Skip over navigation

Journal Issue: Children with Disabilities Volume 22 Number 1 Spring 2012

Childhood Health: Trends and Consequences over the Life Course
Liam Delaney James P. Smith

Endnotes

  1. Janet Currie, "Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise: Socioeconomic Status, Poor Health in Childhood, and Human Capital Development," Journal of Economic Literature 47, no. 1 (2009): 87–122; James P. Smith, "The Impact of Childhood Health on Adult Labor Market Outcomes," Review of Economics and Statistics 91, no. 3 (2009): 478–89.
  2. James P. Smith and Gillian C. Smith, "Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems during Childhood," Social Science and Medicine 71, no. 1 (2010): 110–15; Janet Currie and others, "Child Health and Young Adult Outcomes," Journal of Human Resources 45, no. 3 (2010): 517–48.
  3. Robert W. Fogel, "Changes in the Physiology of Aging during the Twentieth Century," Working Paper 11233 (Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005).
  4. World Health Organization, Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks (Geneva, 2009).
  5. Ibid.
  6. J. M. Perrin, S. R. Bloom, and S. L. Gortmaker, "The Increase of Childhood Chronic Conditions in the United States," JAMA 297, no. 24 (2007): 2755–59.
  7. David M. Cutler and Ellen Meara, "Changes in the Age Distribution of Mortality over the Twentieth Century," in Perspectives on the Economics of Aging, edited by David A. Wise (University of Chicago Press, 2004), pp. 333–66.
  8. David M. Cutler and others, "The Determinants of Mortality," Journal of Economic Perspectives 20, no. 3 (2006): 97–120.
  9. The Western European rate is the sum of deaths of people under the age of one divided by the sum of the population of people under the age of one for Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain.
  10. David M. Cutler and Grant Miller, "The Role of Public Health Improvements in Health Advances: The Twentieth-Century United States," Demography 42, no. 1 (2005): 1–22.
  11. Cutler and Meara, "Changes in the Age Distribution of Mortality over the Twentieth Century" (see note 7).
  12. James P. Smith, "Re-constructing Childhood Health Histories," Demography 46, no. 2 (2009): 387–403.
  13. Ibid.
  14. James P. Smith and Duncan Thomas, "Remembrances of Things Past: Test-Retest Reliability of Retrospective Migration Histories," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 166, no. 1 (2003): 23–49.
  15. Dana Goldman and James P. Smith, "The Increasing Value of Education to Health," Social Science and Medicine 72, no. 10 (May 2011): 1726–37.
  16. Perrin, Bloom, and Gortmaker, "The Increase of Childhood Chronic Conditions in the United States" (see note 6).
  17. Jeanne Van Cleave, Steven Gortmaker, and James Perrin, "Dynamics of Obesity and Chronic Health Conditions among Children and Youth," JAMA 303, no. 7 (2010): 623–30.
  18. Lara Akinbami and others, "Status of Childhood Asthma in the United States, 1980–2007," Pediatrics 123 (2009): S131–45.
  19. P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, Andrew J. Cherlin, and Kathleen E. Kiernan, "The Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on the Mental Health of Young Adults: A Developmental Perspective," Child Development 66, no. 6 (1995): 1614–34.
  20. Marissa King and Peter Bearman, "Diagnostic Change and the Increased Prevalence of Autism," International Journal of Epidemiology 38, no. 5 (2009): 1224–34.
  21. Akinbami and others, "Status of Childhood Asthma in the United States, 1980–2007" (see note 18).
  22. Neal Halfon and others, "Changing Landscape of Disability in Childhood," Future of Children vol. 22, no. 1 (2012).
  23. Tessa Roseboom and others, "Effects of Prenatal Exposure to the Dutch Famine on Adult Disease in Later Life: An Overview," Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 185, nos. 1–2 (2001): 93–8.
  24. Douglas Almond and others, "Long-Term Effects of the 1959–1961 China Famine: Mainland China and Hong Kong," Working Paper W13384 (Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2007).
  25. Angus Deaton, "Instruments, Randomization, and Learning about Development," Journal of Economic Literature 48, no. 2 (2010): 424–55.
  26. James P. Smith, "Healthy Bodies and Thick Wallets: The Dual Relation between Health and Economic Status," Journal of Economic Perspectives 13, no. 2 (1999): 145–66.
  27. Peter Whincup and others, "Birth Weight and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review," JAMA 300, no. 24 (2008): 2886–97.
  28. Caleb Finch and Eileen Crimmins, "Inflammatory Exposure and Historical Changes in Human Life-Spans," Science 305 (2004): 1736–39.
  29. Smith, "The Impact of Childhood Health on Adult Labor Market Outcomes" (see note 1).
  30. Smith, "Re-constructing Childhood Health Histories" (see note 12).
  31. Ibid.
  32. Ibid.
  33. Katayoun Bahadori and others, "Economic Burden of Asthma: A Systematic Review," BMC Pulmonary Medicine 9 (2009): 24.
  34. Currie and others, "Child Health and Young Adult Outcomes" (see note 2).
  35. Smith and Smith, "Long-Term Economic Costs of Psychological Problems during Childhood" (see note 2.)
  36. Currie and others, "Child Health and Young Adult Outcomes" (see note 2).
  37. One possibility is that measurement error is larger in the older age group because of increasing distance from the remembered event, which would predict attenuation of effects at older ages. This could not explain increasing effects with age for childhood physical health.
  38. Mark Stabile and Sara Allin, "The Economic Costs of Childhood Disability," Future of Children vol. 22, no. 1 (2012).
  39. Alissa Goodman, Robert Joyce, and James P. Smith, "The Long Shadow Cast by Physical and Mental Problems on Adult Life," PNAS; Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences 108, no. 15 (2011): 6032–37.
  40. A meta-review of Cochrane reviews of nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD argues the literature to date is too inconsistent to judge efficacy of these treatments. See M. Foisy and K. Williams, "The Cochrane Library and Non-Pharmacological Treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents: An Overview of Reviews," Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal 6 (2011): 283–97.
  41. R. Weisler, "Review of Long-Acting Stimulants in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder," Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 8 (2007): 745–58.
  42. MTA Cooperative Group, "A 14-Month Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)," Archives of General Psychiatry 56 (1999): 1073–86.
  43. MTA Cooperative Group, "National Institute of Mental Health Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD Follow-Up: 24-Month Outcomes of Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder," Pediatrics 113 (2004): 754–61.
  44. A. James, A. Soler, and R. Weatherall, "Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4 (2005): Article CD004690.
  45. N. Watanabe and others, "Psychotherapy for Depression among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review," Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 116 (2007): 84–95.
  46. S. Hetrick and others, "Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) for Depressive Disorders in Children and Adolescents," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3 (2007): Article CD004851.
  47. Craig Whittington and others, "Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Childhood Depression: Systematic Review of Published versus Unpublished Data," Lancet 363, no. 9418 (2004): 1341–45.
  48. Neal Ryan, "Treatment of Depression in Children and Adolescents," Lancet 366, no. 9489 (2005): 933–40.