather, J.S., and Shaver, D.M. Making a transition to postsecondary education and training. Exceptional Children (1990) 57:264–70.

Sources for Table 1

The Yale Research Group
The principal investigator for the Yale Learning Disability Research Center is Dr. Bennett Shaywitz, professor of pediatrics and professor and chief of pediatric neurology, the Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510. The Yale Group also consists of Drs. Sally Shaywitz, John Gore, Pawel Skudlarski, Robert Fulbright, Todd Constable, Richard Bronen, and Cheryl Lacadie from Yale University; Drs. Alvin Liberman, Kenneth Pugh, Donald Shankweiler, Carol Fowler, Anne Fowler, and Leonard Katz from the Haskins Laboratories; Drs. Jack Fletcher and Karla Steubing from the University of Texas Medical School; Drs. David Francis and Barbara Foorman from the University of Houston; Dr. Dorothy Aram from Emerson College; Dr. Benita Blachman from Syracuse University; Drs. Keith Stanovich and Linda Siegel from the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education; Dr. Rafael Kloorman from the University of Rochester; and Dr. Irwen Kirsch from the Educational Testing Service.

 

The Ontario Research Group
Drs. Keith Stanovich and Linda Siegel are professors of psychology and special education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), Department of Special Education, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1V6 Canada. They are affiliated with the Yale University Learning Disability Research Center funded by the NICHD, as well as senior level scientists at OISE where funding is obtained primarily through the Canadian Research Council.

 

The University of Colorado Research Group
The principal investigator for the University of Colorado Learning Disability Research Center is Dr. John DeFries, professor and director of the Institute for Behavioral Genetics, the University of Colorado, Campus Box 447, Boulder, CO 80309-0447. The Colorado research team consists of Drs. Richard Olson, Barbara Wise, David Fulker, and Helen Forsberg from the University of Colorado, Boulder; Dr. Bruce Pennington from the University of Denver; Drs. Shelly Smith and William Kimberling from the Boys Town National Research Hospital in Omaha; Dr. Pauline Filipek from the University of California, Irvine; and Drs. David Kennedy and Albert Galaburda from Harvard University.

 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine Research Group
The principal investigator for the Center for Neurobehavioral Studies of Learning Disorders is Dr. Frank Wood, professor of neurology and neuropsychology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 300 S. Hawthorne Road, Winston-Salem, NC 27103. Also from the Center are Drs. Rebecca Felton, Cecille Naylor, Mary McFarlane, John Keyes, Mark Espeland, Dale Dagenbach, and John Absher from the Bowman Gray School of Medicine; Dr. Raquel Gur from the University of Pennsylvania; Dr. Connie Juel from the University of Virginia; and Dr. Jan Loney from the State University of New York at Stoney Brook.

 

The Johns Hopkins Research Group
The principal investigator for the Johns Hopkins Learning Disability Research Center is Dr. Martha Denckla, professor of neurology, pediatrics, and psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 707 North Broadway, Suite 501, Baltimore, MD 21205. The Hopkins research team consists of Drs. Allan Reiss, Harvey Singer, Linda Schuerholz, Lisa Freund, Michelle Mazzocco, and Mark Reader from the Kennedy-Krieger Research Institute at Johns Hopkins; Drs. Frank Vellutino and Donna Scanlon at the State University of New York at Albany; Dr. Mark Appelbaum from Vanderbilt University; and Dr. Gary Chase from Georgetown University.

 

The Florida State University Research Group
The principal investigator of the Florida State University Learning Disabilities Intervention Project is Dr. Joseph Torgesen, professor of psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 33124-2040. Members of the Florida State Research Group are Drs. Richard Wagner and Carol Rashotte from Florida State University; Drs. Ann Alexander and Kytja Voeller from the University of Florida, and Ms. Patricia Lindamood from Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes.

 

The University of Houston Research Group
The principal investigator for the University of Houston Learning Disabilities Intervention Project is Dr. Barbara Foorman, professor of educational psychology, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204. The Houston group also consists of Drs. David Francis and Dorothy Haskell from the University of Houston; Drs. Jack Fletcher and Karla Steubing from the University of Texas Medical School; and Drs. Bennett and Sally Shaywitz from Yale University.

 

The University of Miami Research Group
The principal investigator for the University of Miami Learning Disabilities Program Project is Dr. Herbert Lubs, professor of pediatrics and genetics, University of Miami School of Medicine, MCCD, P.O. Box 16820, Miami, FL 33101. The Miami group also consists of Drs. Ranjan Duara, Bonnie Levin, Bonnie Jallad, Marie-Louis Lubs, Mark Rabin, Alex Kushch, and Karen Gross-Glenn, all from the University of Miami.