Skip over navigation

Journal Issue: Children and Divorce Volume 4 Number 1 Spring/Summer 1994

The Determination of Child Custody
Joan B. Kelly

Endnotes

  1. Roth, A. The tender years presumption in child custody disputes. Journal of Family Law (1976-77) 15:423–61.
  2. See 2 and 3 Victoria, 1839. The British Act of 1839 amended the law relating to the custody of infants.
  3. Mason, M.A. From father's property to children's rights: The history of child custody in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
  4. Mnookin, R.H. Child custody adjudication: Judicial functions in the face of indeterminacy. Law and Contemporary Problems (1975) 39:226–93.
  5. Freud, S. An outline of psychoanalysis. New York: W.W. Norton, 1949, p. 90.
  6. For a discussion of relevant theory, see Bowlby, J. Attachment. Vol. 1 of Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books, 1969; Bowlby, J. Separation: Anxiety and anger. Vol. 2 of Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books, 1973.
  7. For a summary of pertinent research, see Ainsworth, M., Blehar, M., Waters, E., and Wall, S. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1978.
  8. Lamb, M.E., ed. The role of the father in child development. Rev. ed. New York: Wiley, 1981.
  9. See note no. 1, Roth, for more extensive discussion, and Watts v. Watts, 350 N.Y. State 2d 285, 290–91 (Family Court 1973), Devine v. Devine 398 So. 2d 686 (Alabama 1981), which held that maternal preference laws were a form of sex discrimination and violated fathers' equal protection rights under the Fourteenth Amendment.
  10. See Noble, J., and Noble, W. The custody trap. New York: Hawthorne Books, 1975; Weitzman, L. The marriage contract: Spouses, loves and the law. New York: Free Press, 1981; Bartlett, K., and Stack, C. Joint custody, feminism, and the dependency dilemma. In Joint custody and shared parenting. J. Folberg, ed. Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs and Association of Family and Conciliation Courts, 1984, pp. 63–87, for discussions of how the traditional maternal role enforced women's dependency, and how maternal presumption rules should be replaced with gender-neutral standards which enable women to share parenting burdens with their ex-spouses.
  11. Cochran, R. Reconciling the primary caretaker preference, the joint custody preference, and the case-by-case rule. In Joint custody and shared parenting. 2d ed. J. Folberg, ed. New York: Guilford Press, 1991, pp. 218–40.
  12. Scott, E. Pluralism, parental preference, and child custody. California Law Review (1992) 80:615–72.
  13. Goldstein, J., Freud, A., and Solnit, A. Beyond the best interests of the child. New York: Free Press, 1973.
  14. Roman, M., and Haddad, W. The disposable parent: The case for joint custody. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1978.
  15. Scott, E., and Derdeyn, A. Rethinking joint custody. Ohio State Law Journal (1984) 45:455–62.
  16. Woolley, P. The custody handbook. New York: Summit Books, 1979.
  17. Ricci, I. Mom's housedad's house. New York: Macmillan, 1981.
  18. Folberg, J. Custody overview. In Joint custody and shared parenting. Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs and Association of Family and Conciliation Courts, 1984, pp. 3–10.
  19. Wallerstein, J.S., and Kelly, J.B. Surviving the breakup: How children and parents cope with divorce. New York: Basic Books, 1980.
  20. Greif, G. Fathers, children, and joint custody. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1979) 49:311–19.
  21. See note no. 10, Bartlett and Stack.
  22. Lamb, M.E., ed. The role of the father in child development. New York: Wiley, 1976.
  23. See, for example, Lamb, M.E., and Sagi, A., eds. Fatherhood and family policy. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1983; Park, R. Fathers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981; Chambers, D., and Povett, K. The nurturing father. New York: Warner Books, 1987; Bronstein, P., and Cowan, C., eds. Fatherhood today. New York: Wiley, 1988; Warshak, R.A. The custody revolution: The father factor and the motherhood mystique. New York: Poseidon Press, 1992.
  24. Thompson, R. Fathers and the child's "best interests": Judicial decision making in custody disputes. In The father's role: Applied perspectives. M.E. Lamb, ed. New York: Wiley, 1986, pp. 61–102.
  25. Hochschild, A. The second shift. New York: Avon Books, 1989.
  26. Lamb, M., Ketterlinus, R., and Fracasso, M. Parent-child relationships. In Developmental psychology: An advanced textbook. M. Bornstein and M. Lamb, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992, pp. 465–518.
  27. Pleck, J. Working wives/working husbands. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1985.
  28. Hetherington, E.M., Cox, M., and Cox, R. Effects of divorce on parents and children. In Nontraditional families. M.E. Lamb, ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1982, pp. 223–88.
  29. Greif, G. Single fathers. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985.
  30. Keshet, H., and Rosenthal, K. Fathering after marital separation. Social Work (1978) 23:11–18.
  31. McKnight, M. Issues and trends in the law of joint custody. In Joint custody and shared parenting. 2d ed. J. Folberg, ed. New York: Guilford Press, 1991, pp. 209–17.
  32. Appendix A: Joint custody statutes and judicial interpretation. In Joint custody and shared parenting. 2d ed. J. Folberg, ed. New York: Guilford Press, 1991, pp. 298–331.
  33. Ahrons, C.R. The continuing coparental relationship between divorced spouses. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1981) 51:415–28.
  34. Kelly, J. Mediated and adversarial divorce resolution processes: An analysis of post-divorce outcomes. Final report for the Fund for Research in Dispute Resolution. Northern California Mediation Center, Corte Madera, CA, 1990.
  35. Maccoby, E.E., and Mnookin, R.H. Dividing the child: Social and legal dilemmas of custody. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.
  36. Fineman, M., and Opie, A. The uses of social science data in legal policymaking: Custody determination at divorce. Wisconsin Law Review (1987) 107:121.
  37. Bruch, C. And how are the children? The effects of ideology and mediation on child custody law and children's well-being in the United States. International Journal of Law and the Family (1988) 2:106–26.
  38. Kelly, J. Current research on children's postdivorce adjustment: No simple answers. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (January 1993) 31:29–49.
  39. Koel, A., Clark, S., Phear, W.P., and Hauser, B. A comparison of joint and sole legal custody agreements. In The impact of divorce, single-parenting and step-parenting on children. E.M. Hetherington and J. Arasteh, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988, pp. 73–90.
  40. Duryee, M. Demographic and outcome data of a court mediation program. Report to the Judicial Council, State of California, Statewide Office of Family Court Services. San Francisco: Judicial Council, 1991.
  41. Kelly, J.B. Developing and implementing post-divorce parenting plans: Does the forum make a difference? In Nonresidential parenting: New vistas in family living. C. Depner and J. Bray, eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993, pp. 136–55.
  42. Buchanan, C., Maccoby, E., and Dornbusch, S. Adolescents and their families after divorce: Three residential arrangements compared. Journal of Research on Adolescents (1992) 2:261–91.
  43. Glick, P., and Norton, A. Marrying, divorcing and living together in the U.S. today. Population Bulletin (1978) 32:3–38.
  44. Meyer, D., and Garasky, S. Custodial fathers: Myths, realities, and child support policy. Journal of Marriage and the Family (1993) 55:73–89.
  45. Kline, M., Tschann, J., Johnston, J., and Wallerstein, J. Children's adjustment in joint and sole physical custody families. Developmental Psychology (1989) 25:430–38.
  46. Arditti, J.A. Differences between fathers with joint custody and noncustodial fathers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1992) 62:186–95.
  47. Irving, H., and Benjamin, M. Share and sole-custody parents: A comparative analysis. In Joint custody and shared parenting. 2d ed. J. Folberg, ed. New York: Guilford Press, 1991, pp. 114–31.
  48. Braver, S., Wolchik, S., Sandier, I., et al. Frequency of visitation by divorced fathers: Differences in reports by fathers and mothers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1991) 61:448–54.
  49. Seltzer, J.A. Relationships between fathers and children who live apart: The father's role after separation. Journal of Marriage and the Family (1991) 53:79–101.
  50. Pearson, J., and Thoennes, N. Child custody and child support after divorce. In Joint custody and shared parenting. 2d ed. J. Folberg, ed. New York: Guilford Press, 1991, pp. 185–208.
  51. Erickson, S., and Erickson, M. Family mediation casebook. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1988.
  52. Folberg, J., and Milne, A., eds. Divorce mediation: Theory and practice. New York: Guilford Press, 1988.
  53. Haynes, J., and Haynes, G. Mediating divorce. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989.
  54. California, Maine, New Mexico, Oregon, and Wisconsin mandate custody mediation for disputing parents. In Alaska, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, and Louisiana, mediation is available on a discretionary basis. See note no. 32, Appendix A, for specific statutes and practices.
  55. Grillo, T. The mediation alternative: Process dangers for women. Yale Law Journal (1991) 100:1545–610.
  56. Fineman, M.A. The illusion of equality: Rhetoric and reality of divorce reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
  57. Depner, C., Cannata, K., and Simon, M. Building a uniform statistical reporting system: A snapshot of California Family Court Services. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (1992) 30:169–84.
  58. Emery, R., Matthews, S., and Wyer, M. Child custody mediation and litigation: Further evidence on the differing views of mothers and fathers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1991) 59:410–18.
  59. Kelly, J., and Duryee, M. Women and men's views of mediation in voluntary and mandatory mediation settings. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (1992) 30:34–49.
  60. Pearson, J., and Thoennes, N. Divorce mediation: Reflections on a decade of research. In Mediation research: The process and effectiveness of third party intervention. K. Kressel and D. Pruitt, eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989, pp. 9–39.
  61. Emery, R., and Jackson, J. The Charlottesville mediation project: Mediated and litigated child custody disputes. Mediation Quarterly (1989) 24:3–18.
  62. King, D., Justice, Appellate Court, State of California. Telephone conversations, June 9, 1993, September 2, 1993.
  63. Estimated range obtained in past several years from judges and attorneys in many jurisdictions, and from unpublished data of the author.
  64. Wolman, R., and Taylor, K. Psychological effects of custody disputes on children. Behavioral Sciences and the Law (1991) 9:399–417.
  65. Gardner, R. Family evaluation in child custody mediation, arbitration, and litigation. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics, 1989.
  66. King, D. Accentuate the positive—Eliminate the negative. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (1993) 31:9–28.
  67. Strick, A. Injustice for all. New York: Putnam, 1977.
  68. Sherman, C.E. How to do your own divorce in California. Berkeley, CA: Nolo Press, 1993.
  69. Margulies, S. Getting divorced without ruining your life. New York: Simon and Schuster (Fireside), 1992.
  70. Gold, L. Between love and hate: A guide to civilized divorce. New York: Plenum, 1991.
  71. Vincent, B., Commissioner, Superior Court of San Bernardino County, CA. Personal communication, March 24, 1993.
  72. Mnookin, R., and Kornhauser, L. Bargaining in the shadow of the law: The case of divorce. Yale Law Journal (1979) 88:950–97.
  73. Kruk, E. Psychological and structural factors contributing to the disengagement of noncustodial fathers after divorce. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (1992) 30:81–101.
  74. Del Carmen, R., and Virgo, G. Marital disruption and nonresidential parenting: A multicultural perspective. In Nonresidential parenting: New vistas in family living. C. Depner and J. Bray, eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993, pp. 13–36.
  75. Arditti, J., and Keith, T. Visitation frequency, child support payment, and the father-child relationship postdivorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family (1993) 55:699-712.
  76. Kelly, J., and Gigy, L. Mediated and adversarial divorce: Respondents' perceptions of their processes and outcomes. Mediation Quarterly (1989) 24:71–88.
  77. Lehner, L. Mediation parent education programs in the California Family Courts. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (1992) 30:207–16.
  78. Arbuthnot, J., Poole, C., and Gordon, D. Minimizing the stress of divorce on children through parent education. Paper submitted for publication. Department of Psychology, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701.
  79. Emery, R.E. Marriage, divorce, and children's adjustment. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1988
  80. Warshak, R.A., and Santrok, J.W. The impact of divorce in father-custody and mother-custody homes: The child's perspective. In Children and divorce. L.A. Kurdek, ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983.
  81. Amato, P. Family processes in one-parent, stepparent and intact families: The child's point of view. Journal of Marriage and the Family (1987) 49:327–37.
  82. The 1970 Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act (UMDA) Sec. 402.
  83. Michigan Compiled Laws Annual, at 722.23 a-k.
  84. Folberg, J., ed. Joint custody and parenting. 2d ed. New York: Guilford Press, 1991.
  85. Kelly, J. Is mediation less expensive? Comparison of mediated and adversarial divorce costs. Mediation Quarterly (1990) 8:15–26.
  86. Fineman, M. Dominant discourse, professional language, and legal change in child custody decisionmaking. Harvard Law Review (1988) 101:727–74.
  87. Chambers, D.L. Rethinking the substantive rules for custody disputes in divorce. Michigan Law Review (1984) 83:477–569.
  88. Thompson, L., and Walker, A. Gender in families: Women and men in marriage, work, and parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family (1989) 51:845–71.
  89. Polatnick, M. When men don't rear children: A power analysis. In Mothering: Essays in feminist theory. J. Trebilcot, ed. Totawan, NJ: Rouman and Allanheld, 1984, pp. 21–40.
  90. Kalter, N. Predictors of children's postdivorce adjustment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1989) 59:587–600.
  91. Duryee, M., director, Alameda County Family Court Services, Superior Court of Alameda County, Oakland, CA. Personal communications, 1992–1993.
  92. Dudley, J. Increasing our understanding of divorced fathers who have infrequent contact with their children. Family Relations (1991) 40:279–85.
  93. Coysh, W., Johnston, J., Tschann, J., et al. Parental postdivorce adjustment in joint and sole physical custody families. Journal of Family Issues (1989) 20:63–70.
  94. Furstenberg, Jr., F.F., Nord, C.W., Peterson, J.L., and Zill, N. The life course of children of divorce: Marital disruption and parental contact. American Sociological Review (1983) 48:656–68.
  95. Depner, C. Parental role reversal: Mothers as nonresidential parents. In Nonresidential parenting: New vistas in family living. C. Depner and J. Bray, eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993, pp. 37–57.
  96. Braver, S.H., Wolchik, S.A., Sandler, I.N., and Sheets, V.L. A social exchange model of non-residential parent involvement. In Nonresidential parenting: New vistas in family living. C. Depner and J. Bray, eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993, pp. 87–108.
  97. Bray, J., and Berger, S. Nonresidential parent-child relationships following divorce and re-marriage: A longitudinal perspective. In Nonresidential parenting: New vistas in family living. C. Depner and J. Bray, eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993, 156–81.
  98. Seltzer, J., Schaeffer, N., and Charng, H.W. Family ties after divorce: The relationship between visiting and paying child support. Journal of Marriage and the Family (1989) 51:1013–32.
  99. Furstenberg, F., Morgan, S., and Allison, P. Paternal participation and children's well-being after marital dissolution. American Sociological Review (1987) 52:695–701.
  100. Healy, Jr., J., Malley, J., and Stewart, A. Children and their fathers after parental separation. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1990) 60:531–43.
  101. Neugebauer, R. Divorce, custody, and visitation: The child's point of view. Journal of Divorce (1989)12:153–68.
  102. Guidubaldi, J., and Perry, J.D. Divorce and mental health sequelae for children: A two year follow-up of a nationwide sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry (1985) 24:531–37.
  103. Kurdek, L. Custodial mothers' perceptions of visitation and payments of child support by noncustodial fathers in families with low and high levels of preseparation interparent conflict. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology (1988) 9:315–28.
  104. Pearson, J., and Thoennes, N. The denial of visitation rights: A preliminary look at its incidence, correlates, antecedents, and consequences. Law and Policy (1988) 10:363–80.
  105. Leupnitz, D.A. Child custody: A study of families after divorce. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1982
  106. Arbuthnot, J., and Gordon, D.A. Programs for divorcing parents: A service provider's handbook. Athens, OH: Center for Divorce Education, 1993. Available from the Center for Divorce Education, PO. Box 5900, Athens, OH 45701.
  107. Kalter, N. Time-limited developmental facilitation groups for children of divorce: A preventive intervention. Technical report. Lansing, MI: Department of Mental Health, 1988.
  108. Emery, R., and Wyer, M. Child custody mediation and litigation: An experimental evaluation of the experience of parents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1987) 55:179–86.
  109. Rosenberg, J. In defense of mediation. Arizona Law Review (1991) 33:467–507.
  110. Duryee, M. Mandatory mediation: Myth and reality. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (1992) 30:507–18.
  111. Erickson, S., and McKnight, M. Mediating spousal abuse divorces. Mediation Quarterly (1990) 7:377–88.
  112. Magana, H., and Taylor, N. Child custody mediation and spouse abuse. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (1993) 31:50–64.
  113. Girdner, L. Mediation triage: Screening for spouse abuse in divorce mediation. Mediation Quarterly (1990) 7:365–76.
  114. Chandler, D. Violence, fear, and communication: The variable impact of domestic violence on mediation. Mediation Quarterly (1990) 7:331–46.
  115. For example, Guidelines for Family Court Service Interventions when there are allegations of domestic violence (Family Court Services, 1221 Oak St., Room 260, Oakland, CA 94612); Los Angeles County Domestic Violence Guidelines (Family Court Services, Los Angeles County Superior Court, 111 N. Hill St., Los Angeles, CA 90012).
  116. Pearson, J. The equity of mediated agreements. Mediation Quarterly (1991) 16:87–101.
  117. Kelly, J. Parent interaction after divorce: Comparison of mediated and adversarial divorce processes. Behavioral Sciences and the Law (1991) 9:387–98.
  118. Johnston, J.R., and Campbell, L.E.G. Impasses of divorce: The dynamics and resolution of family conflict. NewYork: Free Press, 1988.
  119. Manual for appointment of special masters. Superior Court of California, County of Santa Clara, San Jose, CA.
  120. Qualifications for special masters. Marin Task Force on Special Masters, Marin County Superior Court, San Rafael, CA.