Every researcher should understand for each of their research projects which equipment and technical information or data involved in their research might trigger an export control issue. In general, items and services that have military applications, including commercial items that could have military applications (i.e., dual-use items) are called Controlled Items and may be subject to export controls. These are found in two areas: the Commerce Control List and the Munitions List. The lists below are just examples of the type of equipment, technology, or technical information and data that might be controlled. For a complete list, check the links below to the Commerce Control List (EAR) and the Munitions List. (ITAR)
Commerce Control List (CCL)
A list of items under the export control jurisdiction of the Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce. The CCL is found in Supplement 1 to part 774 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).
Examples of commonly found research items and technology controlled under the CCL are:
- Quantum computing
- Advanced materials
- Microorganisms and toxins
- High-level electronics related to computers, telecommunications and information security, including encrypted software
- Sensors and lasers and related technology
- Navigation and avionics Equipment and technology
- Space-related propulsion systems and vehicles and related technology
Articles, services and related technical data designated as defense articles and defense services pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act. The items so designated shall constitute the United States Munitions List (22 CFR Part 121) and are regulated through the U.S. Department of State, Office of Defense Trade Controls.
Examples of commonly found research items and technology controlled under the ML are:
- All forms of military equipment, i.e., equipment intended to kill or prevent from being killed, including firearms, close assault weapons and combat shotguns, guns and armament, ammunition and ordnance, launch vehicles, guided missiles, ballistic missiles, rockets, torpedoes, bombs and mines
- Vessels of war and special naval equipment, tanks and military vehicles and military aircraft
- Protective personnel equipment and shelters
- Military electronics, including underwater sound equipment, radar systems, radios designed to interfere with other communication devices, computers specifically designed for military application or any experimental or developmental electronic equipment designed or modified for military application
- Fire control, range finders, optical guidance and control equipment
- Spacecraft systems and associated equipment, including communications satellites, remote sensing satellites, scientific and research satellites, and navigation satellites, including GPS-receiving equipment designed or modified for military use
- Directed energy weapons, including lasers, particle beam systems, particle accelerators with destructive power, high power radio-frequency systems, target acquisition or tracking systems, and power radio frequency systems
- Submersible vessels and oceanographic and associated equipment, including vessels manned or unmanned, tethered or untethered, or powered by nuclear propulsion plants
NOTE: Neither of these lists are complete and are only examples of what may be contained on the CCL or ML. To determine whether you may be working with equipment or technology that may be on either (or both) of these lists, check with ORPA.