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Journal Issue: Children with Disabilities Volume 22 Number 1 Spring 2012

The Changing Landscape of Disability in Childhood
Neal Halfon Amy Houtrow Kandyce Larson Paul W. Newacheck

Endnotes

  1. Paul W. Newacheck, "Poverty and Childhood Chronic Illness," Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 148, no. 11 (1994): 1143–49; Paul W. Newacheck and others, "Who Is at Risk for Special Health Care Needs: Findings from the National Survey of Children's Health," Pediatrics 122, no. 2 (2008): 347–59; Glenn T. Fujiura and Kiyoshi Yamaki, "Trends in Demography of Childhood Poverty and Disability," Exceptional Children 66, no. 2 (2000): 187–99.
  2. Neal Halfon and Miles Hochstein, "Life Course Health Development: An Integrated Framework for Developing Health, Policy, and Research," Milbank Quarterly 80, no. 3 (2002): 433–79.
  3. Amy J. Houtrow and others, "Profiling Health and Health Related Services for Children with Special Health Care Needs with and without Disabilities," Academic Pediatrics 11, no. 6 (2011); Lisa C. Ehrmann, Stanley R. Aeschleman, and Soren Svanum, "Parental Reports of Community Activity Patterns: A Comparison between Young Children with Disabilities and Their Nondisabled Peers," Research in Developmental Disabilities 16, no. 4 (1995): 331–43; Savithri Nageswaran, Ellen Johnson Silver, and Ruth E. K. Stein, "Association of Functional Limitation with Health Care Needs and Experiences of Children with Special Health Care Needs," Pediatrics 121, no. 5 (2008): 994–1001; Janette McDougall and others, "Chronic Physical Health Conditions and Disability among Canadian School-Aged Children: A National Profile," Disability and Rehabilitation 26, no. 1 (2004): 35–45; David Cadman and others, "Chronic Illness, Disability, and Mental and Social Well-Being: Findings of the Ontario Child Health Study," Pediatrics 79, no. 5 (1987): 805–13; Paul W. Newacheck, Moira Inkelas, and Sue E. Kim, "Health Services Use and Health Care Expenditures for Children with Disabilities," Pediatrics 114, no. 1 (2004): 79–85.
  4. Bridget Young and others, "A Qualitative Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life of Disabled Children," Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 49, no. 9 (2007): 660–65; M. A. G. C. Schoenmakers and others, "Determinants of Functional Independence and Quality of Life in Children with Spina Bifida," Clinical Rehabilitation 19, no. 6 (2005): 677–85; Whitney P. Witt, Anne W. Riley, and Mary Jo Coiro, "Childhood Functional Status, Family Stressors, and Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children with Disabilities in the United States," Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 157, no. 7 (2003): 687–95; Dilip R. Patel and Donald E. Greydanus, "Sport Participation by Physically and Cognitively Challenged Young Athletes," Pediatric Clinics of North America 57, no. 3 (2010): 795–817.
  5. Terry K. Crowe and Sandra I. Florez, "Time Use of Mothers with School-Age Children: A Continuing Impact of a Child's Disability," American Journal of Occupational Therapy 60, no. 2 (2006): 194–203; Janny Dwyer Brust, Barbara J. Leonard, and Bruce H. Sielaff, "Maternal Time and the Care of Disabled Children," Public Health Nursing 9, no. 3 (1992): 177–84; Newacheck, Inkelas, and Kim, "Health Services Use and Health Care Expenditures for Children with Disabilities" (see note 3); Megumi J. Okumura and others, "Understanding Factors Associated with Work Loss for Families Caring for CSHCN," Pediatrics 124, Supp. 4 (2009): S392–98; George L. Wehby and Robert L. Ohsfeldt, "The Impact of Having a Young Child with Disabilities on Maternal Labor Supply by Race and Marital Status," Journal of Health and Human Services Administration 30, no. 3 (2007): 327–51; Mark R. Dadds, Ruth E. K. Stein, and Ellen Johnson Silver, "The Role of Maternal Psychological Adjustment in the Measurement of Children's Functional Status," Journal of Pediatric Psychology 20, no. 4 (1995): 527–44; Valerie Leiter and others, "The Consequences of Caring: Effects of Mothering a Child with Special Needs," Journal of Family Issues 25, no. 3 (2004): 379–403; Whitney P. Witt and others, "The Impact of Childhood Activity Limitations on Parental Health, Mental Health, and Workdays Lost in the United States," Academic Pediatrics 9, no. 4 (2009): 263–69.
  6. Fujiura and Yamaki, "Trends in Demography of Childhood Poverty and Disability" (see note 1); Paul W. Newacheck and others, "Disparities in the Prevalence of Disability between Black and White Children," Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 157, no. 3 (2003): 244–48; Christie Provost Peters, Children with Special Health Care Needs: Minding the Gaps, Background Paper (Washington: National Health Policy Forum, 2005).
  7. Bonnie B. Strickland and others, "Assessing and Ensuring a Comprehensive System of Services for Children with Special Health Care Needs: A Public Health Approach," American Journal of Public Health 101, no. 2 (2011): 224–31; Gillian King and others, "A Life Needs Model of Pediatric Service Delivery: Services to Support Community Participation and Quality of Life for Children and Youth with Disabilities," Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics 22, no. 2 (2002): 53–77.
  8. World Health Organization, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2001).
  9. N. Ibragimova, A. Lillvist, and L. Eriksson, "ICF Version for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) and Field Testing in Sweeden," paper prepared for Fourth Nordic-Baltic Conference of ICF (Tallinn, Estonia, May 19–20, 2005).
  10. United Nations, "Article 3—General Principles," Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (Geneva, Switzerland, 2010).
  11. Rune J. Simeonsson, "Appendix C: Defining and Classifying Disability in Children," in Workshop on Disability in America: A New Look, edited by Marilyn J. Field, Alan M. Jette, and Linda Martin (Washington: National Academies Press, 2006), pp. 67–87.
  12. Rob Imrie, "Demystifying Disability: A Review of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health," Sociology of Health and Illness 26 (2004).
  13. Simeonsson, "Appendix C: Defining and Classifying Disability in Children" (see note 11).
  14. Ibid.
  15. Marguerite Schneidert and others, "The Role of Environment in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)," Disability and Rehabilitation 25, no. 11–12 (2003): 588–95.
  16. Suzanne McDermott and Margaret A. Turk, "The Myth and Reality of Disability Prevalence: Measuring Disability for Research and Service," Disability and Health Journal 4, no. 1 (2011): 1–5.
  17. World Health Organization, Towards a Common Language for Functioning, Disability and Health: ICF (Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2002).
  18. U.S. Census Bureau, The 2011 Statistical Abstract. The National Data Book (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, January 6, 2011); U.S. Census Bureau, "100 Years Ago the U.S. Census Reflected Simpler Times. Census 2000 Gateway" (www.census.gov/dmd/www/dropin14.htm).
  19. Sharon E. Kirmeyer and Brady E. Hamilton, "Childbearing Differences among Three Generations of U.S. Women," NCHS Data Brief, no. 68 (Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, 2011).
  20. Frank Hobbs and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century. U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Special Reports, Series Censr-4 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000).
  21. Ibid.; U.S. Census Bureau, "U.S. Census Bureau Reports Men and Women Wait Longer to Marry," Newsroom Release CB10-174 (www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/families_households/ cb10-174.html); Steve W. Rawlings and Arlene F. Saluter, Household and Family Characteristics: March 1994. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports P20–483 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995).
  22. Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, and Jessica C. Smith, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).
  23. Mark Priestley, Disability and the Life Course: Global Perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 2001).
  24. Philip J. Landrigan, "What Causes Autism? Exploring the Environmental Contribution," Current Opinion in Pediatrics 22, no. 2 (2010): 219–25; Philip J. Landrigan and others, "Environmental Pollutants and Disease in American Children: Estimates of Morbidity, Mortality, and Costs for Lead Poisoning, Asthma, Cancer, and Developmental Disabilities," Environmental Health Perspectives 110, no. 7 (2002): 721–28; J. Grigg, "Environmental Toxins; Their Impact on Children's Health," Archives of Disease in Childhood 89, no. 3 (2011): 244–50; Philippe Grandjean and Philip J. Landrigan, "Developmental Neurotoxicity of Industrial Chemicals," Lancet 368, no. 9553 (2006): 2167–78.
  25. Philip J. Landrigan and Lynn R. Goldman, "Children's Vulnerability to Toxic Chemicals: A Challenge and Opportunity to Strengthen Health and Environmental Policy," Health Affairs 30, no. 5 (2011): 842–50; Grandjean and Landrigan, "Developmental Neurotoxicity of Industrial Chemicals" (see note 24).
  26. Frederick J. Zimmerman and Dimitri A. Christakis, "Associations between Content Types of Early Media Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems," Pediatrics 120, no. 5 (2007): 986–92; Edward L. Swing and others, "Television and Video Game Exposure and the Development of Attention Problems," Pediatrics 126, no. 2 (2010): 214–21.
  27. Goh Matsuda and Kazuo Hiraki, "Sustained Decrease in Oxygenated Hemoglobin During Video Games in the Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex: A Nirs Study of Children," Neuroimage 29, no. 3 (2006): 706–11.
  28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 1900–1999: Healthier Mothers and Babies," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48, no. 38 (1999): 849–58.
  29. Robert L. Goldenberg and others, "Epidemiology and Causes of Preterm Birth," Lancet 371, no. 9606 (2008): 75–84; John Deanfield and others, "Management of Grown up Congenital Heart Disease," European Heart Journal 24, no. 11 (2003): 1035–84; Iolo J. M. Doull, "Recent Advances in Cystic Fibrosis," Archives of Disease in Childhood 85, no. 1 (2001): 62–66.
  30. Jeanne Van Cleave, Steven L. Gortmaker, and James M. Perrin, "Dynamics of Obesity and Chronic Health Conditions among Children and Youth," Journal of the American Medical Association 303, no. 7 (2010): 623–30; Maternal and Child Health Bureau, National Survey of Children's Health 2007 (Rockville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2007).
  31. Ehrmann, Aeschleman, and Svanum, "Parental Reports of Community Activity Patterns" (see note 3); Nageswaran, Silver, and Stein, "Association of Functional Limitation with Health Care Needs and Experiences of Children with Special Health Care Needs" (see note 3); Gillian King and others, "A Conceptual Model of the Factors Affecting the Recreation and Leisure Participation of Children with Disabilities," Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics 23, no. 1 (2003): 63–90; Michael E. Msall and others, "Functional Disability and School Activity Limitations in 41,300 School-Age Children: Relationship to Medical Impairments," Pediatrics 111, no. 3 (2003): 548–53.
  32. Sharon L. Snyder and David T. Mitchell, "Re-Engaging the Body: Disability Studies and the Resistance to Embodiment," Public Culture 13, no. 3 (2001): 367–89.
  33. Dan Goodley, Disability Studies: An Interdisciplinary Introduction (Los Angeles: Sage, 2011).
  34. David Braddock, "Washington Rises: Public Financial Support for Intellectual Disability in the United States, 1955–2004," Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 13, no. 2 (2007): 169–77.
  35. Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest, "Disability and the Education System," Future of Children 22, no. 1 (2012).
  36. National Council on Disability, Back to School on Civil Rights: Advancing the Federal Commitment to Leave No Child Behind (Washington, D.C.: National Council on Disability, 2000); Ellen Schiller, Fran O'Reilly, and Tom Fiore, Marking the Progress of Idea Implementation: The Study of State and Local Implementation and Impact of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Bethesda, Md.: Abt Associates, Inc., 2006).
  37. Http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d10/tables/dt10_045.asp?referrer=list; http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d10/tables/dt10_047.asp.
  38. U.S. Department of Education. "Building the Legacy: Idea 2004" (http://idea.ed.gov).
  39. James M. Perrin and Ruth E. K. Stein, "Reinterpreting Disability: Changes in Supplemental Security Income for Children," Pediatrics 88, no. 5 (1994): 1047–51; James M. Perrin and others, "Changing Patterns of Conditions among Children Receiving Supplemental Security Income Disability Benefits," Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 153, no. 1 (1999): 80–84.
  40. Paul W. Newacheck and William R. Taylor, "Childhood Chronic Illness: Prevalence, Severity, and Impact," American Journal of Public Health 82, no. 3 (1992): 364–71.
  41. Van Cleave, Gortmaker, and Perrin, "Dynamics of Obesity and Chronic Health Conditions among Children and Youth" (see note 30).
  42. John M. McNeil, Americans with Disabilities: 1991–92. U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Report P70–33 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993); Robert J. Haggerty, Klaus J. Roghmann, and Ivan Barry Pless, eds., Child Health and the Community (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1993); Ivan Barry Pless, ed., The Epidemiology of Childhood Disorders (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994); Paul W. Newacheck and Neal Halfon, "Prevalence and Impact of Disabling Chronic Conditions in Childhood," American Journal of Public Health 88, no. 4 (1998): 610–17.
  43. Van Cleave, Gortmaker, and Perrin, "Dynamics of Obesity and Chronic Health Conditions among Children and Youth" (see note 30); Lara J. Akinbami and others, "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Aged 5–17 Years in the United States, 1998–2009," NCHS Data Brief 70 (August 2011).
  44. Janie Scull and Amber M. Winkler, Shifting Trends in Special Education (Washington: Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2011).
  45. Paul W. Newacheck, Neal Halfon, and Peter P. Budetti, "Prevalence of Activity Limiting Chronic Conditions among Children Based on Household Interviews," Journal of Chronic Diseases 39, no. 2 (1986): 63–71; Paul W. Newacheck, Peter P. Budetti, and Neal Halfon, "Trends in Activity-Limiting Chronic Conditions among Children," American Journal of Public Health 76, no. 2 (1986): 178–84.
  46. Newacheck, Halfon, and Budetti, "Prevalence of Activity Limiting Chronic Conditions among Children Based on Household Interviews" (see note 44); Newacheck and Halfon, "Prevalence and Impact of Disabling Chronic Conditions in Childhood" (see note 41).
  47. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Students with Disabilities, Learning Difficulties and Disadvantages (France: OECD, 2005).
  48. Barbara W. LeRoy, Peter Evans, and Marcella Deluca, United States and European School-Aged Disability Prevalence: An Investigative Study to Elaborate Differences (U.S. Department of Education, 2000).
  49. Perrin and Stein, "Reinterpreting Disability" (see note 38).
  50. Neal Halfon and Paul W. Newacheck, "Evolving Notions of Childhood Chronic Illness," Journal of the American Medical Association 303, no. 7 (2010): 665–66.
  51. Johanna H. van der Lee and others, "Definitions and Measurement of Chronic Health Conditions in Childhood," Journal of the American Medical Association 297, no. 24 (2007): 2741–51.
  52. Paul W. Newacheck and others, "An Epidemiologic Profile of Children with Special Health Care Needs," Pediatrics 102, no. 1 (1998): 117–23.
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  54. Brenda Eskenazi and others, "Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopment in Young Mexican-American Children," Environmental Health Perspectives 115, no. 5 (2007): 792–98; Soumya Mazumdara and others, "The Spatial Structure of Autism in California, 1993–2001," Health & Place 16, no. 3 (2010): 539–46.
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