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Journal Issue: Special Education for Students with Disabilities Volume 6 Number 1 Spring 1996

CHILD INDICATORS: Children in Special Education
Eugene M. Lewit Linda Schuurmann Baker

Endnotes

  1. Testimony of John Brademas, President Emeritus, New York University, at a joint hearing of the Subcommittee on Disability Policy of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate, and the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities, U.S. House of Representatives. Washington, DC, May 9, 1995.
  2. See, for example, Office of Special Education Programs. Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Sixteenth annual report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1994.
  3. Children with disabilities who are not in special education may receive other services that are available to any individual with a disability under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Marcia L. Brauen, Westat, Inc. Telephone conversation, November 16, 1995.
  4. See note no. 2, Office of Special Education Programs, p. 2.
  5. In 1986, Congress permitted states to provide counts of preschool-age children served by a generic category of their choosing rather than by the disability categories to which school-age children were assigned and by which they were reported. In 1991, the law was amended to allow states to incorporate an additional disability category (developmental delay) for children three to five years of age if they desired. Danaher, J. Preschool special education eligibility classification and criteria. NEC*TAS Notes (November 1992) 6:1–2.
  6. Scott Campbell Brown, Office of Special Education Programs. Telephone communication, September 26, 1995.
  7. Patrick, J.L., and Reschly, D.J. Relationship of state educational criteria and demographic variables to school-system prevalence of mental retardation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency (1982) 86,4:351–60; Mercer, C.D., King-Sears, P., and Mercer, A.R. Learning disabilities definitions and criteria used by state education departments. Learning Disability Quarterly (Spring 1990) 13:141–52.
  8. Verstegen, D.A. Fiscal provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Historical overview. Policy Paper No. 2. Palo Alto, CA: Center for Special Education Finance, June 1994; Parrish, T.B., and Verstegen, D.A. Fiscal provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Policy issues and alternatives. Policy Paper No. 3. Palo Alto, CA: Center for Special Education Finance, June 1994.
  9. National Center for Education Statistics. 120 years of American education: A statistical portrait. T.D. Snyder, ed. Washington, DC: NCES, January 1993, p. 44, Table 12; Office of Special Education Programs. Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Seventeenth annual report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, November 1995, Tables AA14 and AA1.
  10. See note no. 9, National Center for Education Statistics, p. 44, and Office of Special Education Programs, p. 12.
  11. See note no. 2, Office of Special Education Programs, p. 7.
  12. Zill, N. The school-age handicapped: A statistical profile of special education students in elementary and secondary schools in the United States. Contractor report for the National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: NCES, 1985.
  13. With regard to the last factor, many observers have noted that a substantial decline in the number of children classified as having mental retardation occurred simultaneously with the large increase in the count of SLD children. Part of that shift may reflect a conscious effort to avoid the stigmatizing label of being mentally retarded in favor of the more acceptable characterization of having a learning disability. While the tendency to classify as learning disabled children who would have previously been stigmatized with a diagnosis of mental retardation can explain a portion of the increase over time in children classified as learning disabled, the substitution of diagnostic categories cannot be a factor in the growth in the aggregate number of children in special education.
  14. Shaywitz, S.E., Fletcher, J.M., and Shaywitz, B.A. Issues in the definition and classification of attention deficit disorder. Topics in Language and Disability (1994) 14:1–25; Shaywitz, S.E., and Shaywitz, B.A. Unlocking learning disabilities. Paper presented at Understanding and Healing the Human Brain: Neuroscience and Behavior Research for Improving the Public Health, a Capitol Hill public forum. U.S. Capitol Building, Washington, DC, March 11, 1994.
  15. However, if all of these children were served, the states would not receive any federal reimbursement for a large proportion because the federal government will pay for special education for only up to 12% of the state's total school enrollment. See note no. 8, Verstegen, and Parrish and Verstegen.
  16. Singer, J.D., Palfrey, J.S., Butler, J.A., and Walker, D.K. Variation in special education classification across school districts: How does where you live affect what you are labeled? American Educational Research Journal (Summer 1989) 26,2:261–81.
  17. See, for example, Gartner, A., and Lispky, D.K. Beyond special education: Toward a quality system for all students. Harvard Educational Review (November 1987) 57:367–95.
  18. Tom Parrish, American Institutes for Research, Palo Alto, CA. Personal communication, September 25, 1995.
  19. Gerber, M.M., and Levine-Donnerstein, D. Educating all children: Ten years later. Exceptional Children (1989) 56,1:17–27.
  20. Hobbs, N., ed. The future of children: Categories, labels, and their consequences. Report on the project on classification of exceptional children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975.
  21. Julie Feliciano, Current Population Survey Branch, U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fax communication, October 18, 1995; Rossi, R., Herting, J., and Wolman, J. Status and experiences of students with disabilities: A NELS:88 report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. In press; Zill, N., and Schoenborn, C.A. Developmental, learning, and emotional problems: Health of our nation's children, United States 1988. Advance data from vital and health statistics. No. 190. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service, November 16, 1990.
  22. See note no. 21, Zill and Schoenborn.
  23. See note no. 21, Feliciano.
  24. Fuchs, D., and Fuchs, L.S. What's "special" about special education? Phi Delta Kappan (March 1995) 76,7:522–30.
  25. See note no. 21, Rossi, Herting, and Wolman.
  26. Learning Disabilities Association of America. Retaining the specific learning disability category. Position paper. Pittsburgh, PA: LDAA, July 1995.