## Department of Electrical Engineering

#### Chair

Peter J. Ramadge

#### Associate Chair

Mansour Shayegan

#### Departmental Representative

Antoine Kahn

#### Director of Graduate Studies

Mung Chiang

#### Professor

Ravindra N. Bhatt

A. Robert Calderbank, also Mathematics, Applied and Computational Mathematics

Stephen Y. Chou

Bradley W. Dickinson

Claire F. Gmachl

Niraj K. Jha

Antoine Kahn

Sanjeev R. Kulkarni

Sun-Yuan Kung

Ruby B. Lee

Bede Liu

Stephen A. Lyon

Sharad Malik

Margaret R. Martonosi

H. Vincent Poor

Paul R. Prucnal

Peter J. Ramadge

Mansour Shayegan

James C. Sturm

Sergio Verdú

Sigurd Wagner

#### Associate Professor

Mung Chiang

Jason W. Fleischer

#### Assistant Professor

Paul W. Cuff

Andrew A. Houck

Hakan E. Tureci

Naveen Verma

Gerard Wysocki

#### Visiting Lecturer with Rank of Professor

Ed Zschau

#### Associated Faculty

Craig B. Arnold, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

David I. August, Computer Science

Douglas W. Clark, Computer Science

Ingrid C. Daubechies, Mathematics, Applied and Computational Mathematics

Kai Li, Computer Science

Yueh-Lin Loo, Chemical and Biological Engineering

Jennifer Rexford, Computer Science

Kenneth Steiglitz, Computer Science

#### Information and Departmental Plan of Study

The Department of Electrical Engineering offers an academic program of study spanning a wide range of disciplines. This program is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), 111 Market Place, Suite 1050, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012; telephone (410) 347-7700. Although all electrical engineering students begin with a unifying foundation, the areas of specialization available to a student range from communication technology to microprocessors to opto-electronics. Students may select one of a long list of predefined concentrations, or tailor their own in consultation with their faculty adviser to suit special interests.

Students enter the department with a variety of career objectives in mind. Some intend to enter industry directly upon graduation or to continue their studies in graduate school. Others wish to take an electrical engineering program as background for careers in other fields ranging from business to law to medicine. Some have not decided on a career plan. Sufficient flexibility is built into the undergraduate program to allow any of these objectives to be achieved and to allow a student to see a wide cross-section of electrical engineering before deciding on an area of concentration.

A student may also formally combine electrical engineering with studies in biology, computer science, physics, materials, engineering and management systems, energy and environmental studies, and several other fields.

#### General Requirements

All candidates for the B.S.E. degree are required to satisfy the general University requirements and the School of Engineering and Applied Science requirements. An introductory computer science course should be taken during the freshman year if possible.

Each student's academic program must have depth in at least one area plus a reasonable degree of breadth to produce a sound basis for future development. All programs are required to have a strong design component and a strong engineering science component. The specific plan of study is determined in consultation with the student's academic adviser, taking into account ABET program guidelines. All such plans must include the following:

1. *Foundations: *Electrical Engineering 201, 203, 206, 208. This requirement is normally satisfied by the end of the sophomore year. These courses are all open to qualified freshmen.

2. *Core: *Electrical Engineering 301 and 302. This requirement is normally satisfied by the end of the junior year.

3. *Mathematics: *At least one upperclass mathematics course, not to be counted toward the concentration requirement or as a departmental (see 4 and 9 below). This may be MAE 305/MAT 301, MAE 306/MAT 302, ORF 309/MAT 309, COS 340, or other 300-level or higher mathematical courses. The course selected to satisfy this requirement may not be counted toward the concentration requirement, the breadth requirement, or as a departmental.

4. *Concentration: *Three courses in a chosen concentration. (See Program of Study.) For the concentration requirement Physics 208 and 305 count as one course only.

5. *Breadth: *At least **one **course in each of **two** of the following different general areas. Only one of these two courses may be counted for the concentration requirement.

a) Communications, Signal Processing, and Control 382, 481, 482, 483, 485, 486, 488

b) Computer Engineering/Computer Science 375, 386, 462, 463, 465, 466, 475, 573, COS 318, 320, 333, 402, 426, 429, 432, 441, 461 (Note: COS 217, COS 226, required for many upper-level computer science courses, do not satisfy breadth but do satisfy the engineering science requirement.)

c) Solid-State Electronics 341, 342, PHY 208/305--must take both PHY 208 and PHY 305*, 396, 401, 402, 441, 442 (Note: For the concentration requirement, Physics 208 and 305 count as one course only.)

d) Optical Engineering 351, 352, 453, 454, 455

6. *Engineering Science: *At least one of the following engineering science courses outside the electrical engineering department must be taken. This course cannot also be used to satisfy the concentration requirement or the breadth requirement. An equivalent or higher-level course offered by the School of Engineering and Applied Science may be substituted if approved by the departmental representative.

COS: 217, 226, 320, 402, 423, 425, 444, 451, 487

MAE: 206 (or PHY 203/205), 221, 222, 324, 328, 344, 345, 433, 434

CEE: 205, 303, 305, 471

MSE: 301, 302

CBE: 245, 246, 341, 415, 445, 447

ORF: 307, 311, 405, 406, 417

7. *Design: *At least one upperclass electrical engineering course with substantial design content beyond ELE 302 must be selected. These courses include 352, 375, 401, 402, 454, 462, 463, 475, 482, 483, and COS 426, 436. This requirement may also be satisfied with junior or senior independent work with a substantial design component (see Independent Work).

8. *Balance: *Normally at least two upperclass technical courses 300 level or above in CEE, CHM, CBE, COS, EEB, ELE, MAE, MAT, MOL, MSE, ORF, or PHY should be taken each semester in the junior and senior years.

9. *Completeness: *Eight courses at 300 level or above including at least five ELE courses. The additional three courses must relate to the program from the following subject areas: CEE, CHM, CBE, COS, EEB, ELE, MAE, MAT, MOL, MSE, ORF, or PHY. Courses outside electrical engineering counted toward this requirement must be closely related to the student's academic program.

10. *Oral presentation: *Each student must give a presentation to an audience based on some technical work done in a class or in an independent project.

11. *Independent work: *Each student is required to complete at least one semester of independent study normally in the senior year.

#### Program of Study

Each student is expected to develop depth in a specific area of concentration in the department. This can be done by fulfilling the requirements of one of the predefined areas of concentration listed below, or by defining a new area in consultation with the academic adviser. The areas of concentration span the general fields of information science and systems, solid-state electronics, computer engineering, and optical engineering. Some consist of a focused concentration in a traditional academic discipline, while others are more topical in nature and consist of a unified set of courses drawn from several traditional areas. The concentrations may also be interdisciplinary and include courses from other departments in the School of Engineering and Applied Science as well as related fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology.

For each area defined below, a student must take the courses, marked in bold, and other courses from the list to a total of three. Graduate courses (500 level) are open to undergraduates after the completion of a permission form containing the signatures of the instructor and departmental representative. (Titles of relevant graduate courses may be obtained from the department.)

*Telecommunications and Networks: *Basic concepts and principles of communication and communication networks. Wireless communications. **486; ORF 309**;** 382, 485; 525; 528; 531; COS 461.

*Information and Systems: *Principles of communication systems, control systems, and digital signal processing. **ORF 309**; two from 382, 482, 483, 485, or MAE 433 or MAE 434.**

*Robotics and Control: *Automatic control systems with applications to robotics and machine vision. **483 or MAE 433 or MAE 434;** ORF 309**; 481; 488; 521, COS 402.

*Signal and Image Processing: *Digital processing of signals, for example, speech, images, and video. **482; 488;** 375; ORF 309**; 462; 475; 481; 527; COS 429.

*Digital Video and Graphics: *Principles of computer graphics, animation, and video processing. **488; COS 426; **481; COS 451.

*Microelectronics and Integrated Circuits: *Design and fabrication of very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. **401 and/or 402;** 462; 441; 341; 549.

*Electronic and Opto-electronic Materials: *Science of materials related to microelectronics and opto-electronics. **342 (or PHY 208 and 305*); at least one of MSE 301, CHM 305, MAE 324;** and at least one of ELE 341, 351, 441, 541, 542, 546. (At least one of the concentration courses must be in ELE.)

*Solid-State Devices: *Electronic and opto-electronic devices. **341;** 342--highly recommended (or PHY 208 and 305*); 351; 401 or 402 (count only one of 401/402); 441; 442; 453; 540; 544; 545; 549.

*Solid-State Physics: *The physics of electrons in solids and the interaction of solids with light. **342 (or PHY 208 and 305*); 441;** 341; 351; 442; 453; 544; 545; 546.

*Optical Communications and Fiber Optics: *Application of photonic technology to lightwave communication. **351; 453; 454; 455.**

*Optical and Opto-electronic Engineering: *The generation, transmission, control, detection, and applications of photons. **351;** 341; 352; 453; 454; 455; 544; 546, 551, 552, 553; MAE 521.

*Computer Systems and Software: *Integration of hardware and software in computers. **375;** at least one of 386, 475, 482, 572; at least one of COS 318, COS 320, COS 425, COS 426, COS 461.

*Computer Design: *Structured design principles for computer-based systems. **375;** 402; 462; 463; 464; 465; 466; 475; 572; 580.

*Computer Architecture: *The principles of microprocessors and high-performance computers. **375; 475;** 386; 462; 465; 572; 580.

*Electronic Computer-Aided Design (CAD): *Algorithms and software used for design and analysis of integrated circuits. **462;** 382; 463; 466; COS 423; ORF 307.

*Real-Time Computing: *Use of computers for time-critical processing and control. **482;** 464; 475; (count only one of 483 or MAE 433 or MAE 434).

**Note: ORF 309 may be used to satisfy the upperclass mathematics requirement or the concentration requirement, but not both.

#### Independent Work

Independent projects or research projects outside normal structured lecture or laboratory courses are a valuable educational experience and highly recommended for all students at either the junior or senior level. The projects are often extremely challenging on both a personal and academic level but also extremely fulfilling. All electrical engineering majors are required to complete at least one semester of independent study, normally in the senior year. Independent work cannot be used to fulfill the breadth or concentration requirements. Each student doing independent work will be required to give a poster presentation during a 60-minute session given at the end of each semester.

**Interdisciplinary Programs. **Interested students may combine their work in electrical engineering with that in other departments through interdisciplinary certificate programs such as engineering and management systems, engineering physics, materials science and engineering, engineering biology, sustainable energy, neuroscience, finance, applications of computing, robotics and intelligent systems, environmental studies, applied and computational mathematics, and the Woodrow Wilson School (the last by application only). Students completing a certificate program will receive a special certificate upon graduation. In some cases, the programs closely overlap with defined areas of concentration within electrical engineering. In other cases students should consult with their advisers to develop an electrical engineering program that best combines their electrical engineering interest with the interdisciplinary program.

**Further Information. **Additional information on the departmental academic program and requirements is given in the "Electrical Engineering Handbook," available from the departmental undergraduate office, Room B304, Engineering Quadrangle. Prospective concentrators in electrical engineering should consult the departmental representative as early as possible for purposes of planning an academic program.

### Courses

ELE 102 New Eyes for the World: Hands-On Optical Engineering (also EGR 103) Not offered this year ST

This lab course introduces students to modern topics of engineering optics. Teams of students will carry out four different projects: holography, lasers, free-space optical communication, and nanotechnology. Teaches the foundations and broader societal issues of these technologies. The laboratory sessions involve hands-on training as well as experimentation and exploration. Skills acquired in this course include computer programming of user interfaces, data acquisition and interpretation, wet chemical processing, and electronics design assembly. One 90-minute lecture, one three-hour laboratory.
*
C. Gmachl*

ELE 201 Introduction to Electrical Signals and Systems Fall ST

An introductory overview of electrical systems that process information-carrying signals. Acquisition, distribution, storage, and utilization of common information, such as text, voice, image, and video. Important attributes and characterization of analog and digital signals. Conversion between analog and digital signals. Modeling of information-distributing systems. Introduction to modulation. Limitations of physical information processing systems. Elementary coding for error detecting and correcting. Simple control systems, feedback principle. Three hours of lectures, one three-hour laboratory. Prerequisite: knowledge of elementary calculus
*
S. Kulkarni*

ELE 203 Electronic Circuits Fall ST

Introduction to circuit analysis and electronics. Passive components and circuits, operational amplifiers, feedback. Resistive networks, Kirchhoff's laws, Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits. Capacitors and inductors. Switched RL, RC, and RLC circuits. Oscillation. Sinusoidal steady-state analysis, frequency response. Bode diagrams. Electromechanical energy conversion. Three hours of lectures, one three-hour laboratory. Prerequisite: knowledge of freshman physics and elementary calculus.
*
P. Prucnal*

ELE 206 Introduction to Logic Design (also COS 306) Spring ST

Boolean algebra and digital logic gates. Design with two- and multilevel combinational logic. Basic memory elements, latches, flip-flops, SRAM and DRAM cells. Timing methodologies. Synchronous and asynchronous designs. Counters. Finite-state machines. Designs with programmable logic. Basic computer organization. Three lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: an introductory programming course, or equivalent programming experience.
*
S. Malik*

ELE 208 Semiconductor Devices, ICs, and Micro-Fabrication Spring ST

An examination of what is inside a microchip, how it works, and how it is made. Operating principles of semiconductor devices and their function in circuit applications such as digital gates and analog amplifiers. Devices to include p-n junction diodes, bipolar transistors, MOS capacitors, and field-effect transistors (MOSFET's). Microfabrication technology for semiconductor devices, integrated circuits, photolithography, etching, evaporation, and other thin-film processing. Hands-on integrated circuit microfabrication laboratory for diodes and MOSFET's. Three lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: CHM 201 or 203. Corequisite: PHY 102 or 104
*
S. Chou**,
C. Silvestre*

ELE 211 Digital Systems and Microprocessors Fall ST

An introduction to the structure, organization, and operation of digital electronic systems for nondepartmental students. Implementation of digital subsystems using small-scale integrated circuits as functional modules. Introduction to microprocessor-based digital systems and applications. Three hours of lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: an introductory computer science course.
* Staff*

ELE 218 Learning Theory and Epistemology (see PHI 218)

ELE 222A The Computing Age (also EGR 222A) Not offered this year

The past several decades have seen an exponential growth in computing as reflected in modern computers as well as consumer products such as music/video players and cell phones. This course will explore the reasons for this growth through studying the core principles of computing. It will cover representation of information including video and music, the design of computers and consumer devices, and their efficient implementation using computer chips. Finally, it will examine the technological factors that will likely limit future growth and discuss the societal impact of this outcome. Two 90-minute lectures, one preceptorial.
* Staff*

ELE 222B The Computing Age (also EGR 222B) Not offered this year ST

The past several decades have seen an exponential growth in computing as reflected in modern computers as well as consumer products such as music/video players and cell phones. This course will explore the reasons for this growth through studying the core principles of computing. It will cover representation of information including video and music, the design of computers and consumer devices, and their efficient implementation using computer chips. Finally, it will examine the technological factors that will likely limit future growth and discuss the societal impact of this outcome. Two 90-minute lectures, one three-hour laboratory.
* Staff*

ELE 301 Circuits and Signal Processing Fall

Basic principles and implementations of analog and digital signal processing illustrated with weekly circuit/simulation laboratories. Signals, signal operations, and convolution. AM and FM signals. Fourier and Laplace analysis, sampling, oscillators, feedback, and stability. MATLAB and SPICE computer simulation tools. Three hours of lectures, weekly laboratory, optional preceptorial. Prerequisites: 201, 203.
*
P. Cuff*

ELE 302 System Design and Analysis Spring

Comprehensive laboratory-based course in electronic system design and analysis. Covers formal methods for the design and analysis of moderately complex real-world electronic systems. Course is centered around a semester-long design project involving a computer-controlled vehicle designed and constructed by teams of two students. Integrates microprocessors, communications, and control. Three lectures, one laboratory; open laboratory during final month. Prerequisites: 206 and 301 or permission of instructor.
*
B. Dickinson*

ELE 341 Solid-State Devices Fall

The physics and technology of solid-state devices. Topics include: p-n junctions and two terminal devices, transistors, silicon controlled rectifiers, field effect devices, silicon vidicon and storage tubes, metal-semiconductor contacts and Schottky barrier devices, microwave devices, junction lasers, liquid crystal devices, and fabrication of integrated circuits. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: 208 or the equivalent.
*
A. Kahn*

ELE 342 Physical Principles of Electronic Devices Spring

Fundamental principles of solid-state and optoelectronic device operation. Principles of quantum mechanics (Schroedinger equation, operator and matrix methods) important to a basic understanding of solid-state and quantum electronics. Topics in statistical mechanics, including distribution functions, density of states, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein statistics. Applications to atoms, molecules, lasers, and solids, with special emphasis on semiconductors. Three hours of lectures.
*
R. Bhatt*

ELE 351 Electromagnetic Field Theory and Optics Fall

Electromagnetic field theory with emphasis on engineering applications. Review of static fields, Maxwell's equations, wave propagation, reflection and refraction, dielectric and metallic waveguides, fiber optics and practical concepts in lightwave communications systems. Three hours of lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: PHY 104.
*
G. Wysocki*

ELE 352 Physical Optics Spring

Fundamental and practical aspects of physical optics. Lenses and ray optics, lens maker's formula, wave propagation, Fourier optics, Gaussian beams are all considered. Design and use of practical optical systems including optical beam steering in medicine, fiber optics. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: PHY 104.
*
J. Fleischer*

ELE 375 Computer Architecture and Organization (see COS 375)

ELE 382 Distributed Algorithms and Optimization Methods for Engineering Applications Fall

Introduces distributed algorithms to optimize networked systems in electronic, mechanical, or biochemical substrates and other methodologies of optimization, both structures and numerical algorithms, for a vareity of engineering applications. Applications will be selectively drawn from the following: computer networking, Internet protocols, communication systems, signal processing, circuit design, controlled dynamic systems, computational geometry, and financial engineering. Two 90-minute lectures. Prerequisite: MAT 202. No previous exposure to optimization theory, algorithms, or any specific application areas is required.
* Staff*

ELE 386 Cyber Security (also EGR 386) Spring

The technology underlying secure transactions and safe interactions in a public Internet and wireless world. Humans interact daily with each other, with information, and with services through cyberspace. Topics include policy, economic, and social issues related to cyber security needs such as confidentiality, data integrity, user authentication, trust, non-repudiation, availability, privacy and anonymity, case studies in electronic commerce, denial of service attacks, viruses and worms, digital rights management, surveillance, and cyber-terrorism. Two 90-minute lectures.
*
R. Lee*

ELE 391 The Wireless Revolution: Telecommunications for the 21st Century (also EGR 391) Spring

This interdisciplinary course addresses technological, regulatory, economic, and social issues arising in the rapidly developing field of wireless communications. The course introduces students to a major technological trend that will be a significant force in worldwide commercial and social development throughout the 21st century. Prerequisites: MAT 103 or permission of instructor. Two 90-minute lectures.
*
S. Kulkarni*

ELE 397 Junior Independent Work Fall

Provides an opportunity for a student to concentrate on a "state-of-the-art" project in electrical engineering. Topics may be selected from suggestions by faculty members or proposed by the student. The final choice must be approved by the faculty member.
*
B. Dickinson*

ELE 398 Junior Independent Work Spring

Provides an opportunity for a student to concentrate on a "state-of-the-art" project in electrical engineering. Topics may be selected from suggestions by faculty members or proposed by the student. The final choice must be approved by the faculty member.
*
B. Dickinson*

ELE 401 Analog Electronics Not offered this year

Bipolar and field effect transistors; operational amplifiers; general feedback amplifiers; low- and high-power amplifiers; differential amplifiers; amplifier chains; high-frequency models; D/A and A/D integrated circuits; computer-aided circuit modeling. Three hours of lectures, one hour of preceptorial, weekly laboratory. Prerequisites: 203 or equivalent: 208/301 recommended or concurrent.
* Staff*

ELE 402 Digital Electronics Not offered this year

Application of semiconductor devices to the implementation of digital logic functions, with an emphasis on integrated circuits. MOS and bipolar transistor operation and their use in logic families such as NMOS, CMOS, TTL, ECL. Static and dynamic circuits. Speed, power, layout, area, and other performance tradeoffs, computer simulation. Principles of semiconductor memory circuits (ROM, SRAM, DRAM, EPROM, and others). Three hours of lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: 203 (206 is desirable).
* Staff*

ELE 412 Electrical Engineering Design Laboratory Not offered this year

A project-oriented design laboratory. Topics may include analog and digital electronic systems, feedback control systems, power electronic systems, microprocessor system applications, digital control systems, computer simulation as a design tool, and communication systems. Emphasis will be on a systematic approach to design and the implementation or simulation of the resulting design project. Seminar-type lectures, one laboratory.
* Staff*

ELE 441 Solid-State Physics I Fall

An introduction to the properties of solids. Theory of free electrons--classical and quantum. Crystal structure and methods of determination. Electron energy levels in a crystal: weak potential and tight-binding limits. Classification of solids--metals, semiconductors, and insulators. Types of bonding and cohesion in crystals. Lattice dynamics, phonon spectra, and thermal properties of harmonic crystals. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: 342, or PHY 208 and 305, or equivalent.
*
M. Shayegan**,
S. Lyon*

ELE 442 Solid-State Physics II Spring

Electronic structure of solids. Electron dynamics and transport. Semiconductors and impurity states. Surfaces and interfaces. Dielectric properties of insulators. Electron-electron, electron-phonon, and phonon-phonon interactions. Anharmonic effects in crystals. Magnetism. Superconductivity. Alloys. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisites: 441 or equivalent.
*
S. Lyon*

ELE 449 Materials and Solid-State Device Laboratory Not offered this year

This course comprises several experiments that exemplify materials characterization, handling, and fabrication techniques in current solid-state device technology. Examples are: minority carrier drift, pnp transistor fabrication and characterization, planar technology, thin film device fabrication and characterization, Hall mobility in semiconductors, and photoconductivity. One laboratory, some laboratory lectures. Prerequisite: 208, 342.
* Staff*

ELE 453 Optical Electronics Fall

Electromagnetic waves. Gaussian beams. Optical resonators. Interaction of light and matter. Lasers. Mode locking and Q-switching in lasers. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisites: 351 or 352 or PHY 304 or permission of instructor.
*
H. Türeci*

ELE 454 Photonics and Light Wave Communications Spring

Introduction to fiber-optic communication systems. Optical detectors and receivers. Design and performance of direct detection systems. Coherent light wave systems. Multichannel WDM communication systems. Optical amplifiers. Soliton communication systems. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: 351 or 352.
*
P. Prucnal*

ELE 462 Design of Very Large-Scale Integrated (VLSI) Systems (also COS 462) Fall

The implementation of digital systems using integrated circuit technology. Emphasis on structured design methodologies for VLSI systems. Topics include: design rules for metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits, implementation of common digital components, tools for computer-aided design, novel architectures for VLSI systems. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: 206.
*
N. Verma*

ELE 463 Computer-Aided Design of Digital Systems (also COS 463) Not offered this year

Algorithms and methodologies for the synthesis, analysis, and verification of digital systems. Topics include layout synthesis, logic synthesis, sequential synthesis, and data management. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: 206. Recommended: 462 and COS 226.
* Staff*

ELE 465 Switching and Sequential Systems Fall

Theory of digital computing systems. Topics include logic function decomposition, reliability and fault diagnosis, synthesis of synchronous circuits and iterative networks, state minimization, synthesis of asynchronous circuits, state-identification and fault detection, finite-state recognizers, definite machines, information lossless machines. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: 206.
*
S. Kung*

ELE 466 Digital System Testing Not offered this year

Component-level issues related to testing and design/synthesis for testability of digital systems. Topics include test generation for combinational and sequential circuits, design and synthesis for testability, and built-in self-test circuits. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite 206.
* Staff*

ELE 469 Human-Computer Interface Technology (see COS 436)

ELE 475 Computer Architecture (also COS 475) Spring

An in-depth study of the fundamentals of modern processor and system design. Students will develop a strong practical and theoretical background in the technical and economic issues that govern the design of computer architectures and implementations. The course will emphasize the skills required to design and evaluate current and future systems. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisites: 206, 375.
*
M. Martonosi*

ELE 481 Machine Vision Not offered this year

Introduction to the basic theory and methods of machine vision. Topics include image formation, edge detection and image segmentation, shape from shading, stereo, texture, motion, variational and Markov random field methods, interpretation of line drawings, surface and shape representations, model-based recognition. Three hours of lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: 301, MAT 201-202 or MAT 203-204.
* Staff*

ELE 482 Digital Signal Processing Spring

The lectures will cover: (1) Basic principles of digital signal processing. (2) Design of digital filters. (3) Fourier analysis and the fast Fourier transform. (4) Roundoff errors in digital signal processing. (5) Applications of digital signal processing.
*
B. Liu*

ELE 483 Feedback Systems Not offered this year

The study of automatic control systems. Classical scalar input-output analysis and design using root locus and graphical techniques in the frequency domain. Modern multiple input-output analysis and design using state space methods and optimization theory. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisites: 301; MAT 301 or equivalent.
* Staff*

ELE 485 Signal Analysis and Communication Systems Fall

Modulation of analog and digital information: continuous-wave modulation; pulse modulation of digital data; multiplexing and pulse modulation of analog signals. Review of probability, random variables, and random signals; correlation functions and power spectra. Analysis of communication systems: probability of error in digital modulation and signal-to-noise ratio analysis of analog modulation. Three hours of lectures, one three-hour laboratory. Prerequisites: 301, ORF 309.
*
P. Henry*

ELE 486 Digital Communications and Networks Spring

Introduction to digital communication systems and networks, introductory information and coding theory, digital modulation, layered architecture concept of networks, introductory traffic and queuing theory, local area networks and media access control, error control in networks, switching and multiplexing, ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) in B-ISDN (broadband integrated services digital networks). Three hours of lectures. Prerequisites: 301, ORF 309.
*
S. Verdú*

ELE 488 Image Processing Spring

Introduction to the basic theory and techniques of two- and three-dimensional image processing. Topics include image perception, 2-D image transforms, enhancement, restoration, compression, tomography and image understanding. Applications to HDTV, machine vision, and medical imaging, etc. Three hours of lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: 301.
*
B. Liu*

ELE 491 High-Tech Entrepreneurship (also EGR 491/ORF 491) Fall, Spring

Designed for seniors in the sciences and engineering who are interested in starting a high-tech company early in their careers or who want to join emerging technology companies after graduation. The course is open to any student with a strong background in technology who is interested in launching new enterprises. Two 90-minute lectures.
*
E. Zschau*

ELE 497 Senior Independent Work Fall

Subjects chosen by the student with the approval of the faculty for independent study. A final report is required.
*
B. Dickinson*

ELE 498 Senior Independent Work Spring

Subjects chosen by the student with the approval of the faculty for independent study. A final report is required.
*
B. Dickinson*