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Journal Issue: Special Education for Students with Disabilities Volume 6 Number 1 Spring 1996

Transition from High School to Work or College: How Special Education Students Fare
Mary M. Wagner Jose Blackorby

Endnotes

  1. Mithaug, D.E., and Horiuchi, C.N. Colorado statewide follow-up survey of special education students. Denver: Colorado Department of Education, 1983.
  2. Hasazi, S.B., Gordon, L.R., and Roe, C.A. Factors associated with the employment status of handicapped youth exiting high school from 1979–1983. Exceptional Children (1985) 51:455–69.
  3. Edgar, E., Levine, P., and Maddox, M. Washington state follow-up data of former secondary special education students. Seattle: University of Washington, 1985.
  4. Wagner, M., ed. The secondary school programs of students with disabilities. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1993.
  5. Wagner, M., Blackorby, J., and Hebbeler, K. Beyond the report card: The multiple dimensions of secondary school performance of students with disabilities. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1993.
  6. Wagner, M., D'Amico, R., Marder, C., et al. What happens next? Trends in postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities. The second comprehensive report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1992.
  7. Javitz, H., and Wagner, M. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students: Report on sample design and limitations, wave 1 (1987). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1990.
  8. Javitz, H., and Wagner, M. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students: Sample characteristics and procedures, wave 2 (1990). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1993.
  9. Wagner, M., Newman, L., and Shaver, D. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students: Report on procedures for the first wave of data collection (1987). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1989.
  10. Marder, C., Habina, K., and Prince, N. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students: Report on procedures for the second wave of data collection (1990). Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1992.
  11. Postschool goals were reported in written questionnaires completed by teachers of 12th-grade students with disabilities who were familiar with the students' school programs and transition plans.
  12. Cameto, R. Support services provided by secondary schools. In The secondary school programs of students with disabilities. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. M. Wagner, ed. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1993.
  13. Supported employment often involves working in competitive jobs but with the wages earned being subsidized by public funds to provide an incentive to employers to hire persons with disabilities. Those in supported employment also may receive support services such as job training or supervision or advocacy from an employment "coach" or counselor. Sheltered employment is work in settings in which most or all other workers have disabilities; wages are generally below those earned in competitive jobs.
  14. Hayward, B.J., and Thorne, J. The educational programs of high school special education students. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute, 1990.
  15. Hebbeler, K. Overview of the high school experiences of students with disabilities. In The secondary school programs of students with disabilities. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. M. Wagner, ed. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1993.
  16. Newman, L. Academic course-taking. In The secondary school programs of students with disabilities. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. M. Wagner, ed. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1993.
  17. Blackorby, J., Participation in vocational education by students with disabilities. In The secondary school programs of students with disabilities. A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. M. Wagner, ed. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1993.
  18. Unlike students in the general population, who either graduate or drop out, students with disabilities have those two school-leaving options, as well as being able to "age out," that is, stay in high school until the maximum age allowed (usually 21 years) without earning the credits to graduate.
  19. Wagner, M., D'Amico, R., Marder, C., et al. What happens next? Trends in postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities. The second comprehensive report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1992.
  20. Gardner, J.A. Transition from high school to postsecondary education: Analytical studies. Washington, DC: Center for Education Statistics, 1987.
  21. Marder, C. Education after secondary school. In What happens next? Trends in postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities. The second comprehensive report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. M. Wagner, R. D'Amico, C. Marder, et al. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1992.
  22. Marder, C., and Cox, R. More than a label: Characteristics of youth with disabilities. In Youth with disabilities: How are they doing? The first comprehensive report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. M. Wagner, L. Newman, R. D'Amico, et al. Park, CA: SRI International, 1991.
  23. D'Amico, R. The working world awaits: Employment experiences during and shortly after secondary school. In Youth with disabilities: How are they doing? The first comprehensive report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. M. Wagner, L. Newman, R. D'Amico, et al. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. 1991.
  24. In calculating an estimate of total compensation, unemployed youths were considered to receive no compensation. Estimates for paid workers involved multiplying the reported hours typically worked per week by the reported hourly wage; a typical work year was assumed to involve 49 work weeks for those who did not receive paid sick leave or vacation. For workers who received paid sick leave and vacation, the work year, for purposes of calculating total compensation, was assumed to include 52 paid weeks. Medical insurance received as an employment benefit was valued at 6.1% of wages, as commonly calculated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Statistical abstract of the United States. 110th ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1990.
  25. Wagner, M., Blackorby, J., Cameto, R., and Newman, L. What makes a difference? Influences on postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities. The third comprehensive report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. 1993.
  26. Stage, F.K., and Hossler, D. Differences in family influences on college attendance plans for male and female ninth graders. Research in Higher Education (1989) 30:301–14.
  27. Wagner, M. Secondary school programs. In Youth with disabilities: How are they doing? The first comprehensive report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students. M. Wagner, L. Newman, R. D'Amico, et al., eds. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1991.