IIP Placements in Architecture and Civil Engineering
Bridges to Prosperity
Location: Cochabamba, Bolivia; Matagalpa and Condega, Nicaragua; Kigali, Rwanda
Bridges to Prosperity provides isolated communities with access to essential healthcare, education, and economic opportunities by building footbridges over impassible rivers. By working within the local context and training local technicians, their programs aim to develop locally appropriate designs, which can be economically and safely replicated. The ideal candidates for this internship would have experience working in rural areas of the developing world and experience in basic construction and masonry skills. The interns will be expected to train and work on a cable-suspended bridge project, approximately 60 meters in span. The project will be under the guidance and, when necessary, supervision of the Bridges to Prosperity Program Manager. Candidates with an academic background in Civil Engineering are encouraged to apply. Interns should be prepared to live and work in a rural area, lacking electricity and running potable water. Four placements have been created for International Internship Program (IIP) interns. See the placement descriptions under IIP Placements by Region for details related to the specific locations.
Previous work responsibilities (in the words of the previous IIP intern): Assisted in supervising onsite construction of a bridge, including quality and safety control as well as directing workers for excavations, concrete-mixing, masonry, cable-setting, decking, etc.
CAMPO Architecture and Urban Design
Location: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Founded in 2007, CAMPO is an architecture firm that was formed by an international team of experienced professionals in architecture, building technology, project management, urban planning, landscape design, and environmental planning. Operating within an intensively collaborative framework of fragmented authorship, CAMPO’s structure does not follow ordinary top-down hierarchies, which allows for a high performance of reflexive production. CAMPO strives to set itself apart from merely commercial practices through a continuous engagement on processes of rigorous critical thinking that reflect directly on the qualities of its work methodology and production. This condition allows for a very particular design methodology in practice, one that considers a more horizontal relationship within its team and with its clients. IIP candidates should have a highly pro-active attitude and be willing to learn. IIP interns will be involved in all office activities and, whenever possible, in projects that might provide them with a very broad overview of the design and planning processes within CAMPO. IIP interns will be engaged in (but not limited to) work on the following activities: field surveys, design development, technical drafting, project presentation, and support of project leaders. IIP candidates with interests in architecture and/or urban design and with skills in basic design, sketching, model making, digital modeling (Rhino – preferred/Sketch Up, 3D Studio ), digital drafting (AutoCAD), graphic presentation skills (Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop and InDesign), rendering (VRay), image post-production (Photoshop), basic quantity surveying (MS Excel), and architectural and urban surveys are encouraged to apply. Spanish and/or Portuguese would be an asset. Two placements have been created for International Internship Program (IIP) interns.
Location: Paris, France
Kilo Architectures is a small architectural studio with a large number and variety of projects. Their projects range from international cultural and institutional projects to housing, urban planning studies, and research. Kilo challenges the limits of established norms and architectural and urbanistic assumptions by devising fresh design alternatives to combat an increasingly standardized world. The trajectory of the office has been constructed through a series of projects spanning a great diversity of scales and programs which share a communal approach and philosophy. French is not required but would be an asset. One placement has been been created for an International Internship Program (IIP) intern. View a Powerpoint presentation (.pdf) by a past intern.
Previous work responsibilities (in the words of the previous IIP intern): Contributing to project research and documentation; helping with KILO exhibits or special projects (Venice Bienalle, storyboard architecture for online luxury boutique); using Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop, and InDesign to create storyboards, renderings.
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Location: Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) was established in 1997 when PETRONAS was invited by the Malaysian government to set up a university. UTP offers a wide range of engineering and technology programs at undergraduate and postgraduate levels complemented with a strong focus on Research and Development. The programs are designed with high industry relevance to provide a dynamic learning environment. The Civil Engineering Department involves the application of engineering principles and applied sciences to the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of capital projects in a typical asset life cycle. This includes buildings, roads, bridges, dams, airports, water and wastewater treatment plants, oil and gas production facilities, special purpose structures and any engineered structures for the comfort of mankind. Research projects of the department include focuses in computer aided design, surveying, transportation engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, pavement and materials engineering, construction and project management, steel and concrete design, water and wastewater engineering. IIP interns will work on a research project on rice husk ash. Two placements have been established for International Internship Program (IIP) interns. Here is some background information on the projects:
- Rice husk ash project: About 600 million tons of rice is produced each year throughout the world, which generates about 120 million tons of rice husk. Disposal of the rice husk has become a big problem and usually rice husk is burnt in open air or stacked on farmland, releasing large amounts of hazardous substances, occupying land resources, and polluting the environment. The utilization of rice husk ash as a pozzolanic material in cement and concrete provides several advantages such as improved strength and durability, reduced materials cost due to cement savings and environmental benefits related to the disposal of waste materials and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. It has been demonstrated that in order to produce reactive rice husk ash, specific temperature and duration of burning has to be maintained. Controlled burning can produce amorphous rice husk ash with high silica content and this can significantly enhance the properties of concrete. Recent studies have shown that RHA, rich in silica (about 85% to 90%), can be utilized in construction materials by controlling the burning temperature. Replacing the cement by RHA burned under controlled temperature, the compressive strength of the concrete increased. The concrete with RHA also lowers initial surface absorption, lowers the permeability, and increase the resistance of concrete to chloride ion penetration in comparison to conventional concrete. One of the controlled burning methods is using a microwave incinerator. Microwave Incinerator Rice Husk Ash (MIRHA) is obtained by burning rice husk in UTPMI--a microwave incinerator at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, with a controlled temperature. The UTPMI used for the burning process produce good quality MIRHA. Concrete and cement industry can contribute to sustainable development by adopting MIRHA as cement replacement material to save natural resources, energy, reducing CO2 emissions, and protect the environment. Through this IIP placement, the IIP intern will learn how to evaluate the microstructure of cementitious materials using equipment such as: ESEM, FE-SEM, XRD, X-ray tomography etc., and will gain the knowledge of the basic principles of mix-designing various types of concrete as well as knowledge of the production process of concrete and how to evaluate the properties of concrete such as compressive, flexural and tensile strengths, workability, including rheology and microstructure. Interested IIP candidates should possess a systematic understanding and advanced knowledge of various cement replacement materials, their effects on concrete properties, and their suitability for concrete production.
- Fly ash/palm oil fuel ash project: Steel coating requires anti-corrosion property to expand the lifespan of the equipment especially for pipes or instruments that are used in abrasive environment. Severe corrosion can be observed in equipments made from steel alloy that is operated in very abrasive environment. Operating under high pressure or/and high temperature (a temperature about 35% of the absolute melting range of a given metal or alloy) for a period of time and exposing the equipment to chemical attack, will degrade the effectiveness of the coating. Looking at a greener alternative of coating material, geopolymer material seems to be promising to be used as steel coating. Geopolymer, which is an inorganic polymer, is prepared by alkaline activation of an aluminosilicate source such as fly ash, metakaolin, slag or agriculture waste such as palm oil fuel ash/rice husk ash etc.; that can form amorphous to semi-crystalline three-dimensional silica-aluminate material. Geopolymer possess excellent mechanical properties, impressive fire resistance and high resistance to chemical attack. The proposed work will provide the intern with more information and hands-on laboratory work in the development of green coating materials for steel substrate using waste materials which are in abundance worldwide. Through this placement the IIP intern will need to conduct a brief literature review on coating material (with emphasis on geopolymer-based coating material) for metal substrate to gain better understanding of the project; will learn how to prepare specific material (in this case geopolymer-based coating material) using fly ash/palm oil fuel ash or fly ash/metakaolin as the basic raw materials; will conduct various experiments will be to obtain reasonable geopolymer product for the application on steel substrate, evaluate the coating properties of geopolymer products, as well as, the chemical, physical and micro-structural properties of the raw materials, geopolymer product and the coating properties using equipments such as FESEM, XRD, XRF, FTIR, and other related analytical tools. This IIP intern will gain the knowledge of the basic principles and hands-on material preparation, synthesis, characterization and properties of coating material and coating application. IIP candidates with interests in material development and chemical engineering are encouraged to apply. Technical skills in material processing and characterization would be an asset.
- Offshore Structures: There are about ten thousand offshore platforms located in various water depths ranging from 30m to 2,500m all over the world. The majority of these are fixed platforms located in water depths up to about 20m. For deeper regions, floating platforms are installed connected by mooring lines to the seabed. These structures are planned, designed, fabricated, transported, installed, operated, maintained, and decommissioned by civil engineers. This training will give the student insight into all aspects related to the analysis and design of offshore platforms. The trainee will get an exposure to model tests being conducted in very costly and sophisticated wave tanks fitted with the latest instrumentation such as optical motion capture system. Also, the trainee will get some exposure to using very costly commercial software used in the oil and gas industry. IIP intern responsibilities will include: attending the course "Offshore Structures," conducting an assignment for generating random waves and determining wave forces on members of jacket platforms; modeling tests in offshore laboratory on floating platforms subjected to waves and current and using commercial software for design of jacket platforms. IIP candidates with interests in the theory of structures or fluid mechanics are encouraged to apply.
- Ionic Liquids Project: Most of the heavy metals that occur in the environment are toxic and persistent. The occurrence of the heavy metals in the environment would therefore be particular dangerous even though it may only be a trace amount. The recent European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) sets high Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for priority substances in surface water regulating the annual averages and maximum allowable concentration in surface water. Most of the heavy metals and their compounds belong to the list of priority substances due to their level of toxicity, bioaccumulation and other constraints. There are many approaches developed for the metal extraction from liquid effluents. This includes dissolving an organic solvent such as kerosene, toluene, or using an extraction agent. However, the extraction process could not be regarded as green technology as they would cause detrimental effect to the environment and the human body. Furthermore, some other drawbacks include cost and disposal problems associated with the resin, decrease of removal efficiency when multiple metals are present. Study was conducted by using ionic liquids for selective liquid/liquid extraction of heavy metals. Ionic liquids are generally defined as molten salts, consisting entirely of anions and organic cations, and and exist in liquid form at temperatures below 100°C. Integrating imidazolium cations with functionalized groups act as metalligating moieties. The scope of this work will cover the synthesis of ionic liquids and apply them in separation of heavy metals from waste water. Characterization and instrumentation work using analytical equipment such as NMR, HPLC, FTIR and AAS will be included in this work. IIP intern responsibilities will include synthesizing a range of imidazolium ionic liquids using the quaternisation reactions; characterizing the ionic liquids using NMR, HPLC and FTIR instruments. The IIP intern will gain basic knowledge in designing separation parameters for the removal of metals from waste water and learn the ionic liquids properties in relations to its design of cations and anions. IIP candidates with interests in Chemistry or Chemical Engineering are encouraged to apply. A basic knowledge in chemistry practicals is essential.
- Glycerol project: A growing environmental concern, a rapid increase of oil price and political fallout arising from the escalating fossil fuel based-energy demand constitute the primary impetus behind the search for renewable sources of energy and chemicals. In recent findings, the biomass (oxygenated hydrocarbon) transformations over supported transition metals are touted as promising routes towards sustainable production of fuel precursors. Fuels derived from biomass are considered CO2-neutral since they provide a closed carbon cycle, therefore, eliminating greenhouse gas (CO2) emission to atmosphere. One of the key solutions is employing glycerol as a reactant in dry reforming process to produce syngas (mixture H2, CO and CO2). Thus, we propose to investigate the use of chemically treated limestone based catalyst for glycerol reforming using CO2. Furthermore, this process will address the environmental-degradation issue associated with greenhouse gas (CO2) emission. More importantly, dry reforming of glycerol remains elusive and its potential has yet been explored. During glycerol steam reforming, carbon laydown was substantial, hence affecting its longevity performance. This IIP intern will be expected to synthesize the catalysts that would be used in syngas production. The IIP intern will learn to evaluate the characteristics of the catalysts using XRD, SEM and other related instruments. Finally, the IIP intern will run a few experiments related to syngas production.IIP candidates with interests in chemical engineering or chemistry are encouraged to apply.
- Engineering Cementitious Composite Material project: Increasing pressure on bridge designers to eliminate existing expansion joints on bridge decks in order to reduce maintenance and long-term rehabilitation cost led to an innovative solution by replacing these joints using concrete link slab. A concrete link slab is relatively thin reinforced concrete slab that typically connects simply supported deck spans. However, concrete link slabs do not possess the large tensile strain capacity and micro-cracking behavior and therefore mustbe heavily reinforced to keep crack widths within the concrete link slabs below acceptable serviceability limits allowed by the AASHTO bridge design code. This high reinforcement ration within concrete link slabs unnecessarily stiffens the link slabs. In addition, it was found that these slabs are sensitive to poor construction practices. The unique capability of engineering cementitious composite (ECC) material to deform up to 4% strain in uniaxial tension while maintaining low crack widths allows the ECC link slab to accommodate the deformations imposed by the adjacent decks (i.e. due to thermal expansion and contraction). However, the ability of these slabs to withstand the rigors of repeated deflection caused by cycling loading of the bridge structure is stil unclear. Therefore, the main objective of this proposed research work is to develop a fatigue models for ECC link slabs. Investigate experimentally and theoretically (using 3D nonlinear finite element method) the load capacity and fatigue performance of ECC link slabs, along with the development of cracking on the tensile face of the ECC link slab. The expected outcome of this research is the development fatigue model of ECC link slabs that will encourage the authorities on using them to replace the current joint system. This research works will also establish a necessary data and aid on the design and analysis of ECC link slabs. The IIP intern will contribute to this research. IIP candidates with interests in concrete engineering are encouraged to apply. Technical knowledge in structural behavior would be an asset.
- High Performance Cloud Computing project: High Performance Cloud computing is a set of infrastructure that is able to provide services that is able to compute jobs that are data intensive (processing big data) and computationally intensive.
Sub-Project 1: Towards reliable, maintainable and high performance cloud computing: A high performance cloud services must be reliable and maintainable to provide high quality services to its continuing expanding sets of users and increasing number of complicated services. Performance is also crucial when considering the various parallel high computation and data intensive jobs that are running on limited amount of physical resources. As such, design of the services and cloud infrastructure are very crucial to ensure that the services are reliable, maintainable and have acceptable performance. The quality of the services and infrastructure must also be verified. Formal methods for verification have the advantage where it provides better assurance on the quality of the computer systems. However, formal methods have always had the problem with scalability where these methods are difficult and not applicable to verify large and complex systems; a cloud-based system is a complex computer system. The research work will focus on enabling formal verification of cloud computing services for performance, reliability and maintainability.
Sub-Project 2: Advanced Computational and Simulation Study of Lithium Batteries over the Cloud: The focus of this research is the development of a high performance cloud computing platform for the computational and simulation studies of lithium batteries. The system is expected to as fast and as accurate as possible compared to a conventional computing platform. High performance cloud offers many advantages compared to HPC clusters: Computational tasks are no longer bound to a fixed number processors and job waiting queues, as resources are now made scalable. Resources can be made available on demand when an increasing number of jobs were required to be processed; thus I/O and compute intensive simulation tasks will not experience any waiting time or job queue.
Processing in the clouds is not bound to a location as it is with HPC clusters. Cloud users are able to submit their computational jobs via the network (Internet or intranet) to the clouds, which may consist of many other HPC clusters located at different geographical locations to give the computational power needed. Therefore, this offers ubiquitous access to the simulation and modelling.
Sub-Project 3: 3D Cloud Interface for Distributed Interactive Genetic Algorithm: Interactive Genetic Algorithm (IGA) allows users to influence the outcome of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) search through visualization and interaction. Thus far IGA has been applied for relatively simple form of GA problems. More complex form of GA, such as highly distributed, parallel population GA, would need a more complex interface, and such interface has to be systematically investigated so as not to require too much user effort and so as to be accessible via a cloud-based interface. The use of systematic Human-Computer Interaction methods together with 3D user interfaces and immersive visualization will be investigated as part of the research.
Sub-Project 4: GPU-ization and GPU Virtualization over the Cloud: The use of GPU nowadays has extended from gaming and graphics to non-graphical applications such as numerical computing and data sorting. While much work has been done on single-GPU programming for a variety of applications, a systematic approach to application development for multiple, heterogeneous GPU is still lacking. Further, little work has been done on making GPU applications be cloud-accessible. The main focus in this research is hence two-fold: develop a methodology for converting non-GPU applications to GPU versions, and studying the cloud-accessibility of the applications via GPU virtualization. Applications to be considered include the following: 1. finite-element simulation 2. neural network. 3. ray tracing.IIP candidates for this project should have interests in computer science and experience/ skills in C++ and Java programming, scripting for Linux operating system, working in Linux environment, design of computer system using modeling languages such as UML, and verification of computer systems preferably using formal techniques. Two placements have been established for International Internship Program (IIP) interns.
Previous work responsibilities (in the words of the previous IIP intern): Reading and researching scientific literature to acquire knowledge on a particular study. Calculating different ratios of materials for concrete mixes. Batching and casting concrete and/or cement mixtures in various sized molds.
Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, College of Architecture
Location: Anhui Province, Gansu Province and Xi'an, Shaanxi Province
Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, College of Architecture was established by two pioneers in modern architecture education in China. In 1956, during the third nation-wide restructuring of universities and colleges, the College of Architecture was established as a merger of the two departments. There are three undergraduate programs: architecture, urban planning, and landscape, among which urban planning is designated as the national specialty. The school has nine subsidiary institutes together with an innovative national research team for architectural environment and energy consumption control theory in West China, a key lab for architecture technology in West China, and the Shaanxi Research Center of Monuments and Sites Reservation Engineering and Technology. The school maintains the leading position in the following areas of research: human settlement in vulnerable areas in West China, human settlement of underprivileged people, and cultural heritage preservation. In partnership with Wu Zhi Qiao Charitable Foundation, they are working to create sustainable infrastructure for bridges in rural communities in Western China. Wu Zhi Qiao (Bridge to China) Charitable Foundation is a non-profit organization based in Hong Kong that encourages volunteers, especially university student volunteers from Hong Kong and Mainland China, to build footbridges and village facilities in remote and poor villages in the Mainland with green concepts. Their organization aspires to: foster better communication, mutual understanding and integration between Hong Kong and the Mainland; improve lives of underprivileged villages in remote areas of Mainland China; and inspire respect, appreciation and preservation of local culture and environment, and promulgate the concept of sustainability. In partnership with local volunteers, IIP interns will build footbridges and village facilities with the villagers and launch small scale village enrichment projects according to local needs. Throughout the project, IIP interns will need to understand the local livelihood, culture and environment; fully utilize local materials; and work closely with villagers to transfer practical skills and knowledge so that the villagers can take charge of maintenance work in the future. Over the past few years, the Foundation has successfully completed multiple bridge projects and one postquake village re-building demonstration. In 2014, specific projects will include:
- Rural demonstration construction in underserved villages: By utilizing locally available resources (especially earth material), IIP interns will help design and build public facilities not only to solve the local's issues in public service and activity, but also to demonstrate to the locals an affordable and sustainable way of rural construction. In mid-2014, a village center will be built by a team involving villagers and student volunteers in Macha village, Gansu Province. They have already completed the field investigation, experimental study, and initial design. Detailed construction design will be completed in early 2014. As proposed, construction will start in mid-2014 and will last for one year for a series of on-site work for building construction, landscape, and other on-site facilities. IIP interns will be involved in this series of on-site work.
- Laboratory design and construction: Wu Zhi Qiao is also a laboratory of MOHURD (the Ministry of Housing in Urban-Rural Construction) and recently received land on its campus to build an office and laboratory. Last summer a team completed the initial design and part of experiments. After further detailed work in the coming months, on-site design and construction will start next spring and last until summer. As planned, recycled containers will be used as structure by working with rammed earth walls. This project will be a great opportunity for an IIP intern to have a hands-on experience while learning about green architecture.
- Design and construction of earth-based villas and landscape: Through the use of earth-based materials IIP interns and local volunteers will work on the construction of a project for a private villa that has been launched recently by the Foundation. This project will rely on locally available material resources like earth and stones.
IIP candidates with interests in architecture and civil engineering are encouraged to apply. Since the earth-based technology is easy to handle, IIP interns can participate not only in the design scheme, construction experiments, and on-site design during construction, but also parts of construction work. Two IIP placements for each project have been established (for a total of six placements created for IIP interns).