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Department of Classics

Chair

Edward J. Champlin

Departmental Representative

Brooke A. Holmes

Director of Graduate Studies

Robert A. Kaster

Professor

Edward J. Champlin 

Denis C. Feeney 

Andrew M. Feldherr 

Harriet I. Flower 

Andrew L. Ford 

Robert A. Kaster 

Joshua T. Katz 

Nino Luraghi 

Brent D. Shaw 

Christian Wildberg 

Associate Professor

Marc Domingo Gygax

Constanze M. Güthenke, also Hellenic Studies

Brooke A. Holmes

Assistant Professor

Yelena Baraz

Emmanuel C. Bourbouhakis

Janet D. Downie

Lecturer

Michael E. Brumbaugh

Michael A. Flower

Dimitri H. Gondicas

Matthew M. McCarty, also Council of the Humanities


Information and Departmental Plan of Study

Three programs of study are offered within the Department of Classics. The first, Classics, uses knowledge of Greek or Latin (or both languages) as a gateway to the study of the literature, history, and culture of ancient Greece and Rome. The second, Classical Studies, allows for the study of different aspects of a specific period or facet of classical civilization and its impact; it does not initially require knowledge of Greek or Latin. The third, Ancient History, focuses on the history of the ancient world, with special attention to historical method and comparative approaches; it does not initially require knowledge of Greek or Latin.

Program 1. Classics

Prerequisites

To enter this program, a student normally should have completed CLG 108 or LAT 108 or demonstrated intermediate proficiency in Greek or Latin through test scores (SAT, AP), a placement exam, or coursework. A strongly motivated student who has completed CLG 102 or LAT 102 (or CLG 103 or LAT 103) may concentrate, with permission of the departmental representative.

Program of Study

Eight departmental courses are required. Of these, five must be in the original languages at the 200 level or above, including at least one course at the 300 level. The combination of LAT 104-108, or CLG/LAT 105-108, may be counted as the equivalent of one 200-level course. One course in ancient history (CLA 214, 216, 217, 218, or 219, or HIS 343) must also be included among the departmentals. Students must also take the Junior Seminar in the fall of their junior year.

Students may count, among the eight departmentals, up to two courses not requiring the use of Greek or Latin (in addition to the course in ancient history). These courses may be offered by the department or, with the approval of the departmental representative, they may be courses in other departments that deal with aspects of Greek and Roman civilization (see examples below).

Students are expected to pass a sight translation examination from Greek or Latin. This examination may be taken, by arrangement, at the end of any term in the junior or senior year; it will be graded pass/fail.

Students who are considering further work in the field, either in graduate school or in independent study, should take both Latin and Greek to the 300 level, continuing with both languages in each term of the junior and senior years. Such students are also strongly advised to take at least one course in Greek history and one in Roman history in their underclass years.

Students concentrating in Classics have the opportunity to study in depth one or more of the areas listed below.

Greek or Latin Literature. Literary texts form the core of the study of the classical world, and the majority of concentrators are likely to plan their program of study around literature. In addition to the many courses offered in Greek and Latin, the department offers a number of courses on literature in translation, including CLA 212: Classical Mythology; CLA 323: Self and Society in Classical Greek Drama. COM 205: The Classical Roots of Western Literature also treats many Greco-Roman works.

Ancient History. In addition to survey courses in Greek and Roman history (CLA 216, 217, 218, 219), the department offers courses on the ancient historians in the original language and advanced seminars on selected historical topics (CLA 326, 327). Also available: CLA 214: The Other Side of Rome; CLA 324: Classical Historians and Their Philosophies of History; CLA 325: Roman Law; CLA 329: Sex and Gender in the Ancient World; NES 220: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in the Middle Ages; NES 331: The Ancient Near East.

Classical Philosophy. Courses are offered in both Greek and Latin and in translation, including CLA 205: Introduction to Ancient Philosophy; PHI 300: Plato and His Predecessors; and PHI 301: Aristotle and His Successors.

Classical Art and Archaeology. ART 202: Greek Art: Ideal Realism; ART 203: Roman Art; ART 300: Greek Archaeology of the Bronze Age; ART 301: The Art of the Iron Age: The Near East and Early Greece; ART 302: Myths in Greek Art; ART 306: Classical Athens: Art and Institutions; ART 308: Roman Cities and Countryside: Republic to Empire.

Medieval Studies. In addition to courses in Medieval Latin (LAT 232), the following are offered: HIS 343: The Civilization of the Early Middle Ages; HIS 344: The Civilization of the High Middle Ages; MED 227: The World of the Middle Ages; POL 301: Ancient and Medieval Political Theory; and ART 205: Medieval Art in Europe.

Studies in the Reception of Classical Antiquity. Courses are offered on the later reception of classical antiquity, including CLA 334: Modern Transformations of Classical Themes; CLA 335: Studies in the Classical Tradition.

Independent Work

Junior Seminar. During the fall of the junior year, all majors must take the Junior Seminar (CLA 340). The course introduces students to different fields of study within the department, including literature, ancient history, ancient culture, linguistics, and reception studies. Students will gain experience in the methods of their chosen of area(s) of study while acquiring an understanding of the history of the discipline and its place in the 21st century. Students will also acquire the skills necessary to pursue junior and senior independent work. Students who are abroad during the fall of their junior year can complete the Junior Seminar during the fall semester of their senior year.

Junior Independent Work. In the spring term, each student studies a specific topic chosen in consultation with an adviser, with whom the student meets regularly for discussion and analysis, the result of which will be a substantial research paper of 20 to 25 pages.

Senior Independent Work. At the end of the second term of the junior year, a departmental student is advised to select the subject of the senior thesis after consultation with the departmental representative. The thesis in its final form must be submitted to the department by April 15 of the senior year.

Senior Departmental Examination

Students are expected to pass the senior comprehensive examination on Greek and Roman literature, history, and culture. They will have the opportunity to write on either or both civilizations.

Study Abroad

Travel and study in the Mediterranean are important parts of a classical education. The department strongly encourages its students to participate in one of the many programs available. Many departmental students spend one term of junior year at the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome. The center offers instruction in classical languages, presents lectures on ancient literature and history, and sponsors a series of trips to important museums and archaeological sites. Instruction is in English by American faculty members, and the curriculum is integrated with the Princeton undergraduate program. Equally valuable is the summer program at the American School of Classical Studies in Athens.

The department has some funds to help meet the expenses of such summer study, and additional assistance may be available through the Program in Hellenic Studies.

Summer Study. Students who would benefit from intensive work in the languages may apply for financial assistance to study at a Greek or Latin institute.

Certificate in Language and Culture

Students pursuing a major other than Classics or Classical Studies may still demonstrate their command of one or both of the classical languages and cultures by working for certificates in Greek and/or Roman language and culture. The requirements are:

1. Three Greek and/or Latin courses, of which one may be at the 200 level and the others must be at the 300 level.

2. A piece of independent work. This can be satisfied in several ways: (a) by a substantial paper growing out of one of the courses taken to fulfill the certificate requirement (this will be in addition to the work required in the course); (b) by a substantial paper on a topic agreed upon with an instructor in the department and approved by the program; or (c) with the agreement of the home department and the program, by a piece of independent work that will satisfy the requirements of both home department and program. As a substitute for this requirement, students may take either an additional course in their language at the 200 or 300 level or a CLA course focusing on the culture of their certificate program.

To enter either certificate program, students must file a written application with the Department of Classics before October 1 of their senior year.

Preparation for Graduate Study

Students should be aware that most graduate programs in Classics will demand a more extensive training in the ancient languages than these minimum requirements. Those considering going on to graduate school should plan to do additional work in Greek and Latin either during their time at Princeton or through a postbaccalaureate program.

Certificate in Hellenic Studies. Students who wish to study the literature and civilization of ancient, Byzantine, and modern Greece may find of interest the certificate Program in Hellenic Studies. The program's plan C provides a diachronic study of the Hellenic tradition from antiquity to the present.

The department offers courses in the following areas:

Courses taught through English translations, designated classics (CLA)
Courses in Greek (CLG) and Latin (LAT)
Courses in modern Greek (MOG)

Program 2. Classical Studies

This program offers the opportunity for sustained and focused inquiry into the history, literature, and culture of the ancient Mediterranean, as well as the impact of classical antiquity on later periods by using a variety of interpretative methods. The particular program for each student is determined in collaboration with the departmental representative and/or a faculty adviser. The focus can be on a specific disciplinary subfield (e.g., ancient politics) or on a particular period to be explored from a number of perspectives (e.g., the history, literature, and art of Imperial Rome). Each program must have a methodological component designed to introduce the student to techniques of analysis appropriate to the student's particular interests. This component of the program is satisfied by two comparative or methodological courses, the subject matter of which is concerned primarily with the classical world. These courses are chosen by each student in consultation with a faculty adviser and/or the departmental representative and must be preapproved by the departmental representative.

Prerequisites

One course from the list below (which may be taken during the spring semester of the sophomore year) or a comparable one-time-only course. A second course in addition to the prerequisite is strongly recommended as well, but this course can count as one of the six departmentals focusing on classical civilization. A freshman seminar on a classical subject may count as a prerequisite, but may not be used as a departmental.

Applicants to this program of study must submit to the departmental representative by April 15 a statement defining a field of concentration (e.g., Latin Epic, Greek History, Late Antique Culture) and a list of prospective courses. Given the range of possible interests each applicant may bring to the study of the ancient world, there is no set list of fields of concentration, and faculty members can give additional guidance in preparing a program of study.

Program of Study

The specific courses to be taken by each student must form a coherent program of study. Whatever the individual concentration, each student's program must contain eight departmentals and the Junior Seminar.

Six of these courses must focus in whole or in part on classical civilization or its influence (see the list below). At least three of these courses must be taught in the Department of Classics (CLA, CLG, or LAT). Courses taken during the freshman and sophomore years beyond the prerequisite may count toward this requirement if they are appropriate to the student's overall program. Students must also take the Junior Seminar in the fall of their junior year.

Two courses must fulfill the comparative/methodological component of the program of study. The aim of this requirement is to introduce students to new perspectives and new tools of inquiry for exploring their chosen subject. There is no set list, since different courses will be appropriate to different interests. These courses must be preapproved by the departmental representative to count as part of the student's program.

Each student must successfully complete either Ancient Greek or Latin to the level of 108 or achieve an equivalent level of knowledge, as demonstrated through test scores (SAT, AP), a placement exam, or coursework (including through a summer language program). However, at least one language course must be taken at Princeton.

Students should be aware that most graduate programs in Classics will demand a more extensive training in the ancient languages than these minimum requirements. Those considering going on to graduate school should plan to do additional work in Greek and Latin either during their time at Princeton or through a postbaccalaureate program.

Independent Work

Junior Seminar. During the fall of the junior year, all majors must take the Junior Seminar (CLA 340). The course introduces students to different fields of study within the department, including literature, ancient history, ancient culture, linguistics, and reception studies. Students will gain experience in the methods of their chosen of area(s) of study while acquiring an understanding of the history of the discipline and its place in the 21st century. Students will also acquire the skills necessary to pursue junior and senior independent work. Students who are abroad during the fall of their junior year can complete the Junior Seminar during the fall semester of their senior year.

Junior Independent Work. In the spring term, each student will study a topic chosen in consultation with an adviser, who will meet regularly with the student for discussion and analysis, on the basis of which a substantial research paper of 20 to 25 pages will be produced.

Senior Independent Work. At the end of the second term of the junior year, a departmental student is advised to select the subject of the senior thesis after consultation with a departmental faculty committee. The thesis in its final form shall be submitted to the departmental representative by April 15 of the senior year.

Senior Departmental Examination

An examination designed by the thesis adviser, and intended to cover the entirety of the student's program of study, is taken at the end of the spring semester of the senior year.

Preparation for Graduate Study

Students should be aware that most graduate programs in Classics will demand a more extensive training in the ancient languages than these minimum requirements. Those considering going on to graduate school should plan to do additional work in Greek and Latin either during their time at Princeton or through a postbaccalaureate program.

Program 3. Ancient History

The program offers students a pathway to explore the history of ancient Greece and Rome and their relationships with the neighboring cultures of the Near East, Europe, and Africa. It is also ideal for students interested in acquiring training in the academic discipline of history while concentrating on the period spanning the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1700 B.C.E.) to the early medieval and Byzantine worlds (ca. 600 C.E.). Although students may specialize in a particular field of history (political, social, economic, cultural), geographic area, or historical period of antiquity, the aim of the program is to provide a well-rounded training in the field of history, with a focus on ancient history. Students must take courses on both Greece and Rome, one course on a nonclassical premodern civilization, and at least one course on material culture, and develop intermediate-level proficiency in classical Latin and/or Greek. An additional course that introduces students to the main methods, theories, and philosophies of history is also strongly encouraged.

Prerequisites

One course from the list below (courses that can serve as prerequisites or satisfy requirement).

Program of Study

Eight departmental courses are required. These must include one survey course on ancient Greek history (CLA 216, CLA 217) and one survey course on Roman history (CLA 218, CLA 219); two seminars at the 300 level focusing on ancient history (e.g., CLA 324: Classical Historians and Their Philosophies of History; CLA 325: Roman Law); one course on material culture (e.g., CLA 202: Greek Art; CLA 305: Greek and Roman Architecture); CLA 326, CLA 327: Topics in Ancient History; two courses focusing in whole or in part on classical civilization (see list below); and one history course on a nonclassical premodern civilization (e.g., EAS 335: Early Chinese History to 221; NES 220: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in the Middle Ages; HIS 345: Europe at the Dawn of Modernity). Students must also take the Junior Seminar in the fall of their junior year.

Each student must successfully complete Ancient Greek or Latin to the level of 108 or achieve an equivalent level of knowledge, as demonstrated through test scores (SAT, AP), a placement exam, or coursework (including through a summer language program). However, at least one language course must be taken at Princeton.

Courses that can serve as prerequisites or satisfy departmental requirements:

Art and Archaeology
200 The Art and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East and Egypt
202 Greek Art: Ideal Realism
203 Roman Art
204 Pagans and Christians: Urbanism, Architecture, and Art of Late Antiquity
300 Greek Archaeology of the Bronze Age
301 The Art of the Iron Age: The Near East and Early Greece
302 Myths in Greek Art
305 Greek and Roman Architecture
306 Classical Athens: Art and Institutions
308 Roman Cities and Countryside: Republic to Empire

Classics
Any CLA course
Greek: Any 200- or 300-level CLG course
Latin: Any 200- or 300-level LAT course

Hellenic Studies
346 Introduction to Byzantine Civilization

History
290 The Scientific Worldview of Antiquity and the Middle Ages
343 The Civilization of the Early Middle Ages

Humanistic Studies
205 The Classical Roots of Western Literature
216 From Antiquity to the Middle Ages: Literature and the Arts
217 From Antiquity to the Middle Ages: History, Philosophy, and Religion

Near Eastern Studies
331 The Ancient Near East
332 The Near East from Alexander to Muhammad

Philosophy
205 Introduction to Ancient Philosophy
300 Plato and His Predecessors
301 Aristotle and His Successors
335 Greek Ethical Theory

Politics
301 Ancient and Medieval Political Theory

Religion
231 Hebrew Bible and Earliest Judaism
251 The New Testament and Christian Origins
252 The Early Christian Movement
337 Religious Quests of the Greco-Roman World: The Magical Arts and Astrology
340 Ancient Judaism and the Dead Sea Scrolls

Independent Work

Junior Seminar. During the fall of the junior year, all majors must take the Junior Seminar (CLA 340). The course introduces students to different fields of study within the department, including literature, ancient history, ancient culture, linguistics, and reception studies. Students will gain experience in the methods of their chosen of area(s) of study while acquiring an understanding of the history of the discipline and its place in the 21st century. Students will also acquire the skills necessary to pursue junior and senior independent work. Students who are abroad during the fall of their junior year can complete the Junior Seminar during the fall semester of their senior year.

Junior Independent Work. In the spring term, each student will study a topic chosen in consultation with an adviser, who will meet regularly with the student for discussion and analysis, on the basis of which a substantial research paper of 20 to 25 pages will be produced.

At the end of the second term of the junior year, students are advised to select the subject for a senior thesis after consultation with the departmental representative. The thesis in its final form must be submitted to the department by April 15 of the senior year.

Senior Departmental Examination

In the spring semester of the senior year, students take a comprehensive examination designed to test their knowledge of Greek and Roman history.

Preparation for Graduate Study

Students should be aware that most graduate programs in Classics will demand a more extensive training in the ancient languages than these minimum requirements. Those considering going on to graduate school should plan to do additional work in Greek and Latin either during their time at Princeton or through a postbaccalaureate program.


Courses


CLA 205 Introduction to Ancient Philosophy (see PHI 205)

CLA 208 Origins and Nature of English Vocabulary (also ENG 240)   Not offered this year LA

The origins and nature of English vocabulary, from proto-Indo-European prehistory to current slang. Emphasis on the Greek and Latin component of English vocabulary, including technical terminology (medical/scientific, legal, and humanistic). Related topics: the alphabet and English spelling, slang and jargon, social and regional variation, vocabulary changes in progress, the "national language'' debate. Two lectures, one preceptorial. J. Katz

CLA 212 Classical Mythology (also HUM 212/GSS 212/HLS 212)   Fall LA

A study of classical myths in their cultural context and in their wider application to abiding human concerns (such as creation, generation, sex and gender, identity, heroic experience, death, transformations, and transcendence). A variety of approaches for understanding the mythic imagination and symbol formation through literature, art, and film. Two lectures, one preceptorial. D. Feeney

CLA 214 The Other Side of Rome (also CHV 214)   Not offered this year EM

An introduction to Roman culture emphasizing tensions within Roman imperial ideology, the course explores attitudes toward issues such as gender and sexuality, conspicuous consumption, and ethnicity through the works of authors such as Petronius, Lucan, and Tacitus. It also considers the role of cinematic representations of ancient Rome in 20th-century America. Two lectures, one preceptorial. A. Feldherr

CLA 216 Archaic and Classical Greece (also HIS 216)   Spring HA

A formative episode in Western civilization: the Greeks from the rise of the city-state, through the conflict between Athens and Sparta, to the emergence of Macedon in the fourth century B.C. Emphasis on cultural history, political thought, and the development of techniques of historical interpretation through analysis of original sources (Herodotus, Thucydides, and others). Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Flower

CLA 217 The Greek World in the Hellenistic Age (also HIS 217/HLS 217)   Not offered this year HA

The Greek experience from Alexander the Great through Cleopatra. An exploration of the dramatic expansion of the Greek world into the Near East brought about by the conquests and achievements of Alexander. Study of the profound political, social, and intellectual changes that stemmed from the interaction of the cultures, and the entrance of Greece into the sphere of Rome. Readings include history, biography, religious narrative, comedy, and epic poetry. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Domingo Gygax

CLA 218 The Roman Republic (also HIS 218)   Fall HA

A study of the causes and unforeseen consequences of one small city-state's rise to world-empire, primarily through the analysis of ancient sources (including Livy, Polybius, Caesar, and Cicero) in translation. Emphasis on the development of Roman society and the evolution, triumph, and collapse of the republican government that it produced. Two lectures, one preceptorial. H. Flower

CLA 219 The Roman Empire, 31 B.C. to A.D. 337 (also HIS 219)   Not offered this year HA

A study of the profound transformation of Rome by the multicultural empire it had conquered, ending with the triumph of Christianity. Emphasis on typical social and cultural institutions and on the legacies of Rome to us. Ancient sources in translation include documents, histories, letters, and novels. Two lectures, one preceptorial. E. Champlin

CLA 301 Ancient and Medieval Political Theory (see POL 301)

CLA 306 Classical Athens: Art and Institutions (see ART 306)

CLA 323 Self and Society in Classical Greek Drama (also COM 323)   Not offered this year LA

Designed to give students who are without knowledge of the Greek language the opportunity to read widely and deeply in the field of Greek drama, with particular emphasis on an intensive study of Greek tragedy, its origins and development, staging, structure, and meanings. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

CLA 324 Classical Historians and Their Philosophies of History (also HIS 328)   Not offered this year HA

Major classical historians, especially Herodotus and Thucydides, are studied in connection with the theory and practice of the art or science of history. Lectures and preceptorials treat the development of historical writing and its relationship to philosophy, politics, literature, and science, and problems such as that of fact and interpretation in historical writing. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Domingo Gygax

CLA 325 Roman Law (also HIS 329)   Spring HA

The historical development of Roman law and its influence on modern legal systems. Particular attention is given to the fundamental principles of Roman private law, including the law of persons, property, inheritance, and contract; and there is a close analysis of courtroom procedure. Two lectures, one preceptorial. E. Champlin

CLA 326 Topics in Ancient History (also HIS 326)   Not offered this year HA

A period, problem, or theme in ancient history or religion with critical attention to the ancient sources and modern discussions. The topic and instructor vary from year to year. Format will change each time, depending on enrollment. N. Luraghi

CLA 327 Topics in Ancient History (also HIS 327/HLS 327)   Not offered this year HA

A period, problem, or theme in ancient history or religion with critical attention to the ancient sources and modern discussions. The topic and instructor vary from year to year. Format will change each time, depending on enrollment. N. Luraghi

CLA 329 Sex and Gender in the Ancient World (also MED 329/GSS 331)   Not offered this year SA

The theoretical and ideological bases of the Western attitudes toward sex and gender categories in their formative period in the Greco-Roman world through the study of myth and ritual, archaeology, art, literature, philosophy, science, medicine, law, economics, and historiography. Selected readings in classical and modern texts. Staff

CLA 330 Greek Law and Legal Practice (also CHV 330)   Not offered this year EM

The development of Greek legal traditions, from Homer to the Hellenistic age. The course focuses on the relationship between ideas about justice, codes of law, and legal practice (courtroom trials, arbitration), and the development of legal theory. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

CLA 334 Modern Transformations of Classical Themes (also COM 334/HLS 334)   Not offered this year LA

A special topic concerning the adaptation of one or more classical themes in contemporary culture through media such as literature, film, and music. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

CLA 335 Studies in the Classical Tradition (also HLS 335)   Spring HA

A classical genre or literary theme will be studied as it was handed down and transformed in later ages, for example, the European epic; ancient prose fiction and the picaresque tradition; the didactic poem. Two 90-minute seminars. E. Bourbouhakis

CLA 343 The Civilization of the Early Middle Ages (see HIS 343)

CLA 344 The Civilization of the High Middle Ages (see HIS 344)

CLA 411 Seminar in Political Theory (see POL 411)

CLG 101 Beginner's Greek: Greek Grammar   Fall

Reading in the language is combined throughout with the learning of forms, vocabulary, and syntax. A foundation is built in classical vocabulary and grammar during the first term as a base for the student in the continuing course, Greek 102. Four classes. No credit is given for CLG 101 unless followed by CLG 102. M. Flower

CLG 102 Beginner's Greek: Attic Prose   Spring

The study of vocabulary, grammar, and syntax is continued from 101 by intensive reading in Attic prose of the classical period. Authors such as Plato are read. Four classes. A. Ford

CLG 103 Ancient Greek: An Intensive Introduction   Spring

An intensive introduction to the essentials of Greek grammar. Students will begin reading Attic prose as quickly as possible. 103 covers the material of 101-102 in a shorter period through increased class-time, drills, and earlier exposure to actual Greek texts. Leads directly to 105. Five classes. E. Bourbouhakis

CLG 105 Socrates   Fall

The life and teaching of Socrates based upon the evidence of Plato and Xenophon. Aristophanes's Clouds may also be read in English, with some excerpts in Greek. Includes a review of the grammar of Attic prose. Prerequisite: 102 or 103, or instructor's permission. Four classes. E. Bourbouhakis

CLG 108 Homer   Spring

The course consists of extensive reading in the Iliad supplemented by lectures and study assignments directed to Homer's literary art and to the moral and religious thought of the Homeric epics. Four classes. Prerequisite: 103, or the equivalent. Staff

CLG 213 Tragic Drama   Spring LA

The tragic drama of the last three decades of the fifth century B.C. Normally one tragedy each by Euripides and Sophocles is read in Greek, with other texts and critical work in English. Two 90-minute seminars. A. Ford

CLG 214 Greek Prose Authors   Fall LA

Deals with a major topic in Greek literature or cultural history with readings from several of the most important Greek authors. Three hours. Prerequisite: Greek 108 or equivalent. Alternates with 213. N. Luraghi

CLG 240 Introduction to Postclassical Greek from the Late Antique to the Byzantine Era (also HLS 240)   Not offered this year LA

Readings will focus on historical, literary, philosophical, or religious texts with a range from the Hellenistic to the Byzantine periods. Two 90-minute seminars. E. Bourbouhakis

CLG 301 Plato   Not offered this year LA

Reading of selected dialogues with lectures on various aspects of the Platonic philosophy. One lecture, one class, one preceptorial. J. Downie

CLG 302 Greek Tragedy   Not offered this year LA

Three tragedies are read in class; others (both in Greek and English) are assigned as outside reading. The preceptorials deal with general discussions of tragedy, including Aristotle's Poetics. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

CLG 304 Greek Historians   Spring HA

Intensive study of a major historical author, such as Herodotus or Thucydides, with special attention to narrative technique and historiographical principles. Two 90-minute seminars. N. Luraghi

CLG 305 Greek Comedy   Not offered this year LA

Several plays of Aristophanes are read in the original (for example, Acharnians, Clouds) and others in translation. The emphasis of the course is on the language and verbal effects of the comedies, and on the connections of Old Comedy with Euripidean tragedy, contemporary politics, and philosophy. Consideration is also given to New Comedy, with selections from Menander's Dyskolos in Greek. Two 90-minute seminars. C. Güthenke

CLG 306 Greek Rhetoric: Theory and Practice   Not offered this year HA

An introduction to the major techniques of Greek rhetoric with special attention to rhetorical treatises such as Aristotle's Rhetoric and to the application of these techniques in oratory and other literary forms. A. Ford

CLG 307 Homer and the Epic Tradition   Not offered this year LA

All of the Odyssey is read in English and a considerable portion is read in Greek. Classes include close translation of key passages and reports on special topics. Emphasis is upon literary interpretation of the epic on the basis of detailed analysis of epic style, diction, and narrative techniques. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

CLG 308 The Lyric Age of Greece   Not offered this year LA

Major texts of the Greek lyric age in their cultural and literary setting. An author such as Hesiod or Pindar may be selected for intensive treatment. Two 90-minute seminars. A. Ford

CLG 310 Topics in Greek Literature (also HLS 311/GSS 308)   Fall LA

The subject matter of the course will vary from year to year depending on the interests of the instructor and students. The reading may concentrate on one or more authors, a theme, a genre, a personality, or an event. B. Holmes

LAT 101 Beginner's Latin   Fall

The course is designed to introduce the student with no previous training in the language to the basics of grammar, vocabulary, and syntax. A foundation is built in the first term for continuation in the spring-term course, 102. Four classes. No credit is given for LAT 101 unless followed by LAT 102. R. Kaster

LAT 102 Beginner's Latin Continued: Basic Prose   Spring

The study of grammar, vocabulary, and syntax is continued from Latin 101. Reading in basic prose works by authors such as Cicero or Caesar completes the course. Four classes. A. Feldherr

LAT 103 Latin: An Intensive Introduction   Spring

An intensive introduction to the Latin language that covers the material of 101-102 in a shorter time through increased class time and drills. Students completing the course will be prepared to take LAT 105. Four classes, one drill. E. Bourbouhakis

LAT 104 Intensive Intermediate Latin   Not offered this year

An alternative to Latin 105, offering more review of Latin grammar and syntax. Also designed as an introduction to Latin literature through selected readings in poetry and prose. Five classes. R. Kaster

LAT 105 Intermediate Latin: Catullus and His Age   Fall

Selections from the poems of Catullus and from Cicero's Pro Caelio form the core of the reading. 105 is a continuation of 102 and is designed as an introduction to Latin literature. Important grammatical and syntactical principles are reviewed. Four classes. Prerequisite: 102 or equivalent. Staff

LAT 108 The Origins of Rome: Livy and Vergil   Spring

The reading will be composed of excerpts from the early books of Livy's History of Rome, together with selections from Vergil's Aeneid (such as Book 4 or 8). The course introduces the student to two major works of the Augustan Age and gives advanced instruction in the Latin language. Fulfills the A.B. language requirement. Four classes. Prerequisite: 104, 105, or equivalent. Staff

LAT 203 Introduction to Augustan Literature   Spring LA

Readings from Ovid, particularly his love poetry and his "epic,'' the Metamorphoses, as well as from other poets (such as Horace, Tibullus, and Propertius). Three hours. Prerequisite: 108 or equivalent. D. Feeney

LAT 204 Readings in Latin Literature   Fall LA

The course will deal with a major topic in Roman cultural history or Latin literature, with readings from three or four of the most important Latin authors.This course may be taken for credit more than once, provided different topics are treated. Three hours. Prerequisite: 108 or equivalent. A. Feldherr

LAT 205 Roman Letters   Fall LA

A careful reading of a selection of Latin letters in prose and verse by Cicero, Horace, Ovid, Pliny, and others in order to understand the place this important form of communication held in Roman culture. Prerequisite: 108 or permission of instructor. Two 90-minute classes. E. Champlin

LAT 210 Invective, Slander, and Insult in Latin Literature   Not offered this year LA

This course aims to build skills in reading literary Latin in a variety of genres, both poetry and prose, while introducing students to an important social function shared by many types of texts: winning status and prestige by slandering a rival. The substance of this invective--the kind of insult that wins over an audience--can also tell us much about Roman values in various realms of public and personal behavior. Prerequisite: LAT 108 or instructor's permission. Seminar. E. Champlin

LAT 232 Introduction to Medieval Latin   Not offered this year LA

Intended for students in any field interested in the Latin Middle Ages. Readings will include a wide variety of prose and poetry from the fourth to the 14th centuries. Attention will be given both to improving reading skills and to acquiring essential background information and critical method. Two 90-minute seminars. Prerequisite: 108 or equivalent. B. Shaw

LAT 234 Latin Language and Stylistics   Not offered this year LA

Study of the development of literary Latin (predominantly prose), with translation to and from Latin. Syntactic and stylistic analysis of sections of such authors as Cicero, Sallust, Seneca. Translations of brief portions of major authors, with practice in thematically related composition. Two 90-minute seminars. R. Kaster

LAT 330 Cicero   Not offered this year LA

The course will present a representative selection from Cicero's enormous literary production. The specific texts studied will differ from year to year, but will normally include extensive reading from at least two of the three main genres of Cicero's prose works: essays, letters, and orations. Two 90-minute seminars. R. Kaster

LAT 331 Horace   Fall LA

Selected Odes, Epodes, Satires, and Epistles are read with emphasis on Horace's relation to Greek poetry, his poetic techniques and originality, his ethical and literary views, his portrayal of the life and culture of Augustan Rome, and his influence upon English poetry. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

LAT 332 Roman Drama   Not offered this year LA

The course will concentrate on a single author (for example, Plautus) or will survey the development and technique of the drama in Rome, with major emphasis on comedy. Two 90-minute seminars. Y. Baraz

LAT 333 Vergil's Aeneid   Not offered this year LA

An intensive study of the Aeneid, with focus on literary values but also with consideration of political and social factors, literary ancestry, and influence. Two 90-minute seminars. D. Feeney

LAT 334 Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics   Not offered this year LA

Critical reading and literary analysis of Vergil's cycle of 10 pastoral poems (Eclogues) and of the four books of Georgics. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

LAT 335 Roman Literature: Selected Author or Authors   Spring LA

The subject matter of the course will vary from year to year, depending on the interests of the instructor and students. The reading may concentrate on one or more authors, a theme, a genre, a personality, or an event. Two 90-minute seminars. D. Feeney

LAT 336 Epicureanism and Stoicism   Not offered this year EM

A study of the two main philosophical schools of the Republic and Early Empire: Epicureanism and Stoicism. Readings (in Latin) will be selected from Lucretius, Cicero, and Seneca, supplemented by selections from Greek sources in English translation. Two 90-minute seminars. D. Feeney

LAT 337 Roman Republican Historians   Not offered this year HA

Selections of historians' works are read that illustrate topics such as the historian's use of sources, historical outlook, narrative techniques, style, and reliability. Sample historians of the Republic who may be read are Livy, Sallust, and Caesar, depending on the interests of the instructor and students. Two 90-minute seminars. R. Kaster

LAT 338 Latin Prose Fiction   Spring LA

A critical study of Latin fiction such as Petronius's Satyricon and Apuleius's Metamorphoses (Golden Ass). Although the chief emphasis will be on the literary aspects of these influential works, some attention will also be given to their value as social and religious documents of their time. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

LAT 339 Roman Historians of the Empire   Fall HA

An examination of historians' approaches to history and their literary merits; sample historians to be surveyed include Tacitus, Suetonius, and Velleius Paterculus; sample topics to be covered include their views of autocracy (nature and effects) and of Roman civilization (value, influence, shortcomings). Two 90-minute classes. Y. Baraz

LAT 340 Roman Satire   Not offered this year LA

Selected satires of Horace, Juvenal, and Persius are read. Classes emphasize translation, stylistic analysis, and explication of the texts. There are also reports on special topics such as the origins and development of satire at Rome, and at least one in-depth interpretation by each student of a selected individual passage. Two 90-minute seminars. Y. Baraz

LAT 342 Roman Elegy from Catullus to Ovid   Fall LA

Selections from Latin elegy. Students will read the fourth book of Propertius and sections of Ovid's Fasti, together with other elegies. Focuses on the poetic presentation of the metropolis of Rome, its history, religion, and urban life. Two 90-minute classes. D. Feeney

MOG 101 Elementary Modern Greek I (see HLS 101)

MOG 102 Elementary Modern Greek II (see HLS 102)

MOG 105 Intermediate Modern Greek (see HLS 105)

MOG 107 Advanced Modern Greek (see HLS 107)