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The Witwatersrand Basin in southern Africa began as a shallow sea about 3 billion years ago. Scientists analyze this water to learn how microbes make a living when trapped kilometers beneath the surface. DCO Deep Energy and Deep Life Community members: Thomas Kieft (NMT), Verena Heuer (UNI-Bremen), Esta van Heerden (UFS), Barbara Sherwood Lollar (UToronto), and Maggie C.Y. Lau and Tullis Onstott (Princeton) investigated the organic matter in fracture waters to find clues to how they survive.