## Stengel

**Robert Stengel,
**Professor

Ph.D. Princeton University (1968)

**Profile**

Robert Stengel is Professor of Engineering and Applied Science and Director of the Program on Robotics and Intelligent Systems. His current research focuses on nonlinear, robust, and adaptive control systems; optimization; flight dynamics; and space systems. Professor Stengel teaches optimal control and estimation, robotics and intelligent systems, and aircraft flight dynamics, as well as the freshman seminar, "From the Earth to the Moon."

Prior to joining the Princeton faculty in 1977, Dr. Stengel was with The Analytic Sciences Corporation, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, the US Air Force, and NASA. At the Draper Laboratory (1968-73), he was principal designer of the Apollo Project Lunar Module manual control logic used for all moon landings, and he contributed to Space Shuttle guidance and control system design. There, he also initiated a project to develop a *Bedside Biomedical Computer* for the analysis of cardiovascular data. His work at TASC (1973-77) included optimal-control modeling of the human pilot and resulting interactions with aircraft dynamics, fuel-optimal flight paths for jet transports, digital control of high-performance aircraft and helicopters, submarine dynamics and control, and statistical assessment of the effects of electric powerplant waste water on biologically indigenous populations. While serving as an Air Force lieutenant (1960-63), he was a Range Safety Officer at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility.

During 2005, Professor Stengel was on sabbatical leave as a Member of the Institute for Advanced Study. He was affiliated with the Simons Center for Systems Biology in the School of Natural Sciences. While on sabbatical leave in 1998, Professor Stengel was a Visiting Professor/Scholar at Duke University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Cambridge, Delft University of Technology, Imperial College of Science, Medicine, and Technology, University of California at San Diego, and Stanford University. From 1994 to 1997, he served as the Engineering School's Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. During that time, he initiated new programs of graduate study and undergraduate computer education, and he developed an innovative approach to teaching engineering freshman seminars. As Director of Princeton's Flight Research Laboratory from 1977 to 1983, Stengel, his students, and staff conducted pioneering experimental research on digital flight control systems, flight computer networking via fiber-optics, aircraft flying qualities, and aerodynamic system identification. This research used Princeton's two fly-by-wire, variable-stability aircraft and a specially instrumented sailplane.

**Current Research**

**Selected Publications**

- Optimal Control of Innate Immune Response (pdf),
*Optimal Control Applications & Methods*, Vol. 23, Mar-Apr 2002, pp. 91-104 (with R. Ghigliazza, N. Kulkarni, and O. Laplace). - Robust Control of Nonlinear Systems with Parametric Uncertainty (pdf),
*Automatica*, Vol. 38, Sept 2002, pp. 1591-1599 (with Q. Wang). - Optimal Enhancement of Immune Response (pdf),
*Bioinformatics*, Vol. 18, No. 9, Sept 2002, pp. 1227-1235 (with R. Ghigliazza and N. Kulkarni). - On-Line Adaptive Critic Flight Control (pdf),
*J. Guidance, Control, and Dynamics*, Vol. 27, No. 5, Sept-Oct 2004, pp. 777-786 (with S. Ferrari). - Stochastic Optimal Enhancement of Immune Response (pdf),
*Mathematical Biosciences*, Vol. 191, Oct 2004, pp. 123-142 (with R. Ghigliazza). - Model-based Adaptive Critic Designs (pdf), in
*Learning and Approximate Dynamic Programming*, J. Si, A. Barto, W. Powell, and D. Wunsch, ed., J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 2004 (with S. Ferrari). - Smooth Function Approximation Using Neural Networks (pdf),
*IEEE Trans. Neural Networks*, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan 2005, pp. 24-38 (with S. Ferrari). - Robust Nonlinear Flight Control of a High-Performance Aircraft (pdf),
*IEEE Trans. Control Systems Technology*, Vol. 13, No. 1, Jan 2005, pp. 15-26 (with Q. Wang). - Probabilistic Control of Nonlinear Uncertain Dynamic Systems (pdf), in
*Probabilistic and Randomized Methods for Design under Uncertainty*, G. Calafiore and F. Dabbene, ed., Springer, New York, 2006, pp. 381-414 (with Q. Wang). - Relationship of Gene Expression and Chromosomal Abnormalities in Colorectal Cancer (pdf),
*Cancer Research*, Vol. 66, No. 4, 2006, pp. 2129-2137 (with D. Tsafrir, M. Bacalod, Z. Selvanayagam, I. Tsafrir, J. Shia, Z. Zeng, H. Liu, C. Krier, F. Barany, W. Gerald, P. Paty, E. Domany, and D. Notterman). - The Signatures of Autozygosity Among Patients with Colorectal Cancer,
*Cancer Research*, Vol. 68, No. 8, Apr 15, 2008, pp. 2610-2621 (with M. Bacolod, G. Schemmann, S. Wang, R. Shattock, S. Giardina, Z. Zeng, J. Shia, N. Gerry, J. Hoh, T. Kirchoff, B. Gold, M. Christman, K. Offit, W. Gerald, D. Notterman, J. Ott, P. Paty, and F. Barany). - Mutation and Control of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus,
*Mathematical Biosciences*, Vol. 213, No. 2, June 2008, pp. 93-102. - Dynamics of a Cytokine Storm,
*PLOS ONE*, Vol. 7, No. 10, e45027, Oct 2012, pp. 1-15 (with H. Yiu and A. Grahamm).

**Books**

- OPTIMAL CONTROL AND ESTIMATION, Dover Publications, New York, 1994. (originally published as STOCHASTIC OPTIMAL CONTROL; Theory and Application, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986.)
- FLIGHT DYNAMICS, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2004.
*Robotics and Intelligent Systems: A Virtual Reference Book*, http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/RISVirText.html, 2013.*Introduction to Aircraft Flight Dynamics: A Virtual Reference Book*, http://www.princeton.edu/~stengel/AFDVirTex.html, 2013.

**Open Courseware**