Multiscale Simulations of Coronary Artery Hemodynamics
Speaker: Alison Marsden, UCSD
Series: MAE Departmental Seminars
Location: Bowen Hall Room 222
Date/Time: Friday, September 28, 2012, 3:30 p.m. - 4:30 p.m.
Coronary artery flow is notoriously difficult to model due to the small size of these vessels, and the coupling of coronary vascular resistance with ventricular contraction. In this talk we will present a framework for modeling coronary hemodynamics, and demonstrate its application to a pediatric disease that targets the coronary arteries. Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children, and can result in life-threatening coronary artery aneurysms in up to 25\% of patients. Patients with these aneurysms are at increased risk for thrombosis (blood clots), heart attack, and sudden death. Because current imaging methods for the coronary arteries generally do not provide flow information, clinical decisions regarding treatment of these patients are primarily based only on aneurysm shape, often ignoring important hemodynamic information. Our goal is to apply computer simulations to uncover hemodynamic factors that are linked to the risk of thrombosis, in order to develop a clinical tool that can stratify patient risk. We will present an overview of tools for patient specific modeling and simulation of coronary artery flow. In particular, we present new numerical methods for coupling closed-loop lumped parameter boundary conditions to a customized flow solver for stable and efficient numerical solutions that incorporate the dynamics of the circulatory system. We present recent results that quantify shear stress and residence times in aneurysms caused by KD for the first time. We go on to correlate simulation results with risk of thrombosis and other adverse events in multiple patients. Our ultimate goal is to provide clinicians with new tools that can improve long-term management of KD patients. We will also discuss application of these tools to simulating flow in adult coronary artery bypass graft patients.
Alison Marsden is currently an assistant professor and Jacobs Faculty Fellow in the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering department at the University of California San Diego. She graduated with a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from Princeton University in 1998, a PhD in mechanical engineering from Stanford in 2005, and did postdoctoral work at Stanford University in bioengineering and pediatric cardiology from 2005-07. She has been the recipient of an American Heart Association postdoctoral fellowship, an AHA beginning grant in aid award, a Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Award at the Scientific Interface, an NSF CAREER award, and is a member of an international Leducq Foundation Network of Excellence. Her work focuses on the development of numerical methods for simulation of cardiovascular blood flow problems, application of optimization to fluid mechanics, and use of engineering tools to impact patient care in cardiovascular surgery and congenital heart disease.