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Journal Issue: Immigrant Children Volume 21 Number 1 Spring 2011

Early Care and Education for Children in Immigrant Families
Lynn A. Karoly Gabriella C. Gonzalez

Endnotes

  1. The figures in this paragraph are from the Urban Institute's Children of Immigrants Data Tool (http://datatool.urban.org/charts/datatool/pages.cfm). For recent demographics, see also Karina Fortuny and others, Children of Immigrants: National and State Characteristics, Brief 9 (Washington: Urban Institute, August 2009).

  2. The corresponding shares for native-born children with native-born parents are 1, 8, and 16 percent, respectively.

  3. Katherine A. Magnuson and Jane Waldfogel, "Early Childhood Care and Education: Effects on Ethnic and Racial Gaps in School Readiness," Future of Children 15, no. 1 (2005): 169–96.

  4. Jack P. Shonkoff and Deborah A. Phillips, eds., From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Child Development (Washington: National Academy Press, 2000).

  5. Peter Brandon, "The Child Care Arrangements of Preschool-Age Children in Immigrant Families in the United States," International Migration 42, no. 1 (2004): 65–87.

  6. Donald J. Hernandez, Nancy A. Denton, and Suzanne E. Macartney, "Early Childhood Education Programs: Accounting for Low Enrollment in Newcomer and Native Families," in The Next Generation: Immigrants in Europe and North America, edited by Richard D. Alba and Mary C. Waters (New York University Press, forthcoming); Donald J. Hernandez, Nancy A. Denton, and Suzanne E. Macartney, Children in Immigrant Families—The U.S. and 50 States: National Origins, Language, and Early Education, Publication 2007-11 (State University of New York-Albany, Child Trends and the Center for Social and Demographic Analysis, April 2007).

  7. Katherine Magnuson, Claudia Lahaie, and Jane Waldfogel, "Preschool and School Readiness of Children of Immigrants," Social Science Quarterly 87, no. 5 (2006): 1241–62; Robert Crosnoe, "Early Child Care and the School Readiness of Children from Mexican Immigrant Families," International Migration Review 41, no. 1 (2007): 152–81.

  8. Hernandez, Denton, and Macartney, "Early Childhood Education Programs" (see note 6); Crosnoe, "Early Child Care and the School Readiness of Children from Mexican Immigrant Families" (see note 7).

  9. Hernandez, Denton, and Macartney, Children in Immigrant Families (see note 6).

  10. W. Steven Barnett and others, The State of Preschool 2008: State Preschool Yearbook (New Brunswick, N.J.: National Institute for Early Education Research, 2008).

  11. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, "National Household Education Surveys Program" (http://nces.ed.gov/nhes). The 1996 NHES has previously been used to examine care arrangements for immigrant versus nonimmigrant children. See Christine Winquist Nord and James A. Griffin, "Educational Profile of 3- to 8-Year-Old Children of Immigrants," in Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment and Public Assistance, edited by Donald J. Hernandez (Washington: National Academy Press, 1998).

  12. In addition to the Census, SIPP, and ECLS-K, another possible source of nationally representative data on ECE use is the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). One drawback of the ECLS-B is that the sample consists of a cohort of children born in 2001 in the United States, so children born abroad are excluded. In the case of the ECLS-K, the survey began with a kindergarten cohort, so only limited retrospective information is available about early care and education experiences before kindergarten entry.

  13. Lynn A. Karoly and others, Prepared to Learn: The Nature and Quality of Early Care and Education for Preschool-Age Children in California (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 2008).

  14. Because of both data and space constraints, the empirical analysis is limited to a general exploration of patterns for immigrant children. It does not afford a more in-depth analysis of the variation in outcomes for children defined by race and ethnicity, country of origin, or English fluency.

  15. While the birth-date cutoffs for kindergarten entry vary across states (and sometimes within states), thirty-five states as of 2005 had a cutoff between August 31 and October 16, so a mixture of four- and five-year-olds will enter kindergarten each fall (Education Commission of the States, "State Statutes Regarding Kindergarten" (Denver, April 2005) (www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/58/28/5828.pdf). In the NHES, because we did not have access to the restricted file with state identifiers, we defined kindergarten entry cohorts as those who will turn five by October 1. For example, for the 2005 NHES, the four-year-olds are those born between October 1, 1999 and September 30, 2000, the group that would be eligible in most states to enter kindergarten in September 2005. Thus, at the time of the NHES interview in January to April 2005, the oldest children in the four-year-old cohort will have already turned five, while the youngest will still be age four. This same approach applies to the California data although in that case, kindergarten entry cohorts are defined for the California cutoff, which is December 2, one of the later state cutoffs.

  16. The survey instrument for the RAND California study was modeled in part on the NHES, including the modules that collect information on regular nonparental care arrangements.

  17. Because of small sample sizes in the single-year age cohorts in the NHES and California data, the differences in ECE use by immigrant status reported in table 1 are generally statistically significant only for the youngest age group, which covers three single-year age cohorts and therefore has three times the sample size.

  18. For example, Magnuson, Lahaie, and Waldfogel, "Preschool and School Readiness of Children of Immigrants" (see note 7), estimated preschool plus Head Start participation in the year before kindergarten as 73 percent for children of native-born mothers versus 58 percent for children of immigrant mothers, a 15-percentage-point differential in contrast to the 10-percentage-point differential for center-based care for four-year-olds shown in table 1. The figures from Magnuson and colleagues are not strictly comparable to those in table 1 because of the different definition of immigrant status.

  19. Brandon, "The Child Care Arrangements of Preschool-Age Children in Immigrant Families in the United States" (see note 5).

  20. Given the differences in ECE use by age cohorts, we focus on a single cohort in table 3. The general patterns observed for four-year-olds are replicated when we focus instead on the two younger age groups.

  21. Karoly and others, Prepared to Learn (see note 13).

  22. Ibid.

  23. Bridget K. Hamre and Robert C. Pianta, "Can Instructional and Emotional Support in the First-Grade Classroom Make a Difference for Children at Risk of School Failure?" Child Development 76, no. 5 (2005): 949–67; Carollee Howes and others, "Ready to Learn? Children's Per-Academic Achievement in Pre-Kindergarten Programs," Early Childhood Research Quarterly 23, no. 1 (2008): 27–50.

  24. For recent reviews, see Barbara T. Bowman, M. Suzanne Donovan, and M. Susan Burns, eds., Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers (Washington: National Academy Press, 2001); Bruce Fuller, Margaret Bridges, and Seeta Pai, Standardized Childhood: The Political and Cultural Struggle over Early Education (Stanford University Press, 2007); William T. Gormley Jr., "Early Childhood Care and Education: Lessons and Puzzles," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 26, no. 3 (2007): 633–71; Lynn A. Karoly, Preschool Adequacy and Efficiency in California: Issues, Policy Options, and Recommendations (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 2009). Recent formal meta-analyses of the effects of preschool programs are provided by Laurie M. Anderson and others, "The Effectiveness of Early Childhood Development Programs: A Systematic Review," American Journal of Preventive Medicine 24, no. 3 (2003): 32–46; Geoffrey Nelson, Anne Westhues, and Jennifer MacLeod, "A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Research on Preschool Prevention Programs for Children," Prevention and Treatment 6 (2003): 1–34; and Gregory Camilli and others, "Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Early Education Interventions on Cognitive and Social Development," Teachers College Record 112, no. 3 (2010). The Head Start follow-up study is found in U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Head Start Impact Study: Final Report (2010).

  25. For recent reviews, see Shonkoff and Phillips, eds., From Neurons to Neighborhoods (see note 4); Lynn A. Karoly, M. Rebecca Kilburn, and Jill S. Cannon, Early Childhood Interventions: Proven Results, Future Promise (Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 2005); Gormley, "Early Childhood Care and Education" (see note 24).

  26. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Early Child Care Research Network (ECCRN), "The Relation of Child Care to Cognitive and Language Development," Child Development 74, no. 4 (2000): 960–80; NICHD ECCRN and Greg J. Duncan, "Modeling the Impacts of Child Care Quality on Children's Preschool Cognitive Development," Child Development 74, no. 5 (2003): 1454–75; NICHD ECCRN, Child Care and Child Development: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (New York: Guilford Press, 2005).

  27. Administration for Children and Families, "Preliminary Findings from the Early Head Start Prekindergarten Follow-Up" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2006).

  28. Ruben Rumbaut, "Ties That Bind: Immigration and Immigrant Families in the United States," in Immigration and the Family: Research and Policy on U.S. Immigrants, edited by Alan Booth and others (New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1997), pp. 3–46.

  29. The effect sizes for Hispanic children on the Woodcock-Johnson Applied Problems, Letter-Word Identification, and Spelling subtests were 0.99, 1.50, and 0.98, respectively, all statistically significant. See William T. Gormley and others, "The Effects of Universal Pre-K on Cognitive Development," Developmental Psychology 41, no. 6 (2005): 872–84.

  30. William T. Gormley Jr., "The Effects of Oklahoma's Pre-K Program on Hispanic Children," Social Sciences Quarterly 89, no. 4 (2008): 916–36.

  31. Magnuson, Lahaie, and Waldfogel, "Preschool and School Readiness of Children of Immigrants" (see note 7).

  32. Crosnoe, "Early Child Care and the School Readiness of Children from Mexican Immigrant Families" (see note 7).

  33. Wen Jui Han, "The Academic Trajectories of Children of Immigrants and Their School Environments," Developmental Psychology 44, no. 6 (2008): 1572–90; Sean Reardon and Claudia Galindo, "The Hispanic-White Gap in Math and Reading in the Elementary Grades," American Educational Research Journal 46, no. 3 (2009): 853–91.

  34. W. Steven Barnett and others, "Two-Way and Monolingual English Immersion in Preschool Education: An Experimental Comparison," Early Childhood Research Quarterly 22, no. 3 (2007): 277–93.

  35. Ibid.

  36. Social capital can include the obligations and trust that people who are connected may feel toward each other, the sense of solidarity they may call upon, the information they are willing to share, and the services they are willing to perform. For more information about the theoretical underpinnings of social capital, see Pierre Bourdieu, Outline of a Theory of Practice (Cambridge University Press, 1977); James Coleman, Foundations of Social Theory (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1990); Alejandro Portes, "Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology," Annual Review of Sociology 24 (1998): 1–24; and Nan Lin, Social Capital: A Theory of Structure and Action (Cambridge University Press, 2001).

  37. Mario Small, Unanticipated Gains: Origins of Network Inequality in Everyday Life (Oxford University Press, 2009).

  38. AVANCE, "About Us" (http://national.avanceinc.org).

  39. Grace Kao and Marta Tienda, "Optimism and Achievement: The Educational Performance of Immigrant Youth," Social Science Quarterly 76, no. 1 (1995): 1–19.

  40. Ana Schaller, Lisa Rocha, and David Barshinger, "Maternal Attitudes and Parent Education: How Immigrant Mothers Support Their Children's Education despite Their Low Levels of Education," Early Childhood Education Journal 34, no. 5 (2007): 351–56.

  41. See, for example, Cheryl Hayes, John Palmer, and Martha Zaslow, Who Cares for America's Children? Child Care Policy for the 1990s (Washington: National Academy Press, 1990); David Blau, The Child Care Problem: An Economic Analysis (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001); NICHD ECCRN, "Familial Factors Associated with the Characteristics of Nonmaternal Care for Infants," Journal of Marriage and the Family 59 (1997): 389–408.

  42. Brandon, "The Child Care Arrangements of Preschool-Age Children in Immigrant Families in the United States" (see note 5).

  43. Hernandez, Denton, and Macartney, "Early Childhood Education Programs" (see note 6).

  44. Ruby Takanishi, "Leveling the Playing Field: Supporting Immigrant Children from Birth to Eight," Future of Children 14, no. 2 (2004): 61–81.

  45. Hernandez, Denton, and Macartney, "Early Childhood Education Programs" (see note 6); Gormley and others, "The Effects of Universal Pre-K on Cognitive Development" (see note 29); Donald Hernandez, "Demographic Change and the Life Circumstances of Immigrants," Future of Children 14, no. 2 (2004): 16–47.

  46. Department of Labor, "Minimum Wage Laws in the States" (www.dol.gov/whd/minwage/america.htm).

  47. Hannah Matthews and Danielle Ewen, Reaching All Children? Understanding Early Care and Education Participation among Immigrant Families (Washington: CLASP, 2006).

  48. See also Brandon, "The Child Care Arrangements of Preschool-Age Children in Immigrant Families in the United States" (see note 5).

  49. Matthews and Ewen, Reaching All Children? (see note 47).

  50. Molly Munger and others, California's Preschool Space Challenge: What Preschool Advocates, Parents, and Policy-Makers Need to Know (Los Angeles: Advancement Project, 2007).

  51. George Borjas, Heaven's Door: Immigration Policy and the American Economy (Princeton University Press, 1999).

  52. Gina Adams and Marla McDaniel, Fulfilling the Promise of Preschool for All: Insights into Issues Affecting Access for Selected Immigrant Groups in Chicago (Washington: Urban Institute, 2009).

  53. Rasmia Kirmani and Vanessa Leung, "Breaking Down Barriers: Immigrant Families and Early Childhood Education in New York City," Policy Brief (New York: Coalition for Asian American Children and Families, 2008).

  54. Ibid.; Adams and McDaniel, Fulfilling the Promise of Preschool for All (see note 52).

  55. Brandon, "The Child Care Arrangements of Preschool-Age Children in Immigrant Families in the United States" (see note 5).

  56. Adams and McDaniel, Fulfilling the Promise of Preschool for All (see note 52).

  57. Kirmani and Leung, "Breaking Down Barriers" (see note 53).

  58. Kathryn P. Derose and others, "Immigrants and Health Care Access, Quality, and Cost," Medical Care Research and Review 66, no. 4 (2009): 355–408.

  59. Xiaoyan Liang, Bruce Fuller, and Judith D. Singer, "Ethnic Differences in Child Care Selection: The Influences of Family Structure, Parental Practices, and Home Language," Early Childhood Research Quarterly 15, no. 3 (2000): 357–84; Lynet Uttal, "Using Kin for Child Care: Embedment in the Socio-economic Networks of Extended Families," Journal of Marriage and the Family 61, no. 4 (1999): 845–57.

  60. Peter D. Brandon, "The Living Arrangements of Children in Immigrant Families in the United States," International Migration Review 36, no. 2 (2002); Brandon, "The Child Care Arrangements of Preschool-Age Children in Immigrant Families in the United States" (see note 5).

  61. See, for example, Hernandez, Denton, and Macartney, "Early Childhood Education Programs" (see note 6); Brandon, "The Child Care Arrangements of Preschool-Age Children in Immigrant Families in the United States" (see note 5).

  62. Miriam Calderon, Buenos Principios: Latino Children in the Earliest Years of Life (Washington: National Council of La Raza, 2007); National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics, Para Nuestros Ninos: Expanding and Improving Early Education for Hispanics (Arizona University, 2007).

  63. For a review of the field, see Kristen Turney and Grace Kao, "Barriers to School Involvement: Are Immigrant Parents Disadvantaged?" Journal of Educational Research 102, no. 4 (2009): 257–71.

  64. Abe Feuerstein, "School Characteristics and Parent Involvement: Influences on Participation in Children's Schools," Journal of Educational Research 94 (2000): 29–40.

  65. Hannah Matthews and Deanna Jang, The Challenges of Change: Learning from the Child Care and Early Education Experiences of Immigrant Families (Washington: CLASP, 2007).

  66. Turney and Kao, "Barriers to School Involvement" (see note 63). In this study, barriers were defined as inconvenient meeting times, problems with safety going to school, no child care at meetings, not feeling welcomed by the school, problems with transportation, problems because of speaking a language other than English, and family members not getting time off from work.

  67. Shonkoff and Phillips, eds., From Neurons to Neighborhoods (see note 4); Hernandez, Denton, and Macartney, "Early Childhood Education Programs" (see note 6).

  68. Adams and McDaniel, Fulfilling the Promise of Preschool for All (see note 52).

  69. Ibid.

  70. Kinsey A. Dinan, Federal Policies Restrict Immigrant Children's Access to Key Public Benefits (New York: National Center for Children in Poverty, 2005), notes that there is little evidence to suggest that undocumented immigrants are deported because they access benefits for their children. For examples of Haitian and Mexican immigrants' lack of participation in public benefits programs and avoidance of the state, even when their children are U.S. citizens and eligible, see Philip Kretsedemas and Ana Aparicio, eds., Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Poverty of Policy (New York: Greenwood Press, 2004).

  71. Calderon, Buenos Principios (see note 62).

  72. For more information on public charge, see Shawn Fremstad, The INS Public Charge Guidance: What Does It Mean for Immigrants Who Need Public Assistance? (Washington: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2000): 12.

  73. See U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, "Clarifying Policy Regarding Limits on the Use of Social Security Numbers under the CCDF and the Privacy Act of 1974" (www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ccb/law/guidance/current/pi0004/pi0004.htm).

  74. Kirmani and Leung, "Breaking Down Barriers" (see note 53).

  75. Adams and McDaniel, Fulfilling the Promise of Preschool for All (see note 52); Hernandez, Denton, and Macartney, "Early Childhood Education Programs" (see note 6).

  76. Hernandez, Denton, and Macartney, "Early Childhood Education Programs" (see note 6).

  77. Adams and McDaniel, Fulfilling the Promise of Preschool for All (see note 52).

  78. Karoly, Preschool Adequacy and Efficiency in California (see note 24).

  79. As one example, Karoly, Preschool Adequacy and Efficiency in California (see note 24), makes recommendations for California regarding strategies for increasing the use and quality of publicly subsidized ECE programs in the state that serve children one or two years before kindergarten entry.

  80. See Karoly, Preschool Adequacy and Efficiency in California (see note 24), for a discussion of the merits of the alternative approaches to targeting and estimates of the implications for which groups of children are served.

  81. Gabriella Gonzalez, Educational Attainment in Immigrant Families: Community Context and Family Background (New York: LFB Scholarly Publishers, 2005).

  82. Kirmani and Leung, "Breaking Down Barriers" (see note 53).

  83. Adams and McDaniel, Fulfilling the Promise of Preschool for All (see note 52).

  84. National Association for the Education of Young Children, "New Tool from NAEYC on QRIS and Cultural Competence" (Washington 2009) (www.naeyc.org/federal/07_22_09).

  85. Matthews and Jang, The Challenges of Change (see note 65).

  86. Karoly, Preschool Adequacy and Efficiency in California (see note 24); Magnuson and Waldfogel, "Early Childhood Care and Education" (see note 3).