Export Control Basics
While the United States has utilized export controls since the early 19th century, the controls have evolved over the past several decades into a sophisticated set of regulatory tools with broad applications to control international commerce and safeguard national security. Research institutions have the same obligations as any other entity or party to comply with export control laws. That said, academic research normally is conducted openly and most research activities are not subject to export control regulations under the Fundamental Research Exclusion. However, there are certain conditions under which the export of equipment or technology developed in the course of research, which includes certain technical and scientific data, either is prohibited or requires a license. Certain equipment (sometimes called Controlled Items) or technologies (sometimes called Covered Technologies) require an export license unless they meet the test that the research is in the public domain or is otherwise covered by the Fundamental Research Exclusion. Export control issues are of particular concern in a research institution where the likelihood of foreign researchers may raise a concern of Deemed Exports.
Several federal agencies are responsible for the management and control of exports for purposes of advancing U.S. national security, foreign policy and economic objectives, including compliance with treaties and international agreements
Department of Commerce - Export Control Basics
Department of State - International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) Regulations
Department of Treasury - Office of Foreign Assets Control
Department of Justice - Foreign Corrupt Practices Act