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Journal Issue: Immigrant Children Volume 21 Number 1 Spring 2011

The Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Immigrant Children
Krista M. Perreira India J. Ornelas

Endnotes

  1. Christian Gregory and Christopher Ruhm, "Where Does the Wage Penalty Bite?" (Boston: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009); Alexander Cowell, Zhehui Luo, and Yuta Masuda, "Psychiatric Disorders and the Labor Market: An Analysis by Disorder Profiles," Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 12, no. 1 (2009): 3–17; Jeremy Bray, "Alcohol Use, Human Capital, and Wages," Journal of Labor Economics 23, no. 2 (2005): 279–312; Jeffrey DeSimone, "Illegal Drug Use and Employment," Journal of Labor Economics 20 (2002): 952–77.

  2. Pinka Chatterji, "Illicit Drug Use and Educational Attainment," Health Economics 15, no. 5 (2006): 489–511; Francesco Renna, "The Economic Cost of Teen Drinking: Late Graduation and Lowered Earnings," Health Economics 16, no. 4 (2007): 407–19; V. Joseph Hotz, Susan McElroy, and Seth Sanders, "Teenage Childbearing and Its Life Cycle Consequences: Exploiting a Natural Experiment," Journal of Human Resources 40, no. 3 (2005): 683–715.

  3. Anne Case, Angela Fertig, and Christina Paxson, "The Lasting Impact of Childhood Health and Circumstance," Journal of Health Economics 24 (2005): 365–89.

  4. Janet Currie, "Health Disparities and Gaps in School Readiness," Future of Children 15, no. 1 (2005): 117–38; Robert Crosnoe, "Health and Education of Children from Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Families," Journal of Health and Social Behavior 47 (2006): 77–93.

  5. Jason M. Fletcher, "Adolescent Depression: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Educational Attainment," Health Economics 17, no. 11 (2008): 1215–35.

  6. Joe Sean, Joe Emanique, and Larry L. Rowley, "Consequences of Physical Health and Mental Illness Risks for Academic Achievement in Grades K–12," Review of Research in Education 33 (2009): 283–309; Janet Currie and Mark Stabile, "Mental Health in Childhood and Human Capital," in The Problems of Disadvantaged Youth: An Economic Perspective, edited by Jonathan Gruber (Boston: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2007).

  7. Janet Currie and Mark Stabile, "Socioeconomic Status and Child Health: Why Is the Relationship Stronger for Older Children," American Economic Review 93, no. 5 (2003): 1813–23; James Smith, "The Impact of Childhood Health on Adult Labor Market Outcomes," Review of Economics and Statistics 91, no. 3 (2009): 478–89.

  8. Alberto C. Palloni and others, "Early Childhood Health, Reproduction of Economic Inequalities and the Persistence of Health and Mortality Differentials," Social Science and Medicine 68, no. 9 (2009): 1574–82.

  9. Cynthia Garcia-Coll and others, "An Integrative Model for the Study of Developmental Competencies in Minority Children," Child Development 67 (1996): 1891–914.

  10. Linda Ko and Krista Perreira, "It Turned My World Upside Down: Latino Youth's Perspectives on Immigration," Journal of Adolescent Research 25, no. 3 (2010): 465–93. Carlos Sluzki, "Migration and Family Conflict," Family Process 18 no. 4 (1979): 379–90.

  11. Jennifer Van Hook and Kelly Balistreri, "Immigration Generation, Socioeconomic Status, and Economic Development of Countries of Origin: A Longitudinal Study of Body Mass Index among Children," Social Science and Medicine 65 (2007): 976–89.

  12. Carola Suarez-Orozco, Irena Todorova, and Josephine Louie, "Making Up for Lost Time: The Experience of Separation and Reunification among Immigrant Families," Family Process 41 (2002): 625–43.

  13. Jody Heymann and others, "The Impact of Migration on the Well-Being of Transnational Families: New Data from Sending Communities in Mexico," Community, Work and Family 12, no. 1 (2009): 91–103.

  14. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics. Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2009 (2010).

  15. Stuart Lustig and others, "Review of Child and Adolescent Refugee Mental Health," Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43, no. 1 (2004): 24–36.

  16. Nancy S. Landale, Kevin J. A. Thomas, and Jennifer Van Hook, "The Living Arrangements of Children of Immigrants," in this volume.

  17. Alberto Palloni and Jeffrey Morenoff, "Interpreting the Paradoxical in the Hispanic Paradox," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 954: 140–74; Luis N. Rubalcava and others, "The Healthy Migrant Effect: New Findings from the Mexican Family Life Survey," American Journal of Public Health 98, no. 1 (2008): 78–84.

  18. Sonia Nozario, Enrique's Journey (New York: Random House, 2007).

  19. Stephanie Potochnick and Krista Perreira, "Depression and Anxiety among First-Generation Immigrant Latino Youth: Key Correlates and Implications for Future Research," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 198, no. 7 (2010): 470–77.

  20. Nancy Gonzales, Fairlee Fabrett, and George Knight, "Acculturation, Enculturation, and the Psychological Adaptation of Latino Youth," in Handbook of U.S. Latino Psychology, edited by Francisco A. Villarruel and others (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2009).

  21. Kathy Sanders-Phillips and others, "Social Inequality and Racial Discrimination: Risk Factors for Health Disparities in Children of Color," Pediatrics 124 (2009): S176–86.

  22. Julia Love and Raymond Buriel, "Language Brokering, Autonomy, Parent-Child Bonding, Biculturalism, and Depression," Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 29, no. 4 (2007): 472–91.

  23. Gonzales, Fabrett, and Knight, "Acculturation, Enculturation, and the Psychological Adaptation of Latino Youth" (see note 20).

  24. Rachel Tolbert Kimbro, "Acculturation in Context: Gender, Age at Migration, Neighborhood Ethnicity, and Health Behaviors," Social Science Quarterly 90, no. 5 (2009): 1145–66.

  25. Kathryn Harker, "Immigrant Generation, Assimilation, and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being," Social Forces 79 (2000): 57–65.

  26. Ajay Chaundry and others, Facing Our Future: Children in the Aftermath of Immigration Enforcement (Washington: Urban Institute, 2010).

  27. Alejandro Portes, Donald Light, and Patricia Fernandez-Kelly, "The U.S. Health System and Immigration: An Institutional Interpretation," Sociological Forum 24, no. 3 (2009): 487–514; Kimbro, "Acculturation in Context: Gender, Age at Migration, Neighborhood Ethnicity, and Health Behaviors" (see note 24).

  28. Peter Cunningham and others, Health Coverage and Access to Care for Hispanics in "New Growth Communities" and "Major Hispanic Centers" (Washington: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2006).

  29. Robert Hummer and others, "Paradox Found (Again): Infant Mortality among the Mexican-Origin Population in the United States," Demography 22, no. 3 (2007): 441–57; Gopal Singh and Stella Yu, "Trends and Differentials in Adolescent and Young Adult Mortality in the United States, 1950 through 1993," American Journal of Public Health 86, no. 4 (1996): 560–64.

  30. Namratha Kandula, Margaret Kersey, and Nicole Lurie, "Assuring the Health of Immigrants: What the Leading Health Indicators Tell Us," Annual Review of Public Health 25 (2004): 357–76.

  31. National Center for Health Statistics, Health, United States, 2008 with Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans (Hyattsville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009).

  32. Kathleen M. Harris, Krista M. Perreira, and Dohoon Lee, "Obesity in the Transition to Adulthood: Predictions across Race/Ethnicity, Immigrant Generation, and Sex," Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 163, no. 11 (2009): 1022–28.

  33. Gopal K. Singh, Michael D. Kogan, and Stella M. Yu, "Disparities in Obesity and Overweight Prevalence among U.S. Immigrant Children and Adolescents by Generational Status," Journal of Community Health 34, no. 4 (2009): 271–81.

  34. Van Hook and Balistreri, "Immigrant Generation, Socioeconomic Status, and Economic Development of Countries of Origin" (see note 11).

  35. Penny Gordon-Larsen and others, "Acculturation and Overweight-Related Behaviors among Hispanic Immigrants to the U.S.: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health," Social Science and Medicine 57, no. 11 (2003): 2023–34; Jennifer Unger and others, "Acculturation, Physical Activity, and Fast-Food Consumption among Asian-American and Hispanic Adolescents," Journal of Community Health 29, no. 6 (2004): 467–81.

  36. Guadalupe Ayala, Barbara Baquero, and Susan Klinger, "A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acculturation and Diet among Latinos in the United States: Implications for Future Research," Journal of the American Dietetic Association 108, no. 8 (2008): 1330–44.

  37. Gordon-Larsen and others, "Acculturation and Overweight-Related Behaviors among Hispanic Immigrants to the U.S." (see note 35).

  38. Michele Allen and others, "Adolescent Participation in Preventive Health Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Nutrition: Differences across Immigrant Generations for Asians and Latinos Compared with Whites," American Journal of Public Health 97, no. 2 (2007): 337–43.

  39. Gopal K. Singh and others, "High Levels of Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviors among U.S. Immigrant Children and Adolescents," Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 162, no. 8 (2008): 756–63; Unger and others, "Acculturation, Physical Activity, and Fast-Food Consumption among Asian-American and Hispanic Adolescents" (see note 35).

  40. Katie Booth, Megan Pinkston, and Walker Poston, "Obesity and the Built Environment," Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105, no. 5, Supplement 1 (2005): 110–17.

  41. Matthew Masoli and others, "The Global Burden of Asthma: Executive Summary of the GINA Dissemination Committee Report," Allergy 59, no. 5 (2004): 469–78; National Center for Health Statistics; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Children: National Health Interview Survey, 2008 (Hyattsville, Md.: 2009).

  42. S. V. Subramanian and others, "Contribution of Race/Ethnicity and Country of Origin to Variations in Lifetime Reported Asthma: Evidence for a Nativity Advantage." American Journal of Public Health 99 (2009): 690–97.

  43. Lara J. Akinbami and others, "Status of Childhood Asthma in the United States, 1980–2007," Pediatrics 123, Supplement (2009): S131–45.

  44. Susan Brim and others, "Asthma Prevalence among U.S. Children in Underrepresented Minority Populations: American Indian/Alaska Native, Chinese, Filipino, and Asian Indian," Pediatrics 122, no. 1 (2008): e217.

  45. Deirdre Crocker and others, "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Asthma Medication Usage and Health-Care Utilization: Data from the National Asthma Survey," Chest 136, no. 4 (2009): 1063–71.

  46. Luz Claudio and Jeanette Stingone, "Primary Household Language and Asthma Care among Latino Children," Journal of Health Care of the Poor and Underserved 20, no. 3 (2009): 766–79.

  47. Joyce Javier, Paul Wise, and Fernando Mendoza, "The Relationship of Immigrant Status with Access, Utilization, and Health Status for Children with Asthma," Ambulatory Pediatrics 7, no. 6 (2007): 421–30.

  48. Stephen Petterson and Alison Albers, "Effects of Poverty and Maternal Depression on Early Child Development," Child Development 72, no. 6 (2001): 1794–813; Elizabeth T. Gershoff and others, "Income Is Not Enough: Incorporating Material Hardship into Models of Income Associations with Parenting and Child Development," Child Development 78, no. 1 (2007): 70–95.

  49. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (Rockville, Md.: 1999).

  50. Andrew Fuligni and Christina Hardway, "Preparing Diverse Adolescents for the Transition to Adulthood," Future of Children: Children of Immigrant Families 14, no. 2 (2004): 99–119; Kathleen M. Harris, "The Health Status and Risk Behaviors of Adolescents in Immigrant Families," in Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance, edited by Donald J. Hernandez (Washington: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1999).

  51. Joseph Gfroerer and Lucilla Tan, "Substance Use among Foreign-Born Youths in the United States: Does the Length of Residence Matter?" American Journal of Public Health 93, no. 11 (2003): 1892–95.

  52. Jon Hussey and others, "Sexual Behavior and Drug Use among Asian and Latino Adolescents: Association with Immigrant Status," Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 9, no. 2 (2007): 85–94; Juan Pena and others, "Immigration Generation Status and Its Association with Suicide Attempts, Substance Use, and Depressive Symptoms among Latino Adolescents in the USA," Prevention Science 9, no. 4 (2008): 299–310.

  53. Guillermo Prado and others, "What Accounts for Differences in Substance Use among U.S.-Born and Immigrant Hispanic Adolescents: Results from a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study," Journal of Adolescent Health 45 (2009): 118–25.

  54. Tracy Harachi and others, "Etiology and Prevention of Substance Use among Asian American Youth," Prevention Science 2, no. 1 (2001): 57–65.

  55. Thao Le, Deborah Goebert, and Judy Wallen, "Acculturation Factors and Substance Use among Asian American Youth," Journal of Primary Prevention 30, no. 3–4 (2009): 453–73.

  56. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (see note 49); Glorisa Canino and Margarita Alegria, "Understanding Psychopathology among the Adult and Child Latino Populations from the United States and Puerto Rico," in U.S. Latino Psychology, edited by Francisco A. Villaruel and others (Los Angeles, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2009).

  57. Gonzales, Fabrett, and Knight, "Acculturation, Enculturation, and the Psychological Adaptation of Latino Youth" (see note 20).

  58. Su Kim and others, "Parent-Child Acculturation, Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Immigrant Families," Journal of Family Psychology 23, no. 3 (2009): 423–37.

  59. Linda Juang and Jeffrey Cookston, "A Longitudinal Study of Obligation and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese American Adolescents," Journal of Family Psychology 23, no. 3 (2009): 396–404.

  60. Harker, "Immigrant Generation, Assimilation, and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being" (see note 25).

  61. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2007. MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report) 57, No. SS-4 (2008): 1–13.

  62. Jo Anne Grunbaum and others, "Prevalence of Health Risk Behaviors among Asian American/Pacific Islander High School Students," Journal of Adolescent Health 27, no. 5 (2000): 322–30.

  63. Joseph Hovey, "Acculturative Stress, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation among Mexican-American Adolescents: Implications for the Development of Suicide Prevention Programs in Schools," Psychological Reports 83, no. 1 (1998): 249–50; Pena and others, "Immigration Generation Status and Its Association with Suicide Attempts, Substance Use, and Depressive Symptoms among Latino Adolescents in the USA" (see note 52).

  64. Anna Lau and others, "Correlates of Suicidal Behaviors among Asian American Outpatient Youths," Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 8, no. 3 (2002): 199–213; Noelle Yuen and others, "Cultural Identification and Attempted Suicide in Native Hawaiian Adolescents," Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 39, no. 3 (2000): 360–67.

  65. Patricia Pastor and Cynthia Reuben, "Diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disability: United States 2004–2006," Vital Health Statistics 10, no. 237 (2008): 1–14; Carolyn Zahn-Waxler, Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff, and Kristine Marceau, "Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence: Gender and Psychopathology," Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 4 (2008): 275–303.

  66. National Center for Health Statistics, Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Children (see note 41).

  67. Jack Stevens, Jeffrey Harman, and Kelly Kelleher, "Ethnic and Regional Differences in Primary Care Visits for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder," Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 25, no. 5 (2004): 319–25.

  68. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Jessica C. Smith, "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008," Current Population Reports, P60-236 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009).

  69. Thomas Buchmueller and others, "How Did SCHIP Affect the Insurance Coverage of Immigrant Children?" The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 8, no. 2 (2008): 1–23; Thomas Buchmueller and others, "Immigrants and Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance," Health Services Research 42, no. 1P1 (2007): 286–310.

  70. Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wyoming provide coverage to only a small number of lawfully residing pregnant women or children meeting certain additional eligiblity requirements or offer coverage for only a small number of services. National Immigration Law Center, Medical Assistance Programs for Immigrants in Various States (Los Angeles: 2010) (www.nilc.org/pubs/guideupdates/med-services-for-imms-in-states-2010-02-24.pdf).

  71. George Borjas, "Poverty and Program Participation among Immigrant Children," in this volume.

  72. Jeffery Passel, "Demography of Immigrant Youth: Past, Present, and Future," in this volume.

  73. Yoona Rhee, Frank Belmonte, and Saul Weiner, "An Urban School-Based Comparative Study of Experiences and Perceptions Differentiating Public Health Insurance Eligible Immigrant Families with and without Coverage for Their Children," Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 11, no. 3 (2009): 222–28.

  74. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, "Summary: Five Basic Facts on Immigrants and Their Health Care," (Washington: 2008).

  75. Kathryn P. Derose, Jose J. Escarce, and Nicole Lurie, "Immigrants and Health Care: Sources of Vulnerability," Health Affairs 26, no. 5 (2007): 1258–68.

  76. An-Fu Hsiao and others, "Variation in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use across Racial/Ethnic Groups and the Development of Ethnic-Specific Measures of CAM Use," Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 12, no. 3 (2006): 281–90.

  77. T. Elizabeth Durden, "Usual Source of Health Care among Hispanic Children: The Implications of Immigration," Medical Care 45, no. 8 (2007): 753–60.

  78. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008 Health Center Data (www.hrsa.gov/data-statistics/health-center-data/NationalData/index.html).

  79. Kaiser Family Foundation, "Summary: Five Basic Facts on Immigrants and Their Health Care" (see note 74).

  80. Sarita A. Mohanty and others, "Health Care Expenditures of Immigrants in the United States: A Nationally Representative Analysis," American Journal of Public Health 95, no. 8 (2005): 1431–38.

  81. Congressional Budget Office, Letter to Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, March 10, 2010.

  82. Jennifer Kincheloe, Janice Frates, and E. Richard Brown, "Determinants of Children's Participation in California's Medicaid and SCHIP Programs," Health Services Research 42, no. 2 (2007): 847–66.