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Journal Issue: Transition to Adulthood Volume 20 Number 1 Spring 2010

Vulnerable Populations and the Transition to Adulthood
D. Wayne Osgood E. Michael Foster Mark E. Courtney

Endnotes

  1. Zeng-Yin Chen and Howard B. Kaplan, "School Failure in Early Adolescence and Status Attainment in Middle Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study," Sociology of Education 76 (2003): 110–27; Andrew Cherlin, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage (Harvard University Press, 1992); Alan C. Kerckhoff, Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Elizabeth Glennie, "Education, Cognitive Skill, and Labor Force Outcomes," Sociology of Education 74 (2001): 1–24; Sara McLanahan and Karen Booth, "Mother-Only Families: Problems, Prospects, and Policies," Journal of Marriage and Family 51 (1989): 557–80; Michael D. Newcomb and Peter M. Bentler, Consequences of Adolescent Drug Use: Impact on the Lives of Young Adults (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1989).
  2. William T. Grant Foundation Commission on Work, Family, and Citizenship, The Forgotten Half: Non-College Youth in America: An Interim Report on the School-to-Work Transition (William T. Grant Foundation Commission on Work, Family, and Citizenship, 1988).
  3. In this article we summarize and extend the volume on this topic titled On Your Own without a Net: The Transition to Adulthood for Vulnerable Populations, edited by D. Wayne Osgood and others (University of Chicago Press, 2005), which was sponsored by the MacArthur Foundation's Network on Transitions to Adulthood. The aims of that volume were to identify the challenges facing groups for whom the long process of becoming an adult is likely to be most difficult and to bring attention to the special policy issues concerning them that arise during this period.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Mark E. Courtney and Darcy Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System," in On Your Own without a Net, edited by Osgood and others (see note 3), pp. 27–67; D. Wayne Osgood and Laine O'Neill Briddell, "Peer Effects in Juvenile Justice," in Deviant by Design: Interventions and Policies That Aggregate Deviant Youth, and Strategies to Optimize Outcomes, edited by K. Dodge, T. Dishion, and J. Lansford (New York: Guilford Press, 2006), pp. 141–61; Devah Pager, "The Mark of a Criminal Record," American Journal of Sociology 108 (2003): 937–75.
  6. E. Michael Foster and Elizabeth J. Gifford, "Developmental and Administrative Transitions for Special Populations: Policies, Outcomes, and Research Challenges," in On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy, edited by Richard A. Settersten Jr., Frank F. Furstenberg Jr., and Rubén G. Rumbaut (University of Chicago Press, 2005), pp. 501–33.
  7. Osgood and others, eds., On Your Own without a Net (see note 3).
  8. E. Michael Foster and others, "The Transition to Adulthood for Vulnerable Youth and Families: Common Themes and Future Directions," in On Your Own without a Net, edited by Osgood and others (see note 3), pp. 375–90.
  9. Phyllis Levine and Mary Wagner, "Transition for Young Adults Who Received Special Education Services as Adolescents: A Time of Challenge and Change," in On Your Own without a Net, edited by Osgood and others (see note 3), pp. 202–58.
  10. Terrie E. Moffitt and others, Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour: Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study (Cambridge University Press, 2001); John T. Whitehead and Steven P. Lab, Juvenile Justice: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson Publishing, 1996).
  11. Christopher Uggen and Sara Wakefield, "Young Adults Reentering the Community from the Criminal Justice System: The Challenge of Becoming an Adult," in On Your Own without a Net, edited by Osgood and others (see note 3), pp. 114–44.
  12. Robert W. Blum, "Adolescents with Disabilities in Transition to Adulthood," in On Your Own without a Net, edited by Osgood and others (see note 3), pp. 323–48.
  13. Levine and Wagner, "Transition for Young Adults Who Received Special Education Services as Adolescents" (see note 9).
  14. Robert J. Sampson, Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Felton Earls, "Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy," Science 277 (1997): 918–24.
  15. Uggen and Wakefield, "Young Adults Reentering the Community from the Criminal Justice System: The Challenge of Becoming an Adult" (see note 11).
  16. Phillip M. Lyons Jr. and Gary B. Melton, "Coping with Mental Health Problems in Young Adulthood: Diversity of Need and Uniformity of Programs," in On Your Own without a Net, edited by Osgood and others (see note 3), pp. 304–22; Elaine P. Eggleston and John H. Laub, "The Onset of Adult Offending: A Neglected Dimension of the Criminal Career," Journal of Criminal Justice 30 (2002): 603–22.
  17. Levine and Wagner, "Transition for Young Adults Who Received Special Education Services as Adolescents" (see note 9).
  18. He Len Chung, Michelle Little, and Laurence Steinberg, "The Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System: A Developmental Perspective," in On Your Own without a Net, edited by Osgood and others (see note 3), pp. 68–91; Mark E. Courtney and others, Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth: Outcomes at Age 21 (Chicago: Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago, 2007).
  19. Chung and others, "The Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System" (see note 18).
  20. Travis Hirschi, Causes of Delinquency (University of California Press, 1969).
  21. Courtney and Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System" (see note 5).
  22. Ibid.
  23. Chung and others, "The Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System" (see note 18); Uggen and Wakefield, "Young Adults Reentering the Community from the Criminal Justice System" (see note 11).
  24. John Hagan and Bill McCarthy, "Homeless Youth and the Perilous Passage to Adulthood," in On Your Own without a Net, edited by Osgood and others (see note 3), pp. 178–201.
  25. Levine and Wagner, "Transition for Young Adults Who Received Special Education Services as Adolescents" (see note 9); Blum, "Adolescents with Disabilities in Transition to Adulthood" (see note 12).
  26. Blum, "Adolescents with Disabilities in Transition to Adulthood" (see note 12).
  27. Courtney and Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System" (see note 5).
  28. Levine and Wagner, "Transition for Young Adults Who Received Special Education Services as Adolescents" (see note 9).
  29. Hagan and McCarthy, "Homeless Youth and the Perilous Passage to Adulthood" (see note 24).
  30. Blum, "Adolescents with Disabilities in Transition to Adulthood" (see note 12).
  31. Courtney and Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System" (see note 5); Hagan and McCarthy, "Homeless Youth and the Perilous Passage to Adulthood" (see note 24); Chung and others, "The Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System" (see note 18).
  32. Courtney and Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System" (see note 5); Hagan and McCarthy, "Homeless Youth and the Perilous Passage to Adulthood" (see note 24); Levine and Wagner, "Transition for Young Adults Who Received Special Education Services as Adolescents" (see note 9); Blum, "Adolescents with Disabilities in Transition to Adulthood" (see note 12).
  33. Osgood and others, eds., On Your Own without a Net (see note 3).
  34. Elizabeth Fussell and Frank F. Furstenberg Jr., "The Transition to Adulthood in the Twentieth Century: Race, Nativity, and Gender," in On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy, edited by Richard A. Settersten Jr. and others (University of Chicago Press, 2005), pp. 29–75.
  35. Courtney and Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System" (see note 5).
  36. Levine and Wagner, "Transition for Young Adults Who Received Special Education Services as Adolescents" (see note 9).
  37. J. Heidi Gralinski-Baker and others, "Risks along the Road to Adulthood: Challenges Faced by Youth with Serious Mental Disorders," in On Your Own without a Net, edited by Osgood and others (see note 3), pp. 272–303.
  38. Courtney and Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System" (see note 5).
  39. Ibid.; Hagan and McCarthy, "Homeless Youth and the Perilous Passage to Adulthood" (see note 24); Chung and others, "The Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System" (see note 18).
  40. Chung and others, "The Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System" (see note 18); Gralinski-Baker and others, "Risks along the Road to Adulthood: Challenges Faced by Youth with Serious Mental Disorders" (see note 37).
  41. Courtney and Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System" (see note 5); Levine and Wagner, "Transition for Young Adults Who Received Special Education Services as Adolescents" (see note 9).
  42. Courtney and Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System" (see note 5); Chung and others, "The Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System" (see note 18).
  43. Osgood and others, eds., On Your Own without a Net (see note 3).
  44. Stuart T. Hauser, "Understanding Resilient Outcomes: Adolescent Lives Across Time and Generations," Journal of Research on Adolescence 9 (1999): 1–24.
  45. Chung and others, "The Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System" (see note 18).
  46. Gralinski-Baker and others, "Risks along the Road to Adulthood: Challenges Faced by Youth with Serious Mental Disorders" (see note 37).
  47. Ibid.
  48. Osgood and others, eds., On Your Own without a Net (see note 3).
  49. Courtney and Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System" (see note 5).
  50. David M. Altschuler, "Policy and Program Perspectives on the Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System," in On Your Own without a Net, edited by Osgood and others (see note 3), pp. 92–113.
  51. Altschuler, "Policy and Program Perspectives on the Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System" (see note 50);" Courtney and Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System" (see note 5).
  52. Blum, "Adolescents with Disabilities in Transition to Adulthood" (see note 12).
  53. Thus the title of the volume on which this article is based, On Your Own without a Net, edited by Osgood and others (see note 3).
  54. Lyons and Melton, "Coping with Mental Health Problems in Young Adulthood" (see note 16).
  55. Richard A. Settersten Jr., "Social Policy and the Transition to Adulthood: Toward Stronger Institutions and Individual Capacities," in On the Frontier of Adulthood: Theory, Research, and Public Policy, edited by Richard A. Settersten Jr. and others (University of Chicago Press, 2005), pp. 534–60.
  56. Altschuler, "Policy and Program Perspectives on the Transition to Adulthood for Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System" (see note 50).
  57. Courtney and Hughes Heuring, "The Transition to Adulthood for Youth ‘Aging Out' of the Foster Care System" (see note 5).
  58. Abt Associates, Common Sense, Uncommon Commitment: A Progress Report on the Shared Youth Vision Partnership (Washington: U.S. Department of Labor, 2009).
  59. Foster and others, "The Transition to Adulthood for Vulnerable Youth and Families: Common Themes and Future Directions" (see note 8).
  60. See, for example, A. Dworsky and J. Havlicek, Review of State Policies and Programs to Support Young People Transitioning out of Foster Care (Chicago: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, 2009).