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Journal Issue: Children with Disabilities Volume 22 Number 1 Spring 2012

Prevention of Disability in Children: Elevating the Role of Environment
Stephen A. Rauch Bruce P. Lanphear

Endnotes

  1. Massimo Conese and others, "Gene and Cell Therapy for Cystic Fibrosis: From Bench to Bedside," Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 10, supp. 2 (2011): S114–28.
  2. Wayne D. Hall, Rebecca Mathews, and Katherine I. Morley, "Being More Realistic about the Public Health Impact of Genomic Medicine," PLoS Medicine 7, no. 10 (2010): e1000347; doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000347; Paul H. Wise, "Emerging Technologies and Their Impact on Disability," Future of Children 22, no. 1 (2012).
  3. Walter C. Willett, "Balancing Life-Style and Genomics Research for Disease Prevention," Science 296 (2002): 695–98.
  4. Geoffrey Rose, "Sick Individuals and Sick Populations," International Journal of Epidemiology 14 (1985): 32–38.
  5. John B. McKinlay and Sonja M. McKinlay, "The Questionable Contribution of Medical Measures to the Decline of Mortality in the United States in the Twentieth Century," Milbank Quarterly 55, no. 3 (1977): 405–28.
  6. David Cutler and Grant Miller, "The Role of Public Health Improvements in Health Advances: The Twentieth-Century United States," Demography 42, no. 1 (2005): 1–22.
  7. Muin J. Khoury and others, "Do We Need Genomic Research for the Prevention of Common Diseases with Environmental Causes?" American Journal of Epidemiology 161, no. 9 (2005): 799–805.
  8. Cathy S. Widom, "The Cycle of Violence," Science 244 (1989): 160–66.
  9. Avshalom Caspi and others, "Role of Genotype in the Cycle of Violence in Maltreated Children," Science 297 (2002): 851–54.
  10. Peter D. Sly and Felicity Flack, "Susceptibility of Children to Environmental Pollutants," Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 1140 (2009): 163–83.
  11. Philip J. Landrigan and Lynn R. Goldman, "Children's Vulnerability to Toxic Chemicals: A Challenge and Opportunity to Strengthen Health and Environmental Policy," Health Affairs 30, no. 5 (2011): 842–50.
  12. Lei Wang and Kent E. Pinkerton, "Detrimental Effects of Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Development on Postnatal Lung Function and Asthma," Birth Defects Research (Part C) 84 (2008): 54–60.
  13. Thomas F. Bateson and Joel Schwartz, "Children's Response to Air Pollutants," Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 71 (2008): 238–43.
  14. Jinfang Wu and others, "Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-Like Pathology in Aged Monkeys after Infantile Exposure to Environmental Metal Lead (Pb): Evidence for a Developmental Origin and Environmental Link for AD," Journal of Neuroscience 28, no. 1 (2008): 3–9; National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, "Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women" (www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Osteoporosis/bone_mass.asp).
  15. Eileen M. Crimmins and Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez, "Mortality and Morbidity Trends: Is There Compression of Morbidity?" Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 66B, no. 1 (2010): 75–86.
  16. Amir Tirosh and others, "Adolescent BMI Trajectory and Risk of Diabetes versus Coronary Disease," New England Journal of Medicine 364 (2011): 1315–25.
  17. Micah Hartman and others, "U.S. Health Spending by Age, Selected Years through 2004," Health Affairs 27, no. 1 (2008): w1–12.
  18. Neal Halfon and others, "The Changing Landscape of Disability in Childhood," Future of Children 22, no. 1 (2012).
  19. James M. Perrin, Sheila R. Bloom, and Steven L. Gortmaker, "The Increase of Childhood Chronic Conditions in the United States," Journal of the American Medical Association 297, no. 24 (2007): 2755–59; Coleen A. Boyle and others, "Trends in the Prevalence of Developmental Disabilities in U.S. Children, 1997–2008," Pediatrics 127, no. 6 (2011): 1034–42.
  20. Barbara Bloom, Robin A. Cohen, and Gulnur Freeman, "Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Children: National Health Interview Survey, 2009," Vital and Health Statistics 10, no. 247 (2010): table 1; Irva Hertz-Picciotto and Lora Delwitche, "The Rise in Autism and the Role of Age at Diagnosis," Epidemiology 20 (2009): 84–90; Joyce A. Martin and others, "Births: Final Data for 2008," National Vital Statistics Reports 59, no. 1 (2010); Cynthia L. Ogden and others, "Prevalence of High Body Mass Index in U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2007–2008," Journal of the American Medical Association 303, no. 3 (2010): 242–49.
  21. Bruce P. Lanphear and others, "Low-Level Environmental Lead Exposure and Children's Intellectual Function: An International Pooled Analysis," Environmental Health Perspectives 113, no. 7 (2005): 894–99; Tanya E. Froehlich and others, "Association of Tobacco and Lead Exposures with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder," Pediatrics 124 (2009): e1054–63; Jessica W. Reyes, "Environmental Policy as Social Policy? The Impact of Childhood Lead Exposure on Crime," B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 7, no. 1 (2007): article 51 (www.bepress.com/bejeap/vol7/iss1/art51).
  22. Elise Gould, "Childhood Lead Poisoning: Conservative Estimates of the Social and Economic Benefits of Lead Hazard Control," Environmental Health Perspectives 117, no. 7 (2009): 1162–67.
  23. Leonardo Trasande and Yinghua Liu, "Reducing the Staggering Costs of Environmental Disease in Children, Estimated at $76.6 Billion in 2008," Health Affairs 30, no. 5 (2011); doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2010.1239.
  24. S. Jay Olshansky and A. Brian Ault, "The Fourth Stage of the Epidemiologic Transition: The Age of Delayed Degenerative Diseases," Milbank Quarterly 64, no. 3 (1986): 355–91; Elizabeth Arias, "United States Life Tables, 2007," National Vital Statistics Reports 59, no. 9 (2011): table 20; Jiaquan Xu and others, "Deaths: Final Data for 2007," National Vital Statistics Reports 58, no. 19 (2010).
  25. Abdel R. Omran, "The Epidemiologic Transition: A Theory of the Epidemiology of Population Change," Milbank Quarterly 49, no. 4 (1971): 509–38.
  26. U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2009 American Community Survey, "Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months," table S1701 (www.census.gov/acs/www).
  27. Nancy Krieger, "Why Epidemiologists Cannot Afford to Ignore Poverty," Epidemiology 18 (2007): 658–63.
  28. Nancy E. Adler and Katherine Newman, "Socioeconomic Disparities in Health: Pathways and Policies," Health Affairs 21, no. 2 (2002): 60–76.
  29. Gary W. Evans and Elyse Kantrowitz, "Socioeconomic Status and Health: The Potential Role of Environmental Risk Exposure," Annual Reviews of Public Health 23 (2001): 303–31; Janet Currie, "Inequality at Birth: Some Causes and Consequences," American Economic Review 101, no. 3 (2011): 1–22.
  30. Michael Marmot and others, "Health Inequalities among British Civil Servants: The Whitehall II Study," Lancet 337 (1991): 1387–93.
  31. Anne Case, Darren Lubotsky, and Christina R. Paxson, "Economic Status and Health in Childhood: The Origins of the Gradient," American Economic Review 92, no. 5 (2002): 1308–34.
  32. Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger (London: Bloomsbury Press, 2010).
  33. James Banks and others, "Disease and Disadvantage in the United States and in England," Journal of the American Medical Association 296, no. 19 (2006): 2037–45.
  34. Alfred J. Turner, "On Lead Poisoning in Childhood," British Medical Journal 1 (1909): 895–97.
  35. Bateson and Schwartz, "Children's Response to Air Pollutants" (see note 13).
  36. Shigeo Elkino and others, "Minamata Disease Revisited: An Update on the Acute and Chronic Manifestations of Methyl Mercury Poisoning," Journal of the Neurological Sciences 262 (2007): 131–44.
  37. C. Arden Pope III, Joel Schwartz, and Michael R. Ransom, "Daily Mortality and PM10 Pollution in Utah Valley," Archives of Environmental Health 47, no. 3 (1992): 211–17.
  38. Jennifer L. Peel, "Impact of Improved Air Quality during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on Multiple Cardiovascular and Respiratory Outcomes," HEI Research Report 148 (Boston: Health Effects Institute, 2010).
  39. Janet Currie and Reed Walker, "Traffic Congestion and Infant Health: Evidence from E-ZPass," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 3, no. 1 (2011): 65–90.
  40. Bloom, Cohen, and Freeman, "Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Children" (see note 20).
  41. Andrea S. Gershon and others, "Trends in Asthma Prevalence and Incidence in Ontario, Canada, 1996–2005: A Population Study," American Journal of Epidemiology 172, no. 6 (2010): 728–36; Halfon and others, "The Changing Landscape of Disability in Childhood" (see note 18).
  42. Ruth A. Etzel, "How Environmental Exposures Influence the Development and Exacerbation of Asthma," Pediatrics 112 (2003): 233–39.
  43. Wang and Pinkerton, "Detrimental Effects of Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Development on Postnatal Lung Function and Asthma" (see note 12); Robyn T. Cohen and others, "In Utero Smoke Exposure and Impaired Response to Inhaled Corticosteroids in Children with Asthma," Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 126 (2010): 491–97.
  44. S. Franco Suglia and others, "Association of Black Carbon with Cognition among Children in a Prospective Birth Cohort Study," American Journal of Epidemiology 167, no. 3 (2007): 280–86.
  45. Frederica P. Perera and others, "A Summary of Recent Findings on Birth Outcomes and Developmental Effects of Prenatal ETS, PAH, and Pesticide Exposures," NeuroToxicology 26 (2005): 573–87.
  46. Bruce P. Lanphear and Cynthia F. Bearer, "Biomarkers in Paediatric Research and Practice," Archives of Disease in Childhood 90 (2005): 594–600.
  47. Lanphear and others, "Low-Level Environmental Lead Exposure and Children's Intellectual Function" (see note 21).
  48. Lucinda J. England and others, "Measures of Maternal Tobacco Exposure and Infant Birth Weight at Term," American Journal of Epidemiology 153, no. 10 (2000): 954–60.
  49. Joel Schwartz and others, "The Effect of Dose and Timing of Dose on the Association between Airborne Particles and Survival," Environmental Health Perspectives 116, no. 1 (2008): 64–69.
  50. Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers, Our Stolen Future (New York: Penguin Books, 1996); David O. Carpenter, "Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Routes of Exposure and Effects on Human Health," Reviews of Environmental Health 21, no. 1 (2006): 1–23.
  51. Hertz-Picciotto and Delwitche, "The Rise in Autism and the Role of Age at Diagnosis" (see note 20); Marissa King and Peter Bearman, "Diagnostic Change and the Increased Prevalence of Autism," International Journal of Epidemiology 38, no. 5 (2009): 1224–34.
  52. Heather E. Volk and others, "Residential Proximity to Freeways and Autism in the CHARGE Study," Environmental Health Perspectives 118 (2010), doi:10.1289/ehp.1002835; Rebecca J. Schmidt and others, "Prenatal Vitamins, One-Carbon Metabolism Gene Variants, and Risk for Autism," Epidemiology 22 (2011): 476–85.
  53. Frank DeStefano, "Vaccines and Autism: Evidence Does Not Support a Causal Association," Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 82, no. 6 (2007): 756–59.
  54. Philip J. Landrigan, "What Causes Autism? Exploring the Environmental Contribution," Current Opinion in Pediatrics 22 (2010): 219–25.
  55. Halfon and others, "The Changing Landscape of Disability in Childhood" (see note 18); Tanya E. Froehlich and others, "Prevalence, Recognition, and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a National Sample of U.S. Children," Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 161, no. 9 (2007): 857–64.
  56. Froehlich and others, "Association of Tobacco and Lead Exposures with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" (see note 21).
  57. Kim M. Cecil and others, "Decreased Brain Volume in Adults with Childhood Lead Exposure," PLoS Medicine 5, no. 5 (2008): 741–50.
  58. Reyes, "Environmental Policy as Social Policy?" (see note 21).
  59. Maryse Bouchard and others, "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Pesticides," Pediatrics 125, no. 6 (2010): e1270–77; Paul A. Eubig, Andréa Aguiar, and Susan L. Schantz, "Lead and PCBs as Risk Factors for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder," Environmental Health Perspectives 118, no. 12 (2010): 1654–67; Sharon K. Sagiv and others, "Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in School-Aged Children," American Journal of Epidemiology 171, no. 5 (2010): 593–601.
  60. Colborn, Dumanoski, and Myers, Our Stolen Future (see note 50).
  61. Joe M. Braun and others, "Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Early Childhood Behavior," Environmental Health Perspectives 117, no. 12 (2009): 1945–52; Stephanie M. Engel and others, "Prenatal Phthalate Exposure Is Associated with Childhood Behavior and Executive Functioning," Environmental Health Perspectives 118, no. 4 (2010): 565–71; Shanna H. Swan and others, "Decrease in Anogenital Distance among Male Infants with Prenatal Phthalate Exposure," Environmental Health Perspectives 113, no. 8 (2005): 1056–61; Shanna H. Swan and others, "Prenatal Phthalate Exposure and Reduced Masculine Play in Boys," International Journal of Andrology 33, no. 2 (2010): 259–69.
  62. Felix Grün, "Obesogens," Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes & Obesity 17 (2010): 453–59.
  63. Elizabeth E. Hatch and others, "Association of Endocrine Disruptors and Obesity: Perspectives from Epidemiological Studies," International Journal of Andrology 33 (2010): 324–32.
  64. Ogden and others, "Prevalence of High Body Mass Index in U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2007–2008" (see note 20).
  65. Ibid.
  66. Orit Pinhas-Hamiel and others, "Increased Incidence of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus among Adolescents," Journal of Pediatrics 128 (1996): 608–15; Joyce M. Lee, "Why Young Adults Hold the Key to Assessing the Obesity Epidemic in Children," Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 162, no. 7 (2008): 682–87.
  67. Jeffrey B. Schwimmer, Tasha M. Burwinkle, and James W. Varni, "Health-Related Quality of Life of Severely Obese Children and Adolescents," Journal of the American Medical Association 289, no. 14 (2003): 1813–19.
  68. Konrad Jamrozik, "Health Literacy, Victim Blaming and the Mission of Public Health," Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 34, no. 3 (2010): 227.
  69. Jennifer L. Harris and others, "A Crisis in the Marketplace: How Food Marketing Contributes to Childhood Obesity and What Can Be Done," Annual Reviews of Public Health 30 (2009): 211–25.
  70. Ibid.
  71. Thomas N. Robinson and others, "Effects of Fast Food Branding on Young Children's Taste Preferences," Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 161, no. 8 (2007): 792–97.
  72. Jason C. G. Halford and others, "Beyond Brand Effect of Television Food Advertisements on Food Choice in Children: The Effects of Weight Status," Public Health Nutrition 11, no. 9 (2007): 897–904.
  73. Ibid.
  74. Agnes Nairn and Cordelia Fine, "Who's Messing with My Mind? The Implications of Dual-Process Models for the Ethics of Advertising to Children," International Journal of Advertising 27, no. 3 (2008): 447–70.
  75. Ibid.
  76. Chris Lovato and others, "Impact of Tobacco Advertising and Promotion on Increasing Adolescent Smoking Behaviours," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3 (2003): 1–27; Ross Gordon, Anne Marie MacKintosh, and Crawford Moodie, "The Impact of Alcohol Marketing on Youth Drinking Behaviour: A Two-Stage Cohort Study," Alcohol and Alcoholism 45, no. 5 (2010): 470–80.
  77. Caleb R. Schultz, "Removing Junk Food and Beverages from School Vending Machines," Minnesota Medicine 93, no. 9 (2010): 32–35.
  78. Ibid.
  79. Maida P. Galvez, Meghan Pearl, and Irene H. Yen, "Childhood Obesity and the Built Environment," Current Opinion in Pediatrics 22 (2010): 202–07; Mia A. Papas and others, "The Built Environment and Obesity," Epidemiologic Reviews 29 (2007): 129–43.
  80. Julie Beaulac, Elizabeth Kristjansson, and Steven Cummins, "A Systematic Review of Food Deserts, 1966–2007," Preventing Chronic Disease 6, no. 3 (2009): A105 (www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2009/jul/08_0163.htm); Mark Bittman, "Is Junk Food Really Cheaper?" New York Times, September 24, 2011 (www.nytimes.com/2011/09/25/opinion/sunday/is-junk-food-really-cheaper.html); Tom Philpott, "Is Cooking Really Cheaper than Fast Food? Only If You Forget to Account for Labor," Mother Jones, October 4, 2011 (http://motherjones.com/tom-philpott/2011/10/cooking-really-cheaper-junk-food-mark-bittman).
  81. McKinlay and McKinlay, "The Questionable Contribution of Medical Measures to the Decline of Mortality in the United States in the Twentieth Century" (see note 5).
  82. Geoffrey Rose, The Strategy of Preventive Medicine (Oxford University Press, 1992).
  83. Ibid.
  84. Ernst L. Wynder, "Studies in Mechanism and Prevention," American Journal of Epidemiology 139, no. 6 (1994): 547–49.
  85. Philippe Grandjean and Philip J. Landrigan, "Developmental Neurotoxicity of Industrial Chemicals," Lancet 368 (2006): 2167–78.
  86. Bruce P. Lanphear, Charles V. Vorhees, and David C. Bellinger, "Protecting Children from Environmental Toxins," PLoS Medicine 2, no. 3 (2005): 199–204.
  87. Charles J. Everett and Eric M. Matheson, "Biomarkers of Pesticide Exposure and Diabetes in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey," Environment International 36, no. 4 (2010): 398–401.
  88. Brenda Eskenazi and others, "The Pine River Statement: Human Health Consequences of DDT Use," Environmental Health Perspectives 117, no. 9 (2009): 1359–67.
  89. Colborn, Dumanoski, and Myers, Our Stolen Future (see note 50); Carpenter, "Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)" (see note 50).
  90. Arnold Van Der Wielen, "REACH: Next Step to a Sound Chemicals Management," Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 17 (2007): S2–6.
  91. Mary E. Northridge, "Public Health Methods: Attributable Risk as a Link between Causality and Public Health Action," American Journal of Public Health 85, no. 9 (1995): 1202–04.
  92. Froehlich and others, "Association of Tobacco and Lead Exposures with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" (see note 21).
  93. Ibid.
  94. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Increasing Prevalence of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children—United States, 2003 and 2007," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 59, no. 44 (2010): 1439–43.
  95. Bouchard and others, "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Pesticides" (see note 59); Eubig, Aguiar, and Schantz, "Lead and PCBs as Risk Factors for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" (see note 59); Sagiv and others, "Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in School-Aged Children" (see note 59).
  96. Bruce P. Lanphear and others, "Residential Exposures Associated with Asthma in U.S. Children," Pediatrics 107, no. 3 (2001): 505–11; Bruce P. Lanphear and others, "Contribution of Residential Exposures to Asthma in U.S. Children and Adolescents," Pediatrics 107, no. 6 (2001): e98.
  97. C. Arden Pope III, Majid Ezzati, and Douglas W. Dockery, "Fine-Particulate Air Pollution and Life Expectancy in the United States," New England Journal of Medicine 360, no. 4 (2006): 376–86.
  98. Schwartz and others, "The Effect of Dose and Timing of Dose on the Association between Airborne Particles and Survival" (see note 49).
  99. Daniel Mackay and others, "Smoke-Free Legislation and Hospitalizations for Childhood Asthma," New England Journal of Medicine 363 (2010): 1139–45; Mary Kay Rayvens and others, "Reduction in Asthma-Related Emergency Department Visits after Implementation of a Smoke-Free Law," Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 122 (2008): 537–41.
  100. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Cigarette Smoking: United States, 1965–2008," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 60 (2011): s109–13.
  101. Robert L. Jones and others, "Trends in Blood Lead Levels and Blood Lead Testing among U.S. Children Aged 1 to 5 Years, 1988–2004," Pediatrics 123 (2009): e376–85.
  102. Reviewed in Laure DeMattia and Shannon Lee Denney, "Childhood Obesity Prevention: Successful Community-Based Efforts," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 615 (2008): 83–99.
  103. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding (Office of the Surgeon General, 2011).
  104. U.S. Deparment of Labor, Wage, and Hour Division, "Fact Sheet #73: Break Time for Nursing Mothers under the FLSA," July 2010.
  105. David L. Olds and others, "Effects of Nurse Home-Visiting on Maternal Life Course and Child Development: Age 6 Follow-Up Results of a Randomized Trial," Pediatrics 114 (2004): 1550–59; Andrea Gonzalez and Harriet L. MacMillan, "Preventing Child Maltreatment: An Evidence-Based Update," Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 54, no. 4 (2008): 280–86.
  106. Pope, Ezzati, and Dockery, "Fine-Particulate Air Pollution and Life Expectancy in the United States" (see note 97); Peel, "Impact of Improved Air Quality during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games" (see note 38).
  107. Ugo Lachapelle and Lawrence D. Frank, "Transit and Health: Mode of Transport, Employer-Sponsored Public Transit Pass Programs, and Physical Activity," Journal of Public Health Policy 30 (2009): s73–94.
  108. John M. MacDonald and others, "The Effect of Light Rail Transit on Body Mass Index and Physical Activity," American Journal of Preventive Medicine 39, no. 2 (2010): 105–12.
  109. Shin-Yi Chou, Inas Rashad, and Michael Grossman, "Fast-Food Restaurant Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Childhood Obesity," Journal of Law and Economics 51 (2008): 599–618.
  110. "British Regulator Cuts Back on TV Junk-Food Ads," New York Times, February 22, 2007 (www.nytimes.com/2007/02/22/technology/22iht-junk.4691297.html).
  111. BC Stats, "Tobacco Attitudes and Behaviours Survey Report: 2008 Final Report," Province of British Columbia (2009): table 1; Metro Vancouver Air Quality Policy & Management Division, "2009 Lower Fraser Valley Air Quality Report" (2010).
  112. British Columbia Vital Statistics Agency, "Selected Vital Statistics and Health Status Indicators: Annual Report 2009" (Victoria: British Columbia Ministry of Health Services, 2010): appendix 1.
  113. Greenest City Action Team, "Vancouver 2020: A Bright Green Future" (City of Vancouver) (vancouver.ca/greenestcity).
  114. New Rules Project, Institute for Local Self-Reliance, "Living Wage" (www.newrules.org/equity/rules/living-wage); San Francisco Department of Public Health, Healthy San Francisco (www.healthysanfrancisco.org).