The term export controls includes all the law and regulations that govern the export of any item outside the United States. It is important for researchers to know about export controls because they can affect a research institution in many different and unexpected ways. It is possible that a researcher may need to use equipment or technology while performing research that may be a controlled item under the Commerce Control List or the Munitions List. It is also possible a researcher may need to share technical information or technical data that may be controlled. If a researcher does so without fully understanding the constraints of these laws and regulations, there could be serious consequences. Non-compliance with the statutory and regulatory requirements often carry heavy penalties, both civil and criminal. It is important that everyone within the University learn how to recognize export control issues when they arise in our daily work and to understand the resources available within the University to manage them. On the following pages you will find a summary of the most critical issues that researchers should be knowledgeable about.