- Equal Opportunity Policy
- I. University-wide Regulations
- II. Students and the University
- III. The University and the Community
II. Students and the University
Rights and Responsibilities of Students
The following statement is excerpted from a longer document adopted by the faculty, October 7, 1968, to clarify the rights and responsibilities of students in the University.
The purpose of this statement is to affirm those basic principles that underlie, and to state those policies and procedures that define, the rights and responsibilities of the student in the University. These principles hold with equal force for undergraduate and graduate students, although their application may lead to different administrative arrangements reflecting differences in these two groups.
As constituents of the academic community, students are expected, individually and collectively, to express their views on issues of institutional policy and on matters of general interest to the student body. As expressed through informal consultation with the President, other officers of the University, and members of the faculty, student views are especially valuable and will always play an essential role in the formulation of policies affecting student interests. These officers of the University are also available to discuss any matters of importance with any student organization. In addition to these important channels of communication it now seems appropriate to provide other means through which students can make useful contributions to decisions that are of special interest and relevance to their academic, cultural, and social life at Princeton.
Several purposes are served by student participation in processes by which decisions are reached in the University. Their assessment of academic needs and interests and their suggestions for strengthening the academic program contribute to the continuing efforts of the trustees, administration, and faculty to improve the effectiveness of a Princeton education. By drawing on the ideas and talents of students to a greater extent, the cultural and intellectual life of the campus outside the classroom can be stimulated and these activities made more responsive to their perceived needs. And although students now bear substantial responsibility for determining and applying rules of social conduct, there is reason to believe that they can make further contributions that will enhance the conditions of individual and social life at Princeton. Finally, the availability to students of wider opportunities for sharing in appropriate decision-making functions will have a significant educational value in enlisting their mature and responsible attention to problems that necessarily have counterparts in the wider world community. For these several reasons, the University community will continue to seek clearly defined means for the student body to participate in the formulation and application of institutional policy affecting academic and student affairs.
Faculty Procedures of Concern to Students
The following paragraphs are excerpted from Rules and Procedures of the Faculty, 1994.
Attendance at Faculty Meetings
Meetings of the faculty shall normally be open for attendance as observers to representatives of the campus press, to members of the Executive Committee of the Undergraduate Student Government, to members of the Executive Committee of the Graduate Student Government, to members of the Council of the Princeton University Community, to the Officers of the Corporation, to the Associate and Assistant Deans of the Faculty, of the Graduate School, of the College, and of Undergraduate Students. Observers shall not attempt by word or deed to influence the proceedings. Meetings may be broadcast on campus radio, subject to the conditions of confidentiality specified below. Members of University or faculty committees who have been invited to appear in connection with a committee report and other guests who have been invited by the President shall normally be free to remain during the whole session to which they have been invited. All in attendance shall be bound to preserve the confidentiality of any portion of a meeting that has been designated confidential by a motion to that effect, duly approved; and, any session may be declared closed to observers, in whole or in part, on the vote of a two-thirds majority of the Faculty Advisory Committee on Policy or on the request of one third of the members of the faculty present and voting.
Faculty Reconsideration of Proposals Regarding Undergraduate Curriculum
The faculty shall consider a second vote on any action taken on a proposal regarding the undergraduate curriculum when a second vote has been requested by the Caucus of the Undergraduate Student Government. In any particular academic year, the faculty commits itself to a second vote on any action on a proposal regarding the undergraduate curriculum when, within 30 days exclusive of vacations after such action, a second vote has been requested by a two-thirds majority of the Caucus of the Undergraduate Student Government. In requesting reconsideration, the Caucus of the Undergraduate Student Government shall normally ask that the Faculty Committee on the Course of Study, meeting jointly with the Academic Committee of the Caucus of the Undergraduate Student Government, review their proposal. The faculty would then reconsider its original action and any amendments or alternative proposals recommended. The Undergraduate Student Government may also return the proposal directly to the faculty, which may reconsider the proposal immediately or may request review of the proposal by the Committee on the Course of Study prior to reconsideration. If the action to be reconsidered is on a proposal that the faculty has rejected, a majority vote of the faculty shall reverse the previous decision. If the action to be reconsidered is on a proposal that has been adopted by the faculty, a two-thirds vote of the faculty shall be necessary to affirm the previous decision. The faculty shall not be requested to reconsider the same action more than once in any academic year.
Graduate Student Departmental Committees
The following are to be established policies in the making of decisions with regard to the graduate courses of study, and departmental chairs shall be responsible for so informing the graduate students of their departments at the beginning of each academic year. However, any of these policies may be modified by agreement of the faculty and graduate students of a department, these modifications to remain in effect until changed by similar procedure.
1. Each department shall establish a departmental committee of graduate students, to act as a liaison between the faculty and the graduate student body of the department. Each committee should normally meet with the committee of the departmental faculty concerned with graduate studies, if one exists. The committee of graduate students shall have the right to initiate discussion of any proposals relating to the departmental graduate program, shall encourage students to participate in departmental affairs of special interest and relevance to them, and shall have the following additional rights:
a) The right to attach comments to all proposals forwarded to the Committee on the Graduate School by departmental faculty.
b) The right, in certain circumstances, to secure a departmental faculty’s reconsideration of action taken on proposals regarding the graduate curriculum. Departments should seriously consider a second vote on any measures regarding the department’s graduate program when it is requested by the student committee. In any particular academic year departmental faculties should commit themselves to a second vote on such measures if a second vote is requested within one month by the student departmental committee in a petition endorsed by two thirds of the department’s graduate students. If the action being reconsidered is on a proposal that the departmental faculty has rejected, a majority vote of the departmental faculty should reverse the previous decision. If the action being reconsidered is on a proposal that has been adopted by the departmental faculty, a two-thirds vote of the departmental faculty should be required to affirm the previous decision. Departmental faculties should not be bound to reconsider the same action more than once in the same academic year.
2. Student departmental committees shall be provided with a reasonable amount of secretarial assistance in preparing proposals, communicating with departmental students, and conducting elections.
3. Each departmental chair shall be responsible for:
a) Referring all proposals for major changes in the department’s graduate program to the departmental graduate student committee before action on such proposals by the faculty of the department.
b) Inviting student committee members to discuss proposals for major changes in the graduate course of study with the faculty of the department at or before any meetings in which the departmental faculty proposes to take action on such proposals.
c) Scheduling at least two meetings each academic year with the graduate student committee of the department, one early in the fall term to work out plans for later consultation, and one in late spring to review the department’s graduate offerings so that chairs may take student views into account in preparing requests for new staff.
Interaction of Undergraduate Student Government Committees and Faculty Committees
Whenever the Undergraduate Student Government shall establish a committee parallel to a faculty committee, the parallel committees shall at least once a year meet in joint session. In addition, the chair and one additional member of such committees of the Undergraduate Student Government shall meet with those faculty committees which the President of the University and the officers of the Undergraduate Student Government believe would benefit from such participation. The student representatives on faculty committees shall join freely in committee discussions of matters of concern to students, and shall be responsible for presenting the views of the student committee and the Undergraduate Student Government, when those views are known. Any student participating in the deliberations of a faculty committee is bound by the same rules as the faculty regarding the confidential nature of the proceedings. Within the bounds of this restriction, he or she may discuss the matters under consideration with the Undergraduate Student Government or with other students. Either committee may meet without the participation of members of the parallel committee. Before any final recommendation is made on any matter of general policy concerning students, there will be an opportunity for the student committee to meet jointly with the faculty committee involved. Views of the student committees may be brought to the attention of the full faculty and the University community.
Individual Student Appeal from Decisions of Faculty Committees
A student desiring to appeal an action of a Faculty committee taken on academic grounds which affects directly his or her academic standing and for which appeal is not otherwise provided, should notify the Dean of the Faculty in writing to that effect, specifying the grounds of appeal. Notification must be made no later than seven days after receipt of the written notice of the decision which the student wishes to appeal. The Dean of the Faculty shall transmit the student’s written statement and any other relevant material directly to the Advisory Committee on Policy.
In deciding appeals, the Advisory Committee on Policy will consider whether other committees have followed established procedures and reached decisions consistent with University rules and practices. In all cases the decision of the Advisory Committee on Policy shall be final. If an appealed action is judged to have been arbitrary or based on improper or unfair procedures, the appeal will be sustained. In such a case the Advisory Committee on Policy will determine a course of action to insure an impartial final determination of the merits of the case based on proper and fair procedures.
Coordination Between Faculty and Undergraduates on Matters Affecting Student Life
The Undergraduate Life Committee. The Undergraduate Life Committee is concerned with fostering relationships among academic, residential, and social experiences of undergraduates and, more generally, with the tone and character of undergraduate student life. In conjunction with the Council of Masters, which oversees such matters in the residential colleges, the Committee reviews policies affecting residential and extracurricular life for all undergraduates, giving particular attention to questions affecting juniors and seniors.
The Committee may advise the Dean of Undergraduate Students, the Dean of the College, the Vice President for Campus Life and the President concerning matters under its purview and may, periodically, report and make recommendations to the faculty.
The Committee consists of six members of the faculty, including at least two who are non-tenured and one residential college master. The following members of the administration also serve on the Committee: the Vice-President for Campus Life (chair), the Dean of the College (or an Assistant or Associate Dean of the College), the Director of Athletics, Physical Education and Recreation; the Director of Health Services and the Dean of Undergraduate Students.
Normally, the Committee will include in its deliberations, and in the work of any subcommittees which may develop, student members of the Undergraduate Life Committee of the Undergraduate Government.
The Council of Masters. The Council of Masters is concerned with creating and maintaining an environment in the undergraduate residential colleges which supports and enhances the educational mission of the University. In carrying out these responsibilities, the Council of Masters sets policy for the residential and dining facilities for which it has general oversight and may advise the Dean of Undergraduate Students, the Dean of the College, the Vice President for Campus Life and the President on matters of general concern. The Council works in conjunction with, and makes recommendations to, regular standing committees of the faculty, especially the Committee on the Course of Study and the Undergraduate Life Committee.
The Masters of the six undergraduate residential colleges are appointed to four-year terms by the President on the recommendation of the Dean of the College and the Dean of Undergraduate Students. The members of the Council, in addition to the Masters, include the Dean of the College (Chair), the Dean of Undergraduate Students, the Vice President for Campus Life, and the Associate Dean of the College.
Undergraduate Departmental Committees
To make possible continuing contacts between the departmental chairs, faculty of the department, and students, an undergraduate departmental committee shall be established in each department.
1. In the election of student departmental committees, such committees and departmental chairs shall be jointly responsible for adopting procedures that have these objectives:
a) It should be convenient for the students of the department to vote.
b) There should be an opportunity for any departmental student to place names in nomination.
c) It should be easy for relatively small groups of students to have a representative on their department’s committee and difficult for an organized minority to capture a disproportionate share of committee positions.
d) There should be reasonable precautions against multiple balloting and reasonable measures to ensure a fair count of the vote.
2. Student departmental committees shall be provided with a reasonable amount of secretarial assistance in preparing proposals, communicating with departmental majors, and conducting elections.
3. Departmental chairs shall be responsible for:
a) Referring all proposals for major changes in departmental undergraduate programs to their student committees before action on such proposals is taken by departmental faculties.
b) Inviting members of student committees to discuss proposals for major changes in departmental undergraduate programs with departmental faculties at or before any meetings in which departmental faculties take action on such proposals.
c) Scheduling at least two meetings each academic year with their student committees, one early in the fall term to work out plans for later consultation, and one in late spring to review departmental undergraduate offerings so that chairs may take student views into account in preparing requests for new staff.
4. Student committees and faculty departmental committees concerned with the undergraduate program (in departments in which the latter sort of committee exists) shall normally meet jointly.
5. Student departmental committees have the following additional rights:
a) The right to attach comments, favorable or unfavorable, to all proposals forwarded by the faculties of their departments to the Committee on the Course of Study.
b) The right in certain circumstances to secure a departmental faculty’s reconsideration of action taken on proposals regarding the course of study for undergraduate students. Specifically: Departmental faculties should seriously consider a second vote on any measure regarding the department’s undergraduate program, when a second vote is requested by the student committee of the department. In any particular academic year departmental faculties should commit themselves to a second vote on such measures if a second vote is requested within one month by the student committee in a petition endorsed by two thirds of the department’s majors. If the action being reconsidered is on a proposal that the departmental faculty has rejected, a majority vote of the departmental faculty should reverse the previous decision. If the action being reconsidered is on a proposal that has been adopted by the departmental faculty, a two-thirds vote of the departmental faculty should be required to affirm the previous decision.
Undergraduate Student Government
The Undergraduate Student Government (USG) plays an important role in many areas of direct concern to undergraduates, including participating in the formulation of various University policies and the sponsorship of a wide variety of programs and activities. The USG encourages all undergraduates to read the USG constitution, which can be found on the USG Web page and to call the USG Hotline at 258-3102 with any concerns they have about the University policy.
As stated in the Constitution of the USG, the purposes of the USG are:
1. to serve as the representative of the undergraduates of Princeton University to the faculty, administration, and trustees of the University;
2. to represent the undergraduates of Princeton University to persons or groups outside of the University whenever such representation is called for;
3. to exercise leadership in all activities affecting the life of the undergraduates of Princeton University;
4. to provide services for the University and members of the University community;
5. to discuss, deliberate, and vote on any question relating to or affecting undergraduate life at Princeton University, or any other question of interest to the undergraduates.
The Student Senate
All terms last for one year. The voting members of the Student Senate are as follows:
l. the President, Vice President, and Treasurer, elected in December;
2. the chairs of the Undergraduate Life Committee, Academics Committee, and Campus and Community Affairs Committee, elected in December;
3. the ten undergraduate members of the Council of the Princeton University Community and the Social Chair, elected in April;
4. six Senators, two from three classes; first-years, sophomores, and juniors elect Senators in December.
Committees of the Student Senate
l. Members of the Undergraduate Life Committee meet monthly with the Vice President for Campus Life and the faculty Undergraduate Life Committee to review policies and make recommendations regarding nonacademic life.
2. The Academics Committee represents the undergraduates in matters of academic policy and offers academic-related services, such as the Student Course Guide, to the undergraduate student body.
3. The Social Committee sponsors a wide variety of social events for undergraduates.
4. The Campus and Community Affairs Committee works to improve town-gown relations.
5. The Projects Board makes grants and loans each semester to University-registered undergraduate student organizations.
Each class elects in April a President, Vice President, Treasurer, Secretary, and Social Chair. They are mostly responsible for coordinating social and service activities for the class they represent.
1. Methods of calling for a referendum:
a) Referenda concurrent with USG elections. Following a one-third vote of the Senate or upon petition of two hundred undergraduates, a referendum will be placed on the ballot of the nearest upcoming USG election, barring a vote of the Senate as explained in (c).
b) Referenda held during the rest of the year. Within three weeks (excluding vacations) of a two-thirds vote of the Senate or receipt of a petition of four hundred undergraduates, a referendum will be held. If a USG election occurs during the three-week period, the referendum will be held concurrently with the election, barring a vote of the Senate as explained in (c).
c) If (a) or (b) has been fulfilled, the referendum may be brought up for review at a Senate meeting. If five-sixths of those present deem the referendum frivolous, then it will not appear on the ballot. In this case, a petition of one-third of the regularly-enrolled undergraduates will place the referendum on the ballot within three weeks (excluding vacations).
2. Any undergraduate wishing to petition for a referendum shall notify the USG Vice President of this intention. The USG Elections Committee shall determine the proper form for the referendum. Completed petitions must be submitted no later than four weeks after notification.
3. The Student Senate shall be bound by the result of the referendum if at least one-sixth of regularly enrolled undergraduates vote in the majority. If the proposal contained in the referendum amends the USG Constitution or the Projects Board Charter, then the amendment shall be considered adopted if three-fifths of those voting, including at least one-sixth of the regularly enrolled undergraduates, vote in the affirmative.
Campus Associations and Activities
Students engaging in extracurricular activities on campus are free to form organizations devoted to a wide variety of objectives, and, as individuals or members of organizations, to express their views on issues of University and public interest. In these matters the University policy is to encourage free and responsible behavior of students, to hold to a minimum those regulations essential to the orderly conduct of extracurricular activities, and to seek in all ways to maintain the freedom enjoyed by students as participants in the life of the Princeton University community.
University recognition will not be withheld from any group pursuing lawful objectives merely because its aims may seem unorthodox. Student organizations may invite outside speakers of their choice, and are free to hold meetings and in other ways to express their views, subject only to prudent conditions regarding the protection of people and property and to reasonable regulations concerning time, place, and notice of meetings and other public exercises.
Demonstrations and the distribution of leaflets, statements, or petitions are permitted on the campus unless, or until, they disrupt the regular and essential operations of the University or significantly infringe upon the rights of others. If it becomes necessary to prevent a demonstration from exceeding these guidelines, the University will first attempt to use persuasion; the University will then, if necessary, use its own security personnel, and will call in outside law enforcement officials only as a last resort.
These policies are intended to safeguard the rights of students and student organizations to freedom of association. At the same time, candor and openness must be recognized as fundamental in an academic community, and the University does not look with favor on clandestine organizations. Furthermore, the activities of student organizations inevitably involve the University, which has, on occasion, been called upon to help to ensure that they meet financial and other obligations. For these several reasons, the University must ask student organizations which expect recognition by the University, identification through the use of the name of the University, and normal use of University facilities, to register the names of their officers and their basic objectives or purposes.
Upon filing a request with the appropriate University official, nonprofit and profit-making campus-based organizations will usually be granted permission to distribute literature, solicit donations, and seek customers on campus, subject to the general University regulations prohibiting obstruction of University activities or interference with individual rights. Authorization for such activities must be obtained from the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students in the case of buildings and grounds on the main campus; the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School in the case of the Graduate College; or the Office of the Director of the Plasma Physics Laboratory in the case of the buildings and grounds on the Forrestal Campus. Authorization to solicit in academic buildings or University offices will be granted only after consultation with the responsible academic and administrative officers. In the case of profit-making activities, regulations governing student agencies will apply.
Detailed guidelines for undergraduate organizations are available at the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students. Guidelines for graduate students are available from the Associate Dean of the Graduate School.
Student publications and broadcasting organizations are a valuable aid in establishing and maintaining an atmosphere of free and responsible discussion and of intellectual exploration on the campus. They are a means of bringing student concerns to the attention of the faculty and administration and of formulating student opinion on various issues on the campus and in the world at large. In pursuit of these goals, student publications enjoy the freedom of the press. At the same time, the editorial freedom of student editors and managers entails a corollary obligation to be governed by the canons of responsible journalism.
Regulations Concerning Specific Aspects of Student Life
A student resident in a University dormitory agrees to the terms and conditions outlined in the University room contract.
In general, dormitory residents themselves have authority to make their own social rules, so long as those rules conform to the general guidelines defined in the following paragraphs, as well as to the University’s general conduct regulations. Undergraduate men and women, unless they are married, cannot be assigned to the same rooms or the same suite of rooms. Furthermore, rooms must be assigned in such a way as to ensure that men and women have separate bathrooms. Graduate students, if married or domestic partners, are allowed to occupy apartment housing. In graduate dormitory housing, men and women may not share the same room or suite but they may share the same bathroom.
Space in University dormitories is made available to regularly enrolled students of Princeton, for their personal use, and use of such space cannot be transferred to any other individual. While students are permitted to have guests for short periods of time, extended visits are not permitted. Members of the dormitory community are expected to act with a considerate regard for the rights, privileges, and sensibilities of others. Dormitory residents should respect the desire of all members of the community for a reasonable degree of privacy. It is expected that residents will show consideration for the property of their peers and of the University.
The student is responsible for loss or damage to University property (including the furniture and the accommodations) provided for the use of the student. In the event of loss or damage, the student using the accommodations will be charged for necessary repairs or replacements. In addition, students who damage University property will be subject to University disciplinary action. Students may be held liable for all losses or damages resulting from negligent and/or purposeful acts and may also be liable for any loss or damage incurred by their guests who are non-University members.
The faculty retains general oversight of undergraduate dormitories. The Undergraduate Life Committee and the Residence Committee are responsible for making policy recommendations to the Vice President for Campus Life and the Director of Housing. Violations of dormitory regulations are adjudicated by the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students, the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline, the Residential College Disciplinary Board or the Housing Office. Housing policies, regulations, and services are outlined in the Residential Living Policies and Dining Services Guide.
Every Princeton dormitory resident has the right to a reasonably quiet environment in which to study and to pursue his or her other interests. The University expects all students to respect this right and to be aware of the impact of their activities on their neighbors. Stereo speakers, for example, should be placed in such a way as not to interfere with the activities of others. Normally, audio equipment should be placed away from doors and open windows. While social gatherings are an essential part of campus life, students responsible for hosting parties are urged to be considerate of their neighbors. If the Department of Public Safety receives complaints about a loud party or other noisemaking activity prior to midnight on weeknights or 2 a.m. on weekends (Friday-Saturday and Saturday-Sunday nights only), the Public Safety officers will ask the hosts to reduce the noise level. After the curfew hour, the Public Safety officers are authorized to end the activity in question. Dormitory residents concerned about excessive noise should feel free, at any time, to call the Public Safety officers for assistance. All noise complaints are noted by the Department of Public Safety. Especially flagrant and/or repeated violations of this noise policy may result in disciplinary action by the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School or the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students.
Only fish may be kept in dormitory rooms, and tanks are not to exceed 10 gallons. No other animals are allowed in the dormitories. Specific details can be found in the Residential Living Policies and Dining Services Guide.
Posting of Notices
Posters or notices of any kind may be affixed only to bulletin boards in dormitory entryways, food service units, academic and administration buildings, and outdoor kiosks, lampposts, and bulletin boards. Students are encouraged to remove outdated material from kiosks and bulletin boards rather than postering over existing notices. (See also page 7.)
Princeton University is committed to providing a healthy, smoke-free living environment for all its students. Further, New Jersey law prohibits smoking in all dormitories/annexes, including private student rooms and common areas. Accordingly, smoking is not permitted anywhere in Princeton University dormitories/annexes.
Fire Safety Policy
Students should consult the Residential Living Policies and Dining Services Guide for regulations regarding fire safety.
Candle/Flammable Liquid/Incense/Fireworks Policy
The University candle/incense ban is a total ban in all dormitories and annexes. Candles/incense do not have to show signs of use and/or be out of manufacturer’s wrapping. All candles/incense will be confiscated and immediately disposed of. A $50 fine will be issued on first offense along with possible disciplinary action by the dean’s office for unlit candles/incense. A $100 fine will be issued on the first offense along with disciplinary action by the dean’s office for lit candles/incense. If damage is incurred to a room due to candles/incense, the student will be held liable for charges to restore the room to its original condition. On subsequent offenses, the fine is increased and disciplinary action may result.
Use of Exterior Elevated Surfaces of Campus Buildings and Other Restricted Areas
Entering mechanical areas (rooms, tunnels, etc.) construction sites, or other restricted areas is prohibited. Entering upon exterior elevated surfaces of campus buildings (roofs, fire escapes, terraces, balconies, parapets, or ledges above the first floor) is prohibited except in emergencies or in the circumstances described below:
1. Authorized persons may, for purposes of research, enter upon the following elevated areas constructed especially for such research: the roof of Jadwin Laboratory and the terrace of the Engineering Research Laboratory. Entrance upon these areas may be authorized at the discretion of the responsible faculty departmental chairs.
2. In addition, members of the faculty and staff may, for purposes of research, request authorization to enter upon elevated surfaces other than those specified above. Such requests will be reviewed by the Office of Environmental Health and Safety in conjunction with the Facilities Department. Student requests must be sponsored by a faculty or staff member.
3. Any persons may enter upon the following terraces clearly designed for foot traffic and gatherings: Jadwin Plaza, Computing Center Terrace, McCormick Terrace.
4. University employees or contractor personnel are authorized to enter upon any elevated surfaces in the performance of official functions.
These regulations are intended to prevent injuries to members of the University community, and to prevent physical damage to surfaces, areas or equipment not designed for traffic or public use.
This policy specifically prohibits buildering on any elevated surface on the campus. The policy also prohibits entering upon any dormitory exterior areas above the first floor. (While some exterior elevated areas of the dormitories may appear to have been designed for foot traffic or gatherings, all such spaces are to be used only as a second means of egress in case of fire.)
No items, including antennas and wire, lights, flags, banners, etc., may be placed on or affixed to the outside of any building. No items may be placed on fire escapes at any time under any circumstances.
Because of the seriousness of the regulations regarding fire safety and use of exterior elevated surfaces of campus buildings, the University will take disciplinary action on a first offense. Such action may include the imposition of a fine by the Housing Office. Please refer to the University’s Residential Living Policies and Dining Services Guide for specific information regarding such fines. The University has the right, moreover, to require students who have violated these safety rules (or any other dormitory regulations) to vacate their accommodations with no financial credit for the remainder of the semester.
For clarification of the above safety regulations, please consult the Fire and Safety Inspection Office, the Housing Office, Office of Environmental Health and Safety, or the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students.
Storage space is extremely limited in the dormitories. During the academic year, therefore, students may store their possessions only in their suites or in designated storage areas. Possessions found in other areas will be treated as abandoned goods, and will be disposed of by the University after notice has been given. During the summer vacation, all personal possessions must be removed from dormitory rooms.
Lofts which conform to University standards and that incorporate the bed frames and mattress are permitted in dormitory rooms. Please consult the Housing Office for information regarding appropriate specifications.
Privacy and Right of Re-entry
The University respects the privacy of the student but reserves the right to re-enter and take possession of the accommodations upon breach of any term of this agreement. The University may enter the accommodations during reasonable hours to provide efficient service and maintenance. The University may enter the accommodations without notice for the purposes of emergency service, safety and room condition inspections, or if there is reason to believe that any term or condition of this agreement or any University policy is being violated. When entering accommodations, the University may be accompanied by an outside party, such as a Borough Fire Inspector.
Search of Dormitory Rooms
An administrative search of dormitory rooms (excluding safety inspections) will be carried out only with adequate cause, and with the explicit authorization of the Dean of Undergraduate Students, the Dean of the Graduate School, or some other senior administrative officer. Such a search may be conducted, for example, where there is reason to believe that the health/safety of an individual (or the campus community) is at stake or a term or condition of this agreement or a University policy is being violated. Should such a search be necessary, every effort will be made to have the resident present at the time of the search. If it is impossible to arrange to have the resident present, he or she will be informed of the action as soon as possible following the search.
All freshmen and sophomores living on campus are required to have board contracts at a University dining facility, unless excused by the Dean of Undergraduate Students for medical reasons. Any upperclass student living in a residential college must select a meal plan. The detailed terms of the dining contracts are available in the Residential Living Policies and Dining Services Guide.
Health Services policies and regulations are outlined in the UHS Guide, and at the UHS website: www.princeton.edu/uhs. University Health Services also has policies and procedures governing the confidentiality of student health records and the extent to which information may or may not be released. For further information contact University Health Services.
University Ban on the Nude Olympics
For a number of years undergraduates, predominantly members of the sophomore class, gathered as a group in Holder Courtyard on the night of the first snowfall, virtually naked, and in an environment that included student alcohol abuse, underage drinking, lack of concern for the welfare of fellow students, and risk of harm to themselves, to other people, and to property. This gathering came to be known as the “nude olympics.”
In the spring of 1999, the President of the University and the Board of Trustees accepted the recommendation of the Committee on the Nude Olympics that this activity be banned, effective immediately, because of the severe health and safety risks posed by the event. The undergraduate student body is advised that they may not attempt to organize or engage in any activity that is perceived to perpetuate gatherings or events that contain or encourage some or all of the behaviors that have been associated with past nude olympics. These prohibitions apply to the campus, as well as to public and private property in the surrounding communities.
Any undergraduate engaging in activity that, in the judgment of the Dean of Undergraduate Students or a designee, could reasonably appear to others to perpetuate gatherings or events that contain or encourage such behaviors is subject to suspension from the University for a period of at least one year. The penalty will be increased for aggravating behaviors, such as committing acts of vandalism, harassment, or avoiding apprehension by campus public safety officers or municipal police.
Normal disciplinary procedures will apply, except that
(1) the Dean of Undergraduate Students, or a designee, will hear the case and assign the penalty, and
(2) appeals will be brought to a subcommittee of the Committee on Discipline.
The President and board ask members of the University community to report information they have regarding possible violations of this policy to the Office of Public Safety or the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students.
New Jersey Law
In compliance with New Jersey statute, Princeton University is required to notify all students of their rights under law.
1. A person is guilty of hazing, a disorderly persons offense, if, in connection with the initiation of applicants to or members of a student or fraternal organization, he or she knowingly or recklessly organizes, promotes, facilitates or engages in any conduct, other than competitive athletic events, which places or may place another person in danger of bodily injury.
2. A person is guilty of aggravated hazing, a crime of the fourth degree, if he or she commits an act which results in serious bodily injury to another person.
3. Consent shall not be available as a defense to a prosecution under law.
4. Conduct constituting an offense under the law may be prosecuted under any applicable provision of Title 2C:40 of the New Jersey Statutes.
Prohibition on Hazing
1. Any student shall have the right to be free of all activities which might constitute hazing, while attempting to become a member of a fraternity, sorority, athletic team, student organization, eating club, or other campus organization. Organizations, their members, and their prospective members are prohibited from engaging in or encouraging others to engage in activities that are defined as hazing.
2. A broad range of behaviors that may place another person in danger of bodily injury or behavior that demonstrates indifference or disregard for another person’s dignity or well-being may be classified as hazing. Examples include but are not limited to the following:
a. forced or required ingestion of alcohol, food, drugs, or any undesirable substance.
b. participation in sexual rituals or assaults.
c. mentally abusive or demeaning behavior.
d. acts that could result in physical, mental, or emotional deprivation or harm.
e. physical abuse, e.g., whipping, paddling, beating, tattooing, branding, and exposure to the elements.
Any new member initiation process should be conducted in a manner that respects the dignity of new members and protects their mental and physical well-being. Examples of acceptable behavior include the promotion of scholarship or service, the development of leadership or social skills or of career goals, involvement with alumni, building an awareness of organizational history, development of a sense of solidarity with other organization members, or activities that otherwise promote the mission of the organization or of the University.
Sororities and Fraternities
The University does not recognize fraternities and sororities because, in general, they do not add in positive ways to the overall residential experience on the campus. These organizations can contribute to a sense of social exclusiveness and often place an excessive emphasis on alcohol. Students are discouraged from participating in these organizations.
Sororities and fraternities are not permitted to use any University resources or participate in University sponsored events (e.g., Student Activities Fair, April Hosting Program, etc.).
Students at Princeton University are responsible for knowing and abiding by both state and University regulations regarding the consumption of alcohol. The University provides educational programs and information on alcohol and drug abuse as well as counseling services. Students are expected and encouraged to be aware of the social, physiological, and psychological consequences and personal risks of excessive drinking in order to make responsible and informed decisions about the serving and consumption of alcohol.
The University alcoholic beverage policy is consistent with the laws of the state of New Jersey which, in general, prohibit the consumption and serving of alcoholic beverages by and to persons under 21 years of age. Students are responsible for their behavior, whether or not they are under the influence of alcohol. The consumption of alcohol does not constitute a mitigating circumstance when it contributes to the violation of University regulations. The policy affirms the need for mutual respect and personal responsibility within a diverse community.
The University respects the right to privacy, and its representatives will not enter dormitory rooms without substantive cause (i.e., without reasonable suspicion that University polices or regulations have been violated). However, those whose behavior infringes on the rights of others have, in essence, forfeited that privacy.
What are the responsibilities of Princeton University students?
Alcoholic beverages normally will not be provided at events where persons under the legal drinking age for consumption of alcoholic beverages are present, including those sponsored by the University, the residential colleges, the University centers, the Undergraduate Student Government, and the classes. Those who are of legal drinking age and who wish to host a gathering with alcohol must obtain approval from and comply with the guidelines established by the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students or the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School.
Availability of alcoholic beverages shall not be the primary focus of advertising for campus social events. Those given approval to serve alcoholic beverages are responsible for ensuring that only those of legal drinking age are served.
It is the immediate obligation of those in the presence of a severely intoxicated person to contact appropriate University or local medical or safety personnel (such as Public Safety officers, deans, University Health Services (UHS) staff, University Medical Center at Princeton staff, or local police or members of the rescue squad). Neither intoxication nor admission to UHS for intoxication will be grounds for disciplinary action. Contacting the Department of Public Safety for assistance in transporting a student in need of medical attention will not, in itself, lead to disciplinary action. Disciplinary action will occur only if other circumstances indicating a violation of University policy are observed. In such an instance, failure to call for assistance will be considered an especially serious violation of policy.
When will the University intervene?
The following represent examples of the way in which different kinds of incidents would be handled:
1. If Public Safety observes an individual leaving a party with alcohol, Public Safety has substantive cause to enter that room to investigate a possible serving violation.
2. In the event of a noise complaint, Public Safety will go to the room and knock on the door. If no one answers, Public Safety may enter the room and instruct the residents of the room to control the noise; Public Safety will not have cause to investigate possible alcohol violations unless indicators of alcohol consumption or provision are observed, such as evidence of intoxicated behavior, kegs, bottles, or cans. This procedure will be the same for any similar complaint.
3. The presence of individuals dancing or drinking out of cups is not in itself substantive cause to enter a room.
When are Princeton University students in violation of the alcohol policy?
Students are in violation of the University alcohol policy under any or all of the following circumstances:
1. When participation in or the organization of an activity encourages excessive drinking (e.g., drinking games, initiation activities, hazing) as it can endanger the individual serving alcohol. This is an especially serious violation.
2. When the consumption of alcohol contributes to behavior that (a) intimidates or harasses others; (b) injures or threatens to injure others (e.g., driving under the influence of alcohol, assault); (c) leads to the destruction of property; or (d) infringes on the peace and privacy of others, students are in violation of the policy.
Any of the above will be regarded as an especially serious violation.
The preceding regulations apply to students both on campus and in the local vicinity of the campus. Violations of local ordinances or state laws by students may also be grounds for University disciplinary action, regardless of where such violations occur, if they clearly violate University standards of conduct.
3. On campus, students are in violation of the policy (a) when carrying or possessing an open container* of alcohol in or across common spaces (lounges, gamerooms, courtyards, dining areas, hallways, etc.); (b) when in possession of a keg and/or tap or other evidence of intent to serve (unless permission is granted by the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students); (c) when, under the age of 21, in possession of any container of alcohol in common spaces of the University; (d) when serving, providing, or making available alcohol to any person, regardless of his or her age, without first obtaining approval from the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students (undergraduates) or the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School (graduate students); or (e) when procuring alcohol for persons under the age of 21 or by falsifying identification.
What are the consequences of violating the alcohol policy?
Students who are in violation of the alcohol policy are subject to a range of University sanctions: warning, disciplinary probation (including housing and/or campus service sanctions), withholding of degree, suspension, required withdrawal, expulsion, and censure. In general, an undergraduate who violates the alcohol policy for the first time is placed on disciplinary probation. Discipline for a second offense will be more serious and may involve lengthening of probation, campus service, and/or revocation of on-campus residential privileges. Students should expect to be suspended for a third alcohol or alcohol-related offense. Deans and directors of student life may require an alcohol/drug evaluation by University Health Services staff when appropriate and may notify a student’s parents following any significant incident of drug/alcohol-related misconduct. Alcohol, kegs, and/or taps used in violation of the above regulations will be confiscated.
Students who violate the University’s alcohol or drug policies will be encouraged to avail themselves of the services of the University’s Alcohol and Other Drug Program. In some cases, counseling may accompany disciplinary sanctions.
Princeton University does not condone the possession, use, manufacture, or distribution of illegal substances or drug paraphernalia of any kind in any amount. Students in violation of this policy may be jeopardizing their own well-being as well as the well-being of the University community.
In general, an undergraduate who uses or possesses drugs or drug paraphernalia for the first time will be placed on probation. Discipline for a second offense will be more serious and may involve lengthening of probation, campus service, and/or revocation of on-campus residential privileges. Students should expect to be suspended for a third offense.
Among those violations considered to be most serious are the manufacture, sale, or distribution of illegal drugs; any involvement in illegal drug use or traffic with minors, particularly from the local area; and possession or use of the more dangerous or highly addictive drugs. Students manufacturing, selling, or distributing illegal drugs should expect a lengthy separation or expulsion from the University.
Students possessing, using, selling, or manufacturing illegal substances may also be subject to mandatory penalties prescribed by the state.
Conduct at Prospect Street Clubs
Standards of behavior by University students in the independent Prospect Street clubs are to conform with established standards in the University as a whole. In particular, club members are to act with considerate regard for the rights, privileges, and sensibilities of others. It is expected that they will show due consideration for the property of their fellow members and guests, as well as for the property of the club itself. Physical violence, intimidation of others, or offensive and disorderly behavior will not be tolerated in any club or on the walks and streets outside clubs. University policy in cases in which misconduct is alleged to have taken place in the clubs is governed by the provisions set forth concerning off-campus activities (see page 9).
Policies and regulations are detailed in the booklet distributed by the library each year (see page 11).
Motor Vehicle Regulations
All students should be familiar with the Princeton University parking regulations since students are responsible for their own and their guests’ vehicles. Frequent violations of the parking rules and regulations will result in the revocation of parking privileges. Students who have had their parking privileges revoked, but continue to park on campus, will be reported for disciplinary action.
Detailed regulations and campus maps are available at the TigerCard/Parking Office located on the A Floor of the New South Building. In addition, they are available online at the following website: http://web.princeton.edu/sites/tigercard/parking.html.
Freshmen are not permitted to have a vehicle on campus for the academic year. Holidays and break times are NO exception.
Sophomores, Juniors, and Seniors
Princeton University is a pedestrian campus; students are expected to walk (or bicycle) to classes, eating clubs, and athletic practices.
Students are permitted day and overnight parking in Lot 23 with the purchase of an overnight parking permit. Students bringing vehicles for the weekend only may park free in Lot 23.
Parking in the numbered faculty/staff parking lots is permitted only after staff working hours and vehicles must be removed by 2 a.m. Staff working hours are Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Please note that lots 8, 9, and 18 are restricted at all times. A link to the parking lot map can be found at: http://web.princeton.edu/sites/tigercard/parking.html.
Parking in areas next to buildings (e.g., Bloomberg, Scully, Frist, etc.) is restricted at all times and requires a booth pass. Parking in these areas without a pass may result in towing without prior warning or citation. It is the student’s responsibility to request a booth pass from an officer in either of the two booths on Elm Drive.
Any student’s vehicle parked on campus must be registered with the TigerCard/Parking Office, even if overnight parking is not needed. A car may be registered online (http://web.princeton.edu/sites/tigercard/_parking/registration.html) by completing the vehicle and address information form and then logging out.
Parking arrangements for guests to the campus are the responsibility of the inviting party. To avoid the towing of a guest’s vehicle, students should make parking arrangements for their guests with the TigerCard/Parking Office. Temporary parking permits will be issued to guests who require parking from Monday, 8 a.m., through Friday, 5 p.m., for a fee. On the weekends, from Friday, 5 p.m., through Monday, 2 a.m., guests may park free in Lot 23.
The Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students and the Dean of the Graduate School are authorized to provide specific kinds of aid to students who have been charged with violations of the law or who are actually under arrest. In such cases, University officials may:
1. Provide the student with the names of a few local attorneys; the student may or may not choose to consult with persons from this list.
2. Help to arrange bail, if the student or parents cannot provide immediate funds for bail. In special circumstances, the University may make a loan for the amount of bail (or of a bondsman’s fee) if the student and/or parent so authorizes.
In all instances, the cost of bail, as well as the cost of legal counsel, are the full responsibility of the student and his or her family. The University’s actions in such cases are undertaken in an effort to ensure the protection of the student’s rights and safety, and are not to be construed as efforts to afford the student special treatment in respect to the law.
A detailed discussion of University fees and payment requirements is sent to all undergraduates in the Undergraduate Fees and Expenses booklet by the Office of Student Accounts.
Use of University Monies (Including Student Fees)
University funds, including fees collected by the University from all students (or their parents) as a condition of enrollment in the University, can be used only for purposes integrally related to student activities at the University. Such funds should not be used to make grants to organizations outside the University, thus rendering the University, in effect, a conduit for the transfer of funds. An annual fee is assessed to all enrolled graduate students in residence in order to fund activities of the Graduate Student Government, and at the discretion of the Graduate Student Government, to support other organizations and events. Undergraduate activity monies can be allocated through the Undergraduate Student Government for the support of the on-campus activities of campus groups, including provision of funds to assist in fund-raising efforts, in educational and informational campaigns, and the like. University policy stipulates, however, that each of the many causes that compete for student attention should make its own case to potential sources of funds on campus and should solicit from individuals voluntary contributions specifically for the particular purposes of that organization.
The Undergraduate Honor System
Jurisdiction over Undergraduates for Violations of Academic Rules and Regulations
Jurisdiction over violations of academic rules and regulations rests with two distinct committees at Princeton. All written examinations, tests, and quizzes that take place in class are conducted under the honor system. All violations of the honor system are the concern of the Undergraduate Honor Committee. Violations of rules and regulations pertaining to all other academic work, including essays, term papers, and laboratory reports, fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty/Student Committee on Discipline. Should there be any uncertainty regarding which body is responsible for the adjudication of a particular case, clarification should be requested from the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students and the chair of the Honor Committee.
At Princeton all in-class written examinations, tests, and quizzes are conducted under the honor system. Its constitution is printed in full below. A letter explaining the honor system is sent by the chair of the Honor Committee to each newly admitted student, who then signifies by signing the honor system statement that he or she understands and will abide by the conditions under which the honor system is conducted. Final entrance to the University is contingent upon the committee’s receipt of this letter. Status as a student “in good standing” and graduation from the University are contingent upon continued participation in the honor system. The Honor Committee consists of three current class presidents, three past class presidents, and three undergraduates selected by application from the student body at large. Three additional undergraduates are selected from the student body at large to serve as alternates on the Honor Committee.
Under the honor system, the students assume full responsibility for honesty in written examinations. Examinations are not supervised. The instructor in charge distributes the examination papers, waits for a short time for any questions, and then leaves the room, returning at the end of the stated period to collect the answer books. On each examination paper, the student writes out and signs the following statement: “I pledge my honor that I have not violated the honor code during this examination.”
Every student acknowledges the obligation to report any suspected violation of the honor system that he or she has observed. It is the common understanding among Princeton students that, where the honor system is concerned, an individual’s obligation to the undergraduate student body as a whole transcends any reluctance to report another student. Thus, under the honor system students have a twofold obligation: individually, they must not violate the code, and as a community, they are responsible to see that suspected violations are reported.
Violations of the honor system are the concern of the Undergraduate Honor Committee. When a report of a suspected violation of the honor system is received, the Honor Committee immediately conducts an investigation. If the investigation indicates that it is warranted, the full Honor Committee is convened and a confidential hearing is held. If the student in question is acquitted, all records of the hearing are destroyed. If a student is found guilty, the committee recommends an appropriate penalty to the Dean of Undergraduate Students. Normally, a student found guilty of violating the honor code can expect to be suspended from the University for one, two, or three years. A second offense will result in expulsion. Censure may be added to all penalties to underscore the seriousness of the violation.
Procedures during the course of an examination are determined by the faculty member present. Students may not leave the examination room without the specific permission of the faculty member. Such permission must be granted uniformly; that is, if one student is allowed to leave the room, no other may be denied such permission upon request. Students may not take their examinations with them outside of the examination room. Students are advised to sit one seat apart from other students, to refrain from bringing notes and books into the examination room, and if possible, to avoid sitting near those with whom they have studied. Laptop computers as well as hand-held electronic communication devices (e.g., cell phones, blackberries, etc.) are forbidden in final examination rooms. Additionally, students may not wear headphones attached to audio devices during examinations. The faculty member, who is present only briefly to answer questions and to pick up the completed examinations, has the responsibility to make sure the examinations are turned in by students at the appropriate time.
Princeton’s honor system was established by the undergraduates in 1893 and has been in effect without interruption since that time. It has been successful because generations of undergraduates have respected it, and by common agreement have given it highest place among their obligations as Princeton students.
Much of the internal organization and virtually all of the operating procedures of the Honor Committee are determined by the committee itself. The tone and style of each year’s committee may vary, but there is continuity in procedure from year to year. Generally there are at least three members on the committee who have served previously.
A typical case would be conducted as follows:
A suspected violation of the honor system is brought to the attention of the Honor Committee by a reporting witness. The reporting witness is typically a faculty member, a student, or the violator. The member of the committee receiving the report calls the chair. On a rotating basis, two members of the committee conduct a preliminary investigation of the allegation. The meeting in which investigators notify the student in question of their alleged violation will be recorded for possible use by the committee or the accused student if a hearing is held. If the evidence warrants it, the chair sets a time and place for a hearing. A representative from the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students will serve as procedural advisor for the student in question. The two investigators and/or the chair inform the student in question of the charge at least 24 hours before the hearing and may also ask potential witnesses to appear at the hearing. As much confidentiality as possible is maintained during the investigation in order to protect the principals from rumor.
Evidence for the hearing usually includes the examination(s) in question and any other relevant material, which are duplicated, if necessary, for use by the individual members of the committee during the hearing. If a faculty member reports the alleged violation, or if consultation with the professor administering the examination or the preceptor or section leader of the student in question seems helpful, the committee may call that person or persons to the actual hearing to discuss the facts as then known. The committee may also have present, during the hearing, a student or faculty member who is knowledgeable in the field of the examination in question.
After a report of a suspected violation is received, the chair consults with the dean of undergraduate students or the dean’s designee concerning the general character of the suspected violation, the nature of the investigation in progress, and any questions that may arise during the course of the investigation. The chair may also, if he or she deems it necessary, consult with the dean during the course of the hearing. The chair also informs an associate dean of undergraduate students of the name of the person under investigation. The associate dean of undergraduate students provides the chair and the two investigators, prior to any scheduled hearing, whatever information he or she determines is appropriate concerning the student in question for consideration by the committee. This might include any special or extraordinary circumstances affecting the student. While an investigation or hearing is underway, the notation “Status Under Review” may, in situations where necessary, be added to the transcript of the student in question.
In the hearing, witnesses provide information about the possible violation that has been observed and are questioned by the committee. Next, the student in question is called before the committee. The student in question is urged to choose a peer representative who will be present throughout the hearing. Only a current undergraduate member of the University community who is not a member of the Honor Committee may serve as the peer representative. The peer representative may ask questions of all witnesses. Though investigators do not participate in deliberations, they will have an opportunity to contribute information pertaining to the investigation following each witness’ testimony. At the conclusion of all testimony, the investigators may, in the presence of the peer representative, present a summary of the case. Before the committee begins deliberations on guilt or innocence, the peer representative and the student in question will have the option of delivering a final defense summary to the committee. The identities of the student in question, student reporting witnesses, and any other student witnesses are kept completely confidential. This helps to insure that honor code-related cases will not lead to prejudice outside the hearing room.
The only adequate defense for a student accused of an honor code violation is that his or her actions did not, in fact, constitute a violation. In determining whether an honor code violation has occurred or the severity of such a violation, the committee may take into account whether the student should have reasonably understood that his or her actions were in violation of University policy and/or exam room procedures. Neither the defense that the student was ignorant of the regulations concerning the exam nor the defense that the student was under pressure at the time the violation was committed is considered an adequate defense.
The principals and witnesses may be called for testimony several times before the committee renders a judgment. The committee deliberates in private and arrives at a decision by individual vote. If the student is found to have intentionally misled the committee during the course of the hearing, the committee may take that fact into account in reaching a conclusion and assigning a penalty. When a decision is reached, the student in question is called and informed of the judgment. Then the reporting witness is informed of the judgment, thanked for the exercise of a responsibility that is difficult but necessary, and cautioned against discussion of the case. If the student is acquitted, all written record of his or her involvement in the case is destroyed. Records of cases, which are retained by the committee, aid future committees by the precedents they contain, although for the most part the committee is likely to consider each case as unique rather than search for a decision in a similar case.
If a person is found guilty, he or she is informed of the punishment, which is, at the committee’s discretion, a one-, two-, or three-year suspension, or in the case of a second offense, permanent expulsion. The committee shall also have recourse, in the presence of extenuating circumstances, to probation up to four years, which becomes a part of the student’s permanent record. Only the Dean of Undergraduate Students may review the final penalty. An appeal of a decision of the Honor Committee should be directed to the Office of the Dean of the College. Such appeals can only be made on the grounds of procedural unfairness or harmful bias. The penalty levied by the Honor Committee may not be increased upon appeal. If the Dean of the College determines that a penalty of the Honor Committee should be reduced, the Dean will make a recommendation to the President, describing the reasons for the proposed modification, and the President will decide whether or not to implement the recommendation.
Constitution of the Honor System
Adopted by the undergraduates in 1893. Amended in 2006.
1. There shall be a committee consisting of nine full members and three alternate members who shall represent the student body and deal with all cases involving suspected violations of the honor system.
2. The members of this committee shall be the presidents of the first-year, sophomore, and junior classes, former class presidents, and members to be appointed by the committee from the student body at large until the committee consists of nine full members. Three additional undergraduates shall be chosen from this same applicant pool to serve as alternates to the committee. They shall be considered as full members of the committee but shall participate and vote in hearings and deliberations only if there would otherwise be an absence of a quorum. The alternates shall not conduct investigations.
3. Every Academic year a subcommittee composed of the senior class members of the Honor Committee and the Undergraduate Student Government President shall convene after the first of April to select a sophomore member of the committee to serve as clerk for the committee during the upcoming academic year. This subcommittee will interview all interested sophomore members of the committee and shall appoint one sophomore by a unanimous vote to serve as the clerk of the Honor Committee for the upcoming academic year. This sophomore member will automatically become a member of the committee the following year. Furthermore, if this sophomore member of the committee is currently an alternate, he or she will automatically become a full member of the committee the following year.
4. The president of the junior class and the former sophomore class president will normally serve until the end of their junior year and will automatically become members of the committee at the beginning of their senior year.
5. The member of the committee who serves as clerk junior year will become chair of the committee during his or her senior year. In the event that this person withdraws from the University, or is otherwise unable to serve as chair of the committee, the member of the committee who is in the senior class and served as his or her junior class president will become the chair of the honor committee.
6. The newly elected sophomore and junior class presidents will normally become members of the committee at the beginning of the fall term following their election, but, if needed, can serve on the committee immediately after their election. The first-year class president will serve immediately following his or her election.
7. Following spring elections, the Honor Committee will solicit applications from the student body at large for the remaining positions on the committee. Appointed members shall serve one-year terms, but may seek reappointment thereafter. Committee members seeking reappointment shall not participate in the selection process. All appointments are subject to approval by the Undergraduate Student Government.
1. The committee may dismiss a member for neglect of duty. A vote of nine of the eleven other members would be required for such a dismissal.
2. If any member shall for any reason become unable to serve or be dismissed, an alternate shall be appointed by the committee to replace the member. A new alternate shall then be appointed by the Honor Committee subject to approval by the Undergraduate Student Government.
3. If action of the committee becomes necessary before the selection of this new alternate or before the fall election of the first-year class president, the members of the committee at that time shall constitute a temporary committee for the particular case with the same regulations of power, procedure, and penalties as adopted in this constitution.
1. The committee shall have power to summon the student or students in question, witness or witnesses, documents, and articles of material evidence, and to seek to obtain any information bearing on the accusation. Only the seven voting members of the committee who participate in the hearing shall meet to determine whether the student or students in question be guilty or not guilty of violating the honor system.
2. Following the conviction of a student, the voting members of the committee who determined guilt shall meet to determine the penalty. A decision on the penalty shall require a majority vote. The convicted person or persons may not attend this meeting. The committee shall assign a penalty and report it to the Dean of Undergraduate Students. The penalty shall take effect upon imposition by the Dean of Undergraduate Students.
3. Under normal circumstances, individuals convicted of cheating shall be subject to the following penalties: The first offense will result in a penalty of suspension for one year or, if perjury occurs, suspension for two or three years. The second offense will result in expulsion from the University. In the absence of perjury, the committee shall also have recourse to suspension for two or three years. In all cases, the committee may exercise the option of required withdrawal and/or censure. When there are extenuating circumstances, the first offense may result in a penalty of probation, which becomes a part of the student’s permanent record until graduation. Extenuating circumstances include, but are not limited to, instances in which the committee fails to conclude that a student should reasonably have understood that his or her actions were in violation of the honor code. Under this probation, a second violation of the honor code will result in suspension or expulsion.
4. Under normal circumstances, when a violation requiring suspension occurs during the fall term, the convicted person or persons shall not be eligible to return until the following fall term. When a violation requiring suspension occurs during the spring term, the convicted person or persons shall not be eligible to return until the following spring term. If a senior is involved in a violation during the spring term, the student’s degree may be withheld until the spring of the following year. Only the Dean of the College may review the final penalty. An appeal of the decision of the Honor Committee should be directed to the Dean of the College. Such appeals can only be made on the grounds of procedural unfairness or harmful bias. The penalty levied by the Honor Committee may not be increased upon appeal. If the Dean of the College determines that a penalty of the Honor Committee should be reduced, the Dean will make a recommendation to the President, describing the reasons for the proposed modification, and the President will decide whether or not to implement the recommendation.
5. Under extreme, exceptional circumstances, the committee may allow a student to complete the term in which the violation occurred and be removed from the University for the following two semesters. In such cases the Honor Committee would recommend that the student receive a failing grade in the course in which the violation occurred.
1. The place and time of all hearings shall be determined by the chair of the committee.
2. The hearing shall be conducted in the following manner with the chair presiding. The reporting witness will first report his or her suspicion to the committee. Additional witnesses may also appear before the committee. The student in question will then be heard and given the opportunity to present evidence and witnesses. Members of the committee may ask questions at any point, seek additional materials or testimony, visit any relevant location, recall or review evidence or testimony provided earlier, and in general seek to obtain any information bearing on the accusation. Investigators will have an opportunity to contribute information pertaining to the investigation following each witness’ testimony. At the conclusion of all testimony, the investigators may, with the peer representative present, present a summary of the case. The committee will deliberate in private, and a determination that the honor code has been violated shall require the presence of overwhelmingly convincing evidence. Documented evidence and plausibility of method, in the absence of demonstrated intent, may be enough to convict.
3. On a rotating basis, the chair shall appoint two members of the committee to conduct a preliminary investigation. After conducting this preliminary investigation, the two investigators in consultation with the chair shall determine whether or not a hearing is warranted. If a hearing is not warranted, all records of the case shall be immediately destroyed. If a hearing is warranted, the student in question is urged to choose a peer representative. Only a current undergraduate member of the University community may serve as the peer representative. The peer representative may present a summary of the case prior to the committee’s deliberations. The investigators will, at the conclusion of the hearing, write a casebook summary and/or the summary directed to the Dean of Undergraduate Students.
4. A quorum shall consist of seven voting members. The number of votes necessary for conviction shall be as follows: six of seven, or seven of seven.
5. All evidence shall be procured in every case, and in no event shall a student be tried a second time for the same offense, except in light of new and important evidence to be determined by a majority vote of the committee. The testimony of one individual by itself shall not be sufficient to warrant another hearing.
6. The student in question shall learn of the charges brought against him or her through a letter, which need not be signed, written in some reasonable detail by the witness who reported the suspected violation. The investigators shall explain the charges and enumerate the rights of the student in question as hereinafter provided in Article IV, Section 7. The student in question shall be asked to sign a statement prior to a hearing saying he or she has been informed of his or her rights under the honor constitution. Upon receipt of the letter of accusation, the student may exercise his or her right of up to seven days of preparation for the Honor Committee hearing.
7. The rights of the student in question shall include:
a) The right to have a witness present during the initial interview with investigators;
b) the right to review in advance all documents constituting direct material evidence;
c) the right to call witnesses;
d) the right to have a representative from the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students serve as a procedural advisor prior to the hearing to advise the student in question of matters concerning Honor Committee procedures.
e) the right to choose a current undergraduate member of the University community to serve as a peer representative to speak on the behalf of the student in question and to question all witnesses. The student in question may not serve as his or her own peer representative.
f) the right, in the event of a conviction, to receive a copy of a summary statement of the grounds for the committee’s decision, and to poll the votes of the individual committee members. This summary statement must outline the charge made against the student, describe the evidence and testimony provided in support of this charge, and provide the rationale for the committee’s finding, both in terms of verdict and punishment assigned.
g) the right, in the event of a conviction, to receive a record of the hearing.
8. It is incumbent upon the Honor Committee members to investigate all possible connections between the student in question and all witnesses, and any potential ulterior motives involved in the case, while protecting the confidentiality of all parties involved.
9. All those involved in the investigation and hearing process are expected to maintain the confidentiality of all persons involved in the case.
1. Violations of the honor system shall consist of any attempt to receive assistance from written or printed aids, or from any person or papers, or of any attempt to give assistance, whether the one so doing has completed his or her own work or not. This rule holds both inside and outside of the examination room. Other violations include, but are not limited to, any attempt to gain an unfair advantage in regard to an examination, such as tampering with a graded exam or claiming another’s work to be one’s own.
2. Violations shall also consist of obtaining or attempting to obtain, previous to any examinations, copies of the examination papers or the questions to appear thereon, or to obtain any illegal knowledge of these questions.
3. Termed perjury, lying before the committee or purposely misleading the committee shall also constitute a violation of the honor code.
4. Any undergraduate not signing the pledge placed upon the examination paper will be notified by the instructor holding the examination, and, if unable then to sign, he or she will be reported to the committee for investigation. Inability to sign the pledge to an examination paper upon notification by the instructor or by the committee shall be prima facie evidence of violation of the honor system.
5. The pledge is as follows: “I pledge my honor that I have not violated the honor code during this examination.” This must at all times be written in full and signed by the student.
6. Every student is obligated to report to the Honor Committee any suspected violation of the honor code that he or she has observed.
1. The committee may use recording devices to tape the proceedings of each case.
2. The committee will keep a written record of all cases acted upon. These records, together with the constitution, shall be preserved by the chair of the committee each year, for the instruction of the committee. In the case of an acquittal, all record of a person’s involvement is destroyed.
The constitution may be amended (a) upon the initiative of seven of the nine members of the committee, followed by a three-fourths vote of the Undergraduate Student Government members present at a meeting of the Undergraduate Student Government; or (b) upon the initiative by petition of 200 members of the undergraduate body, followed by a three-fourths vote in a student referendum as conducted by the Elections Committee of the Undergraduate Student Government.
Article VII can be amended only by a student referendum.
The constitution shall be published during the first week of each college year. It shall also be printed in a pamphlet, copies of which shall be issued to all students upon matriculation at the University, as well as to new members of the teaching staff. Article V of this constitution shall be published immediately before midterm and final examinations begin.
A student is in good standing if he or she is making normal progress toward a degree and has a satisfactory record in scholarship and conduct. Scholastic regulations for undergraduates pertaining to choice of studies, completion of course requirements, and academic standing are printed in the Undergraduate Announcement, and for graduate students regulations are online.
Jurisdiction over Undergraduates for Violations of Academic Rules and Regulations
Jurisdiction over violations of academic rules and regulations rests with two distinct committees at Princeton. All in-class undergraduate written examinations and tests are conducted under the Honor System. All violations of the Honor System are the concern of the Undergraduate Honor Committee. Violations of rules and regulations pertaining to all other academic work, including essays, term papers, and laboratory reports, fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline. Should there be any uncertainty regarding which body is responsible for the adjudication of a particular case, clarification should be requested from the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students or the chairperson of the Honor Committee.
Student Acknowledgment of Original Work
At the end of an essay, laboratory report, or any other requirement, the undergraduate must write the following sentence and sign his or her name: “This paper represents my own work in accordance with University regulations.”
Transcription or Publication of Course-Related Materials
Students may not engage in the publication or sale of abstracts or transcriptions of the lectures or required reading in any course of instruction in the University.
This regulation is not intended to preclude situations in which students may act as assistants to instructors who are themselves preparing lectures or other course-related materials, either for informal distribution (without sale) to members of a particular course or department, or for formal publication and sale by a publisher.
An undergraduate is subject to disciplinary action if he or she makes use of any tutoring service or facility other than that regularly authorized by the Office of the Dean of the College. Graduate students should consult the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School.
Also, no member of the University may accept compensation for tutoring in Princeton courses except as authorized by the Office of the Dean of the College, or be employed by any tutoring agency other than that authorized by the Office of the Dean of the College.
General Requirements for the Acknowledgment of Sources in Academic Work
The academic departments of the University have varying requirements for the acknowledgment of sources, but certain fundamental principles apply to all levels of work. In order to prevent any misunderstanding, students are expected to study and comply with the following basic requirements. If you have any questions about when and how to cite your sources, ask the course instructor. An important general rule is this: if you are unsure whether or not to acknowledge a source, always err on the side of caution and completeness by citing rather than not citing.
Any quotations, however small, must be placed in quotation marks or clearly indented beyond the regular margin. Any quotation must be accompanied (either within the text or in a footnote) by a precise indication of the source—identifying the author, title, place and date of publication (where relevant), and page numbers. Any sentence or phrase which is not the original work of the student must be acknowledged.
Any material which is paraphrased or summarized must also be specifically acknowledged in a footnote or in the text. A thorough rewording or rearrangement of an author’s text does not relieve one of this responsibility. Occasionally, students maintain that they have read a source long before they wrote their papers and have unwittingly duplicated some of its phrases or ideas. This is not a valid excuse. The student is responsible for taking adequate notes so that debts of phrasing may be acknowledged where they are due.
Ideas and Facts
Any ideas or facts which are borrowed should be specifically acknowledged in a footnote or in the text, even if the idea or fact has been further elaborated by the student. Some ideas, facts, formulas, and other kinds of information which are widely known and considered to be in the “public domain” of common knowledge do not always require citation. The criteria for common knowledge vary among disciplines; students in doubt should consult a member of the faculty.
Occasionally, a student in preparing an essay has consulted an essay or body of notes on a similar subject by another student. If the student has done so, he or she must state the fact and indicate clearly the nature and extent of his or her obligation. The name and class of the author of an essay or notes which are consulted should be given, and the student should be prepared to show the work consulted to the instructor, if requested to do so.
Footnotes and Bibliography
All the sources which have been consulted in the preparation of an essay or report should be listed in a bibliography, unless specific guidelines (from the academic department or instructor) request that only works cited be so included. However, the mere listing of a source in a bibliography shall not be considered a “proper acknowledgment” for specific use of that source within the essay or report; a footnote or endnote must also appear after the information or quotation from that source. Neither shall the use of a footnote at the end of a sentence or paragraph in which only minor word changes have been made from the original source be considered “proper acknowledgment.” The extent of indebtedness to the author must be made clear.
Electronic and Other Sources
The requirement to acknowledge sources is not limited to printed material such as books or journal articles. Information is now readily available through many newer media, including text and images on the World Wide Web, CD-ROM, and electronic mail. Information or quotations from any of these sources must be properly cited; ask your course instructor for guidance on how to cite such sources. At a minimum, acknowledge any information, text or image from the World Wide Web by noting the name and author of the site (if available), the Internet address, and the date you accessed the site.
Laboratory Work, Problem Sets, Computer Programs, and Homework
The organization of laboratory and computational courses varies throughout the University. In many courses, students work in pairs or in larger groups. In those cases where individual reports are submitted based on work involving collaboration, proper acknowledgment of the extent of the collaboration must appear in the report. In those cases where there are two or more signatories to a submitted report, each student’s signature is taken to mean that the student has contributed fairly to the work involved and understands and endorses the content of the report. If for any reason, a set of observations or calculations has been invalidated or left incomplete, permission must be granted by the instructor to obtain the data from other sources and those sources must be specifically acknowledged in the report. Make sure you understand the rules of collaboration in any course by asking the instructor.
Under certain conditions, the student may be permitted to rewrite an earlier work or to satisfy two academic requirements by producing a single piece of work more extensive than that which would satisfy either requirement on its own. In such cases however, the student must secure in writing, prior permission of each instructor. In cases where a previously submitted work, or a portion of it, is submitted in its original or revised form to another instructor, the student must also submit the original work with the revised version. If a single extended work has been written for more than one course, that fact must be clearly indicated at the beginning of the essay.
Students required to submit written notes for oral reports must clearly acknowledge any work that is not original, in accordance with the requirements stated above.
Standard Forms of Reference
For standard forms of quotations, footnotes and bibliographies, the student may consult one of the following: The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (Modern Language Association of America, 4th edition, l995); A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Kate L. Turabian, John Grossman, and Alice Bennett, 6th revised edition, l996) or a style sheet provided by a department of the University.
Definitions of Academic Violations under the Jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline
With regard to essays, laboratory reports, or any other written work submitted to fulfill an official academic requirement, the following are considered academic infractions:
The use of any outside source without proper acknowledgment. “Outside source” means any work, published or unpublished, by any person other than the student. (See pages 60–61.)
Unauthorized Multiple Submission
The failure to obtain prior written permission of the relevant instructors to submit any work that has been submitted in identical or similar form in fulfillment of any other academic requirement at any institution.
The attribution to, or citation of, a source from which the material in question was not, in fact, obtained.
The submission of data or information that has been deliberately altered or contrived by the student or with the student’s knowledge, including the submission for re-grading of any academic work under the jurisdiction of the Committee on Discipline.
Violations of these regulations are under the jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline or the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School.
The only adequate defense for a student accused of an academic violation is that the work in question does not, in fact, constitute a violation.
Neither the defense that the student was ignorant of the regulations concerning academic violations nor the defense that the student was under pressure at the time the violation was committed is considered an adequate defense.
Seriousness of the Offense
Academic infractions are always considered a serious matter, but will be considered especially serious if:
1. The student has submitted a paper prepared by another person or agency.
2. The student has on his or her record a previous conviction for another serious violation.
3. The infraction includes the theft of another student’s work—even if the paper or assignment is returned after use, or consulted without being removed from the other student’s room or from a public or private room or from an electronic online location such as a website where work has been placed.
In determining the seriousness of the offense, the Committee will consider whether the student ought reasonably to have understood that his or her actions were in violation of University regulations. If the Committee concludes that this threshold has been met, the penalty will normally be one year’s suspension or required withdrawal from the University. While the failure to fulfill the general requirements for acknowledgment of sources in academic work may not be determined to reach this level of seriousness, any such failure will be considered an academic infraction and will normally result in a disciplinary penalty.
For further discussion of undergraduate academic violations, please consult the chapter on the Honor System in this booklet.
Examples of Plagiarism
The following examples provide a range of plagiarism from verbatim copying to thorough paraphrasing. The examples and comments offer clear guidance about how a source may be used and when a source must be cited.
From: Alvin Kernan, The Playwright as Magician. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979, pp.102–103.
From time to time this submerged or latent theater in Hamlet becomes almost overt. It is close to the surface in Hamlet’s pretense of madness, the “antic disposition” he puts on to protect himself and prevent his antagonists from plucking out the heart of his mystery. It is even closer to the surface when Hamlet enters his mother’s room and holds up, side by side, the pictures of the two kings, Old Hamlet and Claudius, and proceeds to describe for her the true nature of the choice she has made, presenting truth by means of a show. Similarly, when he leaps into the open grave at Ophelia’s funeral, ranting in high heroic terms, he is acting out for Laertes, and perhaps for himself as well, the folly of excessive, melodramatic expressions of grief.
1. Example of verbatim plagiarism, or unacknowledged direct quotation (lifted passages are underlined):
Almost all of Shakespeare’s Hamlet can be understood as a play about acting and the theatre. For example, there is Hamlet’s pretense of madness, the “antic disposition” that he puts on to protect himself and prevent his antagonists from plucking out the heart of his mystery. When Hamlet enters his mother’s room, he holds up, side by side, the pictures of the two kings, Old Hamlet and Claudius, and proceeds to describe for her the true nature of the choice she has made, presenting truth by means of a show. Similarly, when he leaps into the open grave at Ophelia’s funeral, ranting in high heroic terms, he is acting out for Laertes, and perhaps for himself as well, the folly of excessive, melodramatic expressions of grief.
Comment: Aside from an opening sentence loosely adapted from the original and reworded more simply, this entire passage is taken almost word-for-word from the source. The few small alterations of the source do not relieve the writer of the responsibility to attribute these words to their original author. A passage from a source may be worth quoting at length if it makes a point precisely or elegantly. In such cases, copy the passage exactly, place it in quotation marks, and cite the author.
2. Example of lifting selected passages and phrases without proper acknowledgement (lifted passages are underlined):
Almost all of Shakespeare’s Hamlet can be understood as a play about acting and the theatre. For example, in Act 1, Hamlet adopts a pretense of madness that he uses to protect himself and prevent his antagonists from discovering his mission to revenge his father’s murder. He also presents truth by means of a show when he compares the portraits of Gertrude’s two husbands in order to describe for her the true nature of the choice she has made. And when he leaps in Ophelia’s open grave ranting in high heroic terms, Hamlet is acting out the folly of excessive, melodramatic expressions of grief.
Comment: This passage, in content and structure, is taken wholesale from the source. Although the writer has rewritten much of the paragraph, and fewer phrases are lifted verbatim from the source, this is a clear example of plagiarism. Inserting even short phrases from the source into a new sentence still requires placing quotations around the borrowed words and citing the author. If even one phrase is good enough to borrow, it must be properly set off by quotation marks. In the case above, if the writer had rewritten the entire paragraph and only used Alvin Kernan’s phrase “high heroic terms” without properly quoting and acknowledging its source, the writer would have plagiarized.
3. Example of paraphrasing the text while maintaining the basic paragraph and sentence structure:
Almost all of Shakespeare’s Hamlet can be understood as a play about acting and the theatre. For example, in Act 1, Hamlet pretends to be insane in order to make sure his enemies do not discover his mission to revenge his father’s murder. The theme is even more obvious when Hamlet compares the pictures of his mother’s two husbands to show her what a bad choice she has made, using their images to reveal the truth. Also, when he jumps into Ophelia’s grave, hurling his challenge to Laertes, Hamlet demonstrates the foolishness of exaggerated expressions of emotion.
Comment: Almost nothing of Alvin Kernan’s original language remains in this rewritten paragraph. However the key idea, the choice and order of the examples, and even the basic structure of the original sentences are all taken from the source. Although it would no longer be necessary to use quotation marks, it would absolutely be necessary to place a citation at the end of this paragraph to acknowledge that the content is not original. Better still would be to acknowledge the author in the text by adding a second sentence such as—“Alvin Kernan provides several examples from the play where these themes become more obvious”—and then citing the source at the end of the paragraph. In the case where the writer did not try to paraphrase the source’s sentences quite so closely, but borrowed the main idea and examples from Kernan’s book, an acknowledgment would still be necessary.
The Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline (Undergraduate)
The Committee on Discipline, comprising students, faculty members, and administrators, is responsible for the administration of the stated rules and regulations governing undergraduate conduct, for assessing reported violations, and, when necessary, for assigning and recommending appropriate penalties.
The committee consists of five student members selected by the Undergraduate Student Government, four elected members of the faculty, an Associate or Assistant Dean of the College, the Vice President for Campus Life, who sits with the committee without vote, the Dean of Undergraduate Students, who serves as chair and votes only in the event of a tie as set forth below, and an Associate or Assistant Dean of Undergraduate Students who serves as secretary without vote. A quorum consists of at least three student members and at least two faculty members. Either the Vice President for Campus Life or the Associate Dean of the College shall have the duties and powers of the Dean of Undergraduate Students in his or her absence.
If a student is alleged to have committed a minor infraction for which precedents are available and for which the penalty will not interrupt the student’s academic career, he or she is first asked to meet with the appropriate Director of Student Life (if the student lives in a residential college) or with the Associate or Assistant Dean of Undergraduate Students (if the student lives in one of the upperclass dormitories or off campus). The Associate Dean/Assistant Dean or the Director of Student Life will investigate all complaints promptly. The student may read all statements, reports, or other information relevant to the allegation. The facts of the case will be discussed and the student given ample opportunity to present his or her account of the incident in question, including a written account, witnesses or other relevant information, or to request clarification of any relevant information submitted by other parties. The student will be notified of the specific violation he or she is alleged to have committed prior to the conclusion of the investigation. If the student lives in a residential college, the Director of Student Life will then bring the case to the Residential College Disciplinary Board (RCDB), composed of the six Directors of Student Life and the Associate/Assistant Dean of Undergraduate Students, with a recommendation regarding the student’s responsibility for the alleged infraction. The RCDB will then determine the appropriate action, up to and including disciplinary probation (including housing and/or campus service sanctions). Other deans in the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students may assist in the investigation and resolution of any case.
A student has the right to appeal to the Dean of Undergraduate Students any disciplinary decision of an Associate/Assistant Dean or any decision by the Residential College Disciplinary Board (RCDB). The purpose of the appeal is to seek a review of a decision or penalty on the grounds that (1) there exists substantial relevant information that was not presented, and reasonably could not have been presented, to the dean or the RCDB; (2) the imposed penalty does not fall within the range of penalties imposed for similar misconduct; or (3) a procedural irregularity occurred in the adjudication of the incident in question. The purpose of such an appeal is not to initiate a review of substantive issues of fact, or a new determination of whether a violation of rules has occurred. The deadline for filing such an appeal is one week from the date the student was informed in writing of the penalty. The decision of the Dean of Undergraduate Students shall be final.
All alleged academic infractions and any other potentially serious infraction for which the penalty might interrupt the student’s academic career are normally referred directly to the Committee on Discipline. Other cases, judged to be minor, but for which no clear precedent exists, are also normally referred to the committee. In all cases referred to the committee, the student involved is informed in writing of the reason for being summoned and of the specific day and time when the student is to appear before the committee. The student may obtain from the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students reports of the alleged misconduct and the names of the members of the committee. Matters shall be presented to the committee with all reasonable promptness. Where a matter is first presented to the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students within one week of the end of an academic term, it may be held for consideration in the following term.
In exceptional circumstances involving infractions described in the preceding paragraph, a student may request a hearing by the Dean of Undergraduate Students, waiving the right to a hearing by the Committee on Discipline. If the Dean agrees to hear the case, the student retains the right to appeal the decision to the Dean of the College.
Disciplinary cases involving allegations of sexual harassment or assault by a student (undergraduate or graduate) that are not resolved by the Associate Dean of Undergraduate Students, the Associate Dean of the Graduate School, or the Residential College Disciplinary Board will be adjudicated by a designated subcommittee of the Committee on Discipline, which will make recommendations concerning its findings and, if necessary, a penalty, to the Dean of Undergraduate Students or to the Dean of the Graduate School. A more detailed description of these procedures is available in the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students and in the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School. Appeals of the decision of the respective Deans will follow the normal procedures governing the review of disciplinary decisions for undergraduate and graduate students.
Pending action on the charges by the committee or pending an appeal, the student may remain in residence on campus, attend classes, and make use of all University facilities, except for reasons relating to the student’s physical or emotional safety or well-being, or for reasons relating to the safety of other members of the University community or of University property. The student should understand that, if the committee’s decision proves adverse, or if an appeal proves unsuccessful, the decision of the committee will normally be considered effective as of the date of the original decision. In cases adjudicated prior to the last day of classes, if the final decision is a dismissal from the University (i.e., suspension, required withdrawal, or expulsion), the student will normally not earn credit for the semester in which the infraction occurred. If the case is adjudicated during reading or exam period or if the student has successfully completed course requirements while awaiting the final disposition of the matter, obtaining credit for the semester will be at the discretion of the Committee. Pending a hearing, or the student’s decision about whether to appeal a dismissal from the University or the withholding of the degree and while an appeal is in process, the student’s University transcript will bear the notation: “Status Under Review.” Should the student decide not to appeal a dismissal or the withholding of the degree or should an appeal not result in an alteration of the committee’s decision to dismiss the student or withhold his or her degree, the Registrar will record the fact of the penalty on the student’s transcript.
Conduct of Hearings
The student may be accompanied at the committee hearing by an adviser, who must be a current member of the resident University community, and who may participate in the same manner as the student in the hearing. At the hearing any person with information about the matter before the committee may be requested to appear by the student, the Dean of Undergraduate Students, or the committee, subject to reasonable limits agreed on by the committee. The student may invite one member of the resident University community, whose only role is to provide information about the character and qualities of the student, to speak on his/her behalf at the hearing. The student has the option of submitting additional statements in writing. The student has an opportunity to explain the circumstances from his or her point of view and may also question individuals who have provided information and may in turn be questioned by the committee members. After such questioning the student is given further opportunity to speak and is then excused while the committee deliberates and arrives at a decision by individual vote. In order to determine that a student has violated a University rule, a majority of the voting committee members present must conclude that the evidence presented constitutes a clear and persuasive case in support of the charges against the student. If the student is found to have misled the committee during the hearing, the committee may take that fact into account in reaching a conclusion and assigning a penalty.
The chair or the secretary of the committee informs the student promptly of the decision. If a penalty is imposed, special effort is made in this discussion to ensure that the student fully understands why the penalty was imposed and its nature and consequences. The student has the right to receive a copy of the summary report of the proceedings upon request.
There may be some occasions in which, because of external legal proceedings, the student believes that there are compelling reasons for refusing to speak or to answer questions. In the event that (1) legal proceedings—including but not limited to arrest, summons, and indictment—have been instituted or are anticipated against a student in state or federal courts as a result of his or her alleged involvement in the matters that the committee is investigating and (2) the alleged misconduct is more serious than a disorderly person offense, the student will be granted permission not to speak or to answer questions without prejudicing the committee’s decision. In the case of other external proceedings, the committee will consider the student’s reasons for declining to speak within the full context of its knowledge of the case before it, and if it deems these reasons legitimate it will excuse the student from giving information without prejudice to its disposition of the case. In instances as set forth above, when a student has chosen not to speak, and when the committee does not have enough information to come to a conclusion, at the discretion of the Dean the hearing may be postponed until more complete information is available. In such instances the Dean normally will suspend the student, pending disposition of the legal proceedings and recommencement of the hearing. Such suspension should be without prejudice. The committee must explain to the student the risks either of speaking freely or of not speaking at all.
If the voting members are evenly divided on a particular case, the case must be reconsidered at the next meeting of the committee. If at the second meeting at which the case is considered the regular voting members are still evenly divided, the Dean of Undergraduate Students votes to break the tie.
A student has the right to appeal questions of procedural unfairness only to the Judicial Committee of the Council of the Princeton University Community, in accordance with the appeal procedures defined by the Judicial Committee. (See pages 27–28.)
A student may appeal to the Dean of the College, seeking a review of a decision or penalty on the grounds that (1) there exists substantial relevant information that was not presented, and reasonably could not have been presented, to the Committee on Discipline, or (2) the imposed penalty does not fall within the range of penalties imposed for similar misconduct. The purpose of such an appeal is not to initiate a review of substantive issues of fact, or a new determination of whether a violation of rules has occurred. If the Dean concludes after such a review that an additional hearing is warranted, the original hearing body will normally perform these functions. Also, if the Dean determines that a penalty of the Committee on Discipline (or the Dean of Undergraduate Students) should be altered, the Dean will make a recommendation to the President, describing the reasons for the proposed modification, and the President will decide whether or not to implement the recommendation.
The deadline for filing either such appeal is one week from the date of decision by the Committee on Discipline.
Records of Proceedings
Confidential records of all proceedings of the Committee and of the actions of the Residential College Disciplinary Board and the Deans are maintained in the offices of the Associate Dean. The use of these documents is restricted according to the rules and procedures concerning the confidential nature of student records.
Disciplinary procedures normally involve only the student and the University. Generally, the student’s family is not informed while disciplinary procedures are under way. When, however, in the judgment of the University the welfare of the student or the community warrants communication, family members may be contacted during the disciplinary process. All disciplinary decisions resulting in serious penalties (especially, but not exclusively, withholding of degree, suspension, required withdrawal, and expulsion) will be communicated to the student’s family or other legal guardian, unless the student has before the commencement of the term in question filed a statement certifying that he or she is not financially dependent as defined by the federal income tax laws.
Penalties that may be applied by all University disciplinary bodies are set forth in the section on General Conduct, under “University Regulations,” pages 2–3.
Information concerning grievance procedures is available on pages 18–21.
The Graduate School
All regulations in the Orange Pages apply to graduate students, with the exception of the sections which treat The Honor Committee and University Discipline.
Jurisdiction over Graduate Students for Violations of Academic Rules and Regulations
Jurisdiction over all violations of academic rules and regulations rests with the Dean of the Graduate School. For a more detailed explanation of the regulations and the procedures, see pages 70–74.
The Graduate Student Government
The Graduate Student Government (GSG) plays an important role in areas pertaining to graduate students. It is the main entity responsible for representing their concerns and considers questions relating to graduate student life; it seeks to enhance the quality of their lives, participates in the formulation of various University policies, and is the body that should be approached when graduate student opinion is required by the administration.
Graduate students can get in touch with the GSG by e-mail at email@example.com. The GSG holds monthly meetings that are open to the public; graduate students interested in specific issues or in getting involved are encouraged to attend.
The purposes of the GSG are:
• to represent and advocate for the interests of graduate students at Princeton University;
• to provide a forum for free and open discussion of matters affecting this community; and
• to provide financial and organizational support for social events within this community.
The full text of the constitution of the GSG can be found online at www.princeton.edu/~gsg/.
The GSG consists of an Assembly, an Executive Committee and various committees (e.g., Academic Affairs Committee). The Assembly of the GSG consists of representatives elected from each academic department or other recognized academic program (e.g., applied and computational mathematics), of delegates chosen by residential communities or special interest groups and councilors who represent the GSG to outside bodies (e.g., CPUC).
The Executive Committee is composed of seven elected officers: the chair, the parliamentary secretary, the corresponding secretary, the press secretary, the recording secretary, the treasurer, and the social chair.
Graduate students are encouraged to get involved at any level of the GSG starting with attendance at the monthly meetings of the Assembly.
Election procedures for the representatives to the Assembly and for delegates are set within each group represented. Officers of the Executive Committee are elected annually per the constitution, typically around March. More information about running for office can be obtained through e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The GSG Assembly elects the graduate U-Councilors of the Council of the Princeton University Community each year no later than April 30.
The GSG has standing committees and can form task forces that work on specific issues.
The GSG Social Chair organizes social events open to the entire graduate student population.
Dormitory and apartment regulations for graduate students are established and administered by the Housing Office in conjunction with the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School. Students violating these regulations will be subject to University disciplinary action, which may include the imposition of fines by the Housing Office. These regulations can be found in the Orange Pages as well as the Residential Life and Food Services Guide for Graduate Students.
See page 46. Those who are of legal drinking age and who wish to sponsor campus events with alcohol must comply with the guidelines established by and obtainable from the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School.
Graduate students who live in the Graduate College are required to participate in one of the meal plans offered there, unless excused by the Associate Dean for Student Affairs. The detailed terms of the dining contracts are available in the Residential Life and Food Services Guide for Graduate Students.
A detailed discussion of specific fees, terms of payment, rebates, and financial aid is printed in the Payment Information pamphlet mailed by the Office of Student Accounts.
The Graduate School Judicial System
As members of the University community, graduate students are bound by the rules and procedures described in the sections on “University Regulations” (see page 4) and “The University, the Law, and Property Rights” (see page 8). (All dormitory regulations are applicable to graduate students who reside in the Graduate College.)
Graduate students are governed by the presumption that their academic work is held to the highest standards of research and scholarship … “all forms of academic fraud … —specifically plagarism, multiple submission, false citation, and the use of false data—are regarded as serious violations and will be subjected to disciplinary action.”
Charges concerning academic fraud should not be handled informally or at the departmental level but must be brought as soon as possible, as a complaint either by a graduate student or against a graduate student, to the attention of the Dean of the Graduate School.
When the Office of the Graduate School has been informed of a charge against a graduate student, whether academic or nonacademic, the student is immediately notified by the appropriate Assistant or Associate Dean of the impending investigation. The student is provided with a written statement concerning the charge as well as a copy of the procedures governing the investigation and the range of possible penalties (see page 2). The hearing dean will encourage the student to seek the advice of a resident faculty member. At this time the student is invited to submit a written response to the charge.
Alleged infractions judged to be of a minor nature, for which precedents exist and for which penalties will not interrupt the student’s academic career, are normally investigated and resolved by the Assistant or Associate Dean. If the student is not satisfied with the finding, he or she may appeal the decision to the Dean of the Graduate School.
The deadline for filing such an appeal is one week from the date of the original decision. The student should understand that, in hearing the appeal, the Dean of the Graduate School is not bound in any way by the prior decision of the Assistant/Associate Dean and that, after reviewing the facts the Dean of the Graduate School may impose a greater or lesser penalty than that originally imposed by the Assistant Dean.
Alleged serious violations of University rules and regulations may be brought directly to the Judicial Committee of the CPUC (see page 23). Normally, however, discipline cases are referred in the first instance to the Graduate School. In such cases the Dean is advised, in accordance with Rules and Procedures of the Faculty, by the Subcommittee on Student Life and Discipline. The Subcommittee consists of the Dean of the Graduate School, ex officio, as chair, the Associate Dean for Student Affairs of the Graduate School as secretary (both without vote), and four members of the Graduate School Faculty Committee appointed yearly by the Dean, one from each division of the University (with a quorum of at least three). The Subcommittee may be enlarged, at the student’s request, by four graduate students, selected at random, who have equal votes with the faculty members of the Subcommittee.
In general, the procedures of the Subcommittee are analogous to the “General Procedures” of the Judicial Committee of the CPUC (see page 24). It should be noted, however, that the Subcommittee always meets in closed session. Moreover, since cases vary widely, their disposition will inevitably depend upon the nature of the alleged infraction. For instance, since cases often involve students who are not presently, or no longer, in residence, the student’s presence at the proceedings is not an absolute requirement as long as the student has personally received adequate notification and been given reasonable opportunity to submit a written response to the charges. (In such cases students who are unable to be present may, at their request, be represented by an adviser who is a current member of the resident University community, and who may participate in the same manner as the student in the hearing. The Subcommittee does not deal with outside counsel.) The nature of the evidence, as well as the pursuit of the inquiry, will inevitably depend upon the nature of the alleged infraction. However, the student always has the right to appear before the Subcommittee with or without an adviser as defined above. In every case the Subcommittee proceeds with an appropriate regard for fair process, deliberate speed, and satisfactory records. In order to find that a student has violated a University rule, the Subcommittee must be persuaded that the charges against the student are supported by clear and persuasive evidence.
Following its investigation the Subcommittee presents its advice in the form of a recommendation to the Dean, who observing fair process and deliberate speed, normally accepts it (but is not bound to do so). The student is notified by the Dean in writing of the Subcommittee’s recommendation and the Dean’s action, and is also informed of his or her rights of appeal and the appropriate procedures. Confidential records of all proceedings and of the actions of the Deans are maintained in the Office of the Dean. The use of these documents is restricted, according to the rules and procedures concerning the confidential nature of student records.
The Dean of the Graduate School may, in some instances, refer the case back to the academic department for resolution upon the advice of the Assistant/Associate Dean, or the Subcommittee.
In exceptional circumstances a student may waive the right to a hearing by the Subcommittee on Student Life and Disciplne and request a hearing by the Dean of the Graduate School. If the Dean agrees to hear the case, the student retains the right to appeal the decision to the Dean of the Faculty (for academic matters) or the Judicial Committee of the CPUC (for nonacademic matters).
The range of possible penalties embraces the seven penalties specified above (see page 2) under “University Regulations” and may also include, in cases involving students who have already left the University, revocation of the degree. Should the recommended penalty interrupt the student’s academic career (suspension or required withdrawal), the Dean of the Graduate School will consult with the student’s department before reaching a final decision.
Pending action on the charges by the Subcommittee or pending an appeal, the student may remain in residence on campus, attend classes, and make use of all University facilities, except for reasons relating to the student’s physical or emotional safety or well-being, or for reasons relating to the safety of other members of the University community or University property. The student should understand that, if an appeal proves unsuccessful, the Dean’s decision will normally be considered effective as of the date of the original charge. Should the student decide not to appeal a dismissal or the withholding or revocation of the degree or should an appeal not result in an alteration of the Subcommittee’s recommendation, and the Dean’s decision, to dismiss the student or withhold or revoke his or her degree, the Registrar will record the fact of the penalty on the student’s transcript.
Appeal on Academic Matters
Any student wishing to appeal decisions of the Dean of the Graduate School on academic matters should notify the Dean of the Faculty in writing to that effect, specifying the grounds of his or her appeal, not later than one week (during which the University is in session) after receipt of the written notice of the decision which the student wishes to appeal. The Dean of the Faculty shall transmit the student’s written statement and any other relevant material directly to the Advisory Committee on Policy and report the transmittal to the faculty at its next meeting. The Advisory Committee on Policy shall determine whether or not the grounds of appeal are sufficient to warrant a hearing. If it decides that they are, the Advisory Committee may appoint a special panel to consider the individual case and make a report with recommendations to the Advisory Committee, or it may itself hear the appeal. In all cases, the decision of the Advisory Committee shall be final.
Appeal on Nonacademic Matters
Any student wishing to appeal decisions of the Dean of the Graduate School on nonacademic matters should do so through the Judicial Committee of the CPUC, which hears and decides appeals from persons found guilty of violations of rules of conduct, when such persons have alleged procedural unfairness. The student wishing to have a judgment against him or her reviewed shall, within one week (during which the University is in session) of the original judgment, file a request for a review with the secretary of the CPUC, stating the authority that made the judgment and the date, and indicating his or her reasons for requesting a review. The secretary will immediately forward the request to the chair of the Judicial Committee. The committee will meet in closed session and decide whether there are sufficient grounds to hold a formal hearing. The committee may decide to uphold the previous judgment, to reverse or alter the previous judgment, or to return the case to the earlier hearing authority. (See pages 27–28.)
Any student wishing to appeal a decision or penalty of the Dean of the Graduate School on nonacademic matters on the grounds that (1) there exists substantial relevant information that was not presented, and reasonably could not have been presented, to the hearing committee, or (2) the imposed penalty does not fall within the range of penalties imposed for similar conduct, may submit a written request for reconsideration to the Dean of the Graduate School. The purpose of such an appeal is not to initiate a review of substantive issues of fact, or a new determination of whether a violation of rules has occurred. If the Dean concludes after such a review that an additional hearing is warranted, the original hearing body will normally perform these functions. The deadline for filing such appeal is one week (during which the University is in session) from the date of the Dean’s original decision.
Graduate Student Grievances
The Office of the Dean of the Graduate School normally handles in the first instance all grievances of graduate students as well as complaints against graduate students. This applies also to graduate students serving in the capacity of Assistants in Instruction or Assistants in Research. The Associate Dean of the Graduate School for Student Affairs advises graduate students as to where their grievances may be addressed; e.g., against an undergraduate, to the Dean of Undergraduate Students; or against a faculty member, to the Dean of Faculty; or against a staff member, to the Office of Human Resources. In the case of unenrolled students whose degree candidacy continues, these procedures are valid in the appropriate cases for a period of five years past the date of the General Examination, notably when academic fraud is involved, but also in cases concerning personal conduct under “University Regulations” if such students are resident in Princeton.
A graduate student with a grievance concerning academic matters (excluding academic fraud, as defined above) should first attempt to resolve the grievance at the departmental level through discussions with the faculty member(s) concerned and/or the department chair and director of graduate studies. If the student feels that a satisfactory resolution has not been found, he or she should turn to the Associate Dean of the Graduate School for Academic Affairs for further advice. If a satisfactory resolution still cannot be found through informal consultation, the student may request adjudication by the Dean of the Graduate School. The Dean of the Graduate School will render a decision as expeditiously as possible on all aspects of the complaint unless he or she determines that the grievance raises issues of faculty misconduct, in which case he or she should refer those portions of it to the Dean of the Faculty. When adjudicating the grievance, the Dean of the Graduate School will normally proceed in consultation with, or upon the advice of, the appropriate subcommittee of the Faculty Committee on the Graduate School (the Subcommittee on Policy or the Subcommittee on Student Life and Discipline). The Dean of the Faculty resolves any issues related to faculty misconduct and may, at his or her discretion, choose to appoint a special committee of faculty to advise with regard to those issues.
A graduate student with a grievance concerning a nonacademic matter should turn to the Associate Dean of the Graduate School for Student Affairs. If the grievance concerns sexual harassment or assault (as defined on page 4), the Associate Dean will follow the procedures described on page 20. Disciplinary cases involving allegations of sexual harassment or assault by a graduate student that are not resolved by the Associate Dean of the Graduate School, will be adjudicated by a designated subcommittee of the Committee on Discipline, which will make recommendations concerning its findings and, if necessary, a penalty, to the Dean of the Graduate School. Appeals of the decision of the Dean to either the President or to the Judicial Committee of the CPUC will follow normal procedures governing the review of disciplinary decisions. A more detailed description of these procedures is available in the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School.
In other cases the Associate Dean will first attempt to resolve the grievance through informal consultation. If a satisfactory resolution cannot be found by these means, the student may request adjudication by the Dean of the Graduate School, who will render a decision, normally in consultation with, or upon the advice of, the Subcommittee on Student Life and Discipline of the Faculty Committee on the Graduate School.
Student Privacy Rights under Federal Law
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) commonly known as the “Buckley Amendment” affords students certain rights with respect to their education records. They are:
(A) The right to inspect and review the student’s education records within 45 days of the day the University receives a written request for access. “Education records” is a defined term in the federal regulations implementing FERPA. Among the documents it does not include are:
1. personal files of members of the faculty and administration;
2. medical records;
3. security files not available for review by individuals other than security officers and other local law enforcement officials;
4. employment records that relate exclusively to the individual’s capacity as an employee;
5. records containing only information concerning a person’s activities after graduation or withdrawal from the University;
6. material relating to the financial status of parents which is contained in any record maintained by the University;
7. confidential letters of recommendation placed in a student’s education record prior to January 1975; and
8. confidential letters of recommendation to which a student has waived his or her right of access.
Student education records are located primarily in the offices of the Dean of the College, the Dean of Undergraduate Students, the Dean of the Graduate School, the Controller, the Registrar and the various academic departments. A student may request access to his or her education records by filing a written request with the person who is responsible for maintaining the record which the student wants to review. The request must identify the particular record(s) which the student wishes to inspect. The University official will make arrangements for access and notify the student of the time and place where the records may be inspected. If the records are not maintained by the University official to whom the request was submitted, that official shall advise the student of the correct official to whom the request should be addressed.
(B) The right to request the amendment of the student’s education records that the student believes are inaccurate or misleading.
Students may ask the University to amend a record that they believe is inaccurate or misleading. They should write the University official responsible for the record, clearly identifying the part of the record they want changed and specifying why it is inaccurate or misleading.
If the University decides not to amend the record as requested by the student, the University will notify the student of the decision and advise the student of his or her right to a hearing regarding the request for amendment. Additional information regarding the hearing procedures will be provided to the student when notified of the right to a hearing.
(C) The right to consent to disclosures of personally identifiable information contained in the student’s education records, except to the extent that FERPA authorizes disclosures without consent.
FERPA contains various exceptions to the general rule that the University shall not have a practice of disclosing personally identifiable information contained in a student’s education records without seeking the prior written consent of the student. The following circumstances are representative of those in which such information may be disclosed without the student’s prior written consent:
1. The University may disclose the following types of “directory information” without restriction unless the student otherwise requests: name; address (local); telephone number (local); e-mail address; photograph; dates of attendance; major field of study; participation in officially recognized activities, organizations, and athletic teams; weight and height of members of athletic teams; degrees and awards; academic institution attended immediately prior to Princeton University. A student requesting that some or all directory information be restricted from disclosure must make a written request to the Office of the Registrar specifying which information should be restricted.
2. Faculty members and other officials of the University who have a legitimate educational interest in a student’s education record may be permitted to review it. A University official is a person employed by the University in an administrative, supervisory, academic or research or support staff position (including law enforcement personnel, health staff, and alumni and development staff); a person or company with whom the University has contracted (such as an attorney, auditor, or collection agent); a person serving on the board of trustees; or a student serving on an official committee, such as a disciplinary or grievance committee, or assisting another University official in performing his or her tasks. A University official has a legitimate educational interest if the official needs to review an educational record in order to fulfill his or her professional responsibility.
3. The University will disclose information to government agencies entitled to it by law.
4. The University may disclose information to the parent(s) or guardian(s) of a student unless the student has filed a statement certifying that he or she is not financially dependent as defined by the federal income tax laws.
5. The University will disclose information in response to a lawfully issued subpoena, and will ordinarily provide notice to the student involved in advance of complying with the subpoena.
6. The University may disclose information when necessary to determine the student’s eligibility for financial aid or to enforce the terms or conditions of financial aid which a student has received.
7. The University may disclose information to an organization conducting a study if the organization certifies that the study will not be conducted in a way which will permit the personal identification of the students and that personally identifying information will be destroyed when the study is completed.
8. Upon request, the University has the right to disclose education records without a student’s prior consent to officials of another institution in which a student seeks or intends to enroll. However, the University encourages its departments and offices, at the minimum, to make a reasonable attempt to advise the student of the disclosure either before or after it occurs.
9. The University will disclose information to a third party that has been granted permission by the student to request such information. When the student has given written permission for disclosure of information to a third party and subsequent events materially affect the accuracy of the University’s original reporting, permission for the reporting of such additional information is understood in order to make the original reporting accurate.
(D) The right to file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Education concerning alleged failures of the University to comply with the requirements of FERPA.
The name and address of the office that administers FERPA are:
Family Policy Compliance Office, U.S. Department of Education, 600 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202-4605.
*Open container is defined as any container not sealed by the manufacturer.