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Department of History


William C. Jordan

Associate Chair

Molly Greene

Departmental Representative

James A. Dun

Director of Graduate Studies

John F. Haldon (History)

Michael D. Gordin (History of Science)


Jeremy I. Adelman

David A. Bell

Peter R. Brown

D. Graham Burnett

Martin C. Collcutt, also East Asian Studies

Linda J. Colley

Angela N. H. Creager

Benjamin A. Elman, also East Asian Studies

Sheldon M. Garon, also East Asian Studies

Michael D. Gordin

Anthony T. Grafton

Molly Greene, also Hellenic Studies

Jan T. Gross

John F. Haldon, also Hellenic Studies

Hendrik A. Hartog

Tera W. Hunter, also African American Studies

Harold James, also Woodrow Wilson School

William C. Jordan

Stephen M. Kotkin, also Woodrow Wilson School

Michael F. Laffan

Nancy Weiss Malkiel

Susan Naquin, also East Asian Studies

Philip G. Nord

Willard J. Peterson, also East Asian Studies

Gyan Prakash

Anson G. Rabinbach

Daniel T. Rodgers

Martha A. Sandweiss

Emily A. Thompson

Keith A. Wailoo, also Woodrow Wilson School

R. Sean Wilentz

Julian E. Zelizer, also Woodrow Wilson School

Associate Professor

Emmanuel H. Kreike

Kevin M. Kruse

Visiting Associate Professor

Katherine L. Jansen

Assistant Professor

Adam G. Beaver

Margot Canaday

Vera S. Candiani

Mariana P. Candido

Janet Y. Chen, also East Asian Studies

Katja Guenther

Joshua B. Guild, also African American Studies

Eleanor K. Hubbard

Robert A. Karl

Jonathan I. Levy

Yair Mintzker

Ekaterina Pravilova

Bhavani Raman

Helmut Reimitz

Rebecca A. Rix

Bradley R. Simpson, also Woodrow Wilson School

Wendy Warren

Max D. Weiss, also Near Eastern Studies

Lecturer with Rank of Professor

Barbara B. Oberg


Matthew W. Backes

On Barak, also Council of the Humanities

Eduardo F. Canedo, also Council of the Humanities

David N. Cannadine, also Council of the Humanities

James A. Dun

Yaacob Dweck, also Council of the Humanities

Simon Grote, also Council of the Humanities

Eran Kaplan, also Judaic Studies

Paul L. Miles

Neil J. Young

Associated Faculty

Wallace D. Best, Religion, African American Studies

Michael A. Cook, Near Eastern Studies

M. Şükrü Hanioğlu, Near Eastern Studies

Bernard A. Haykel, Near Eastern Studies

Joy S. Kim, East Asian Studies

Heath W. Lowry, Near Eastern Studies

Eileen A. Reeves, Comparative Literature

Peter Schäfer, Religion

Maurizio Viroli, Politics

Information and Departmental Plan of Study

The plan of departmental study encourages the student to gain further knowledge of the major developments in, and problems of, history; to do independent historical research and writing; and to develop an authoritative knowledge of one particular field of history. A leaflet, "Information for Majors," available in the history department undergraduate office in Dickinson Hall and on the department's website, describes the program and requirements in detail.

The department encourages students to master at least one language in addition to English. Knowledge of another language is invaluable for senior thesis research especially that on topics in the history of continental Europe or the non-Western world.


Students are required to take and pass at least two departmental courses before they enter the department. Students who wish to enter the department but who have not taken two departmental courses before their junior year must consult with the departmental representative. At least one of these two prerequisite courses must be selected from the following: HIS 201, 207, 208, 211, 212, 280, 281, 282, 290, 291, 292, or 293. Students who have not fulfilled the 200-level prerequisite must take one of the appropriate courses in the fall of their junior year. (HUM 216-17 or 218-19 may be used as a 200-level prerequisite but cannot be counted as one of the departmental requirements.)

Program of Study

On joining the history department, each student elects to concentrate in one of the following fields: Africa; Ancient Greece and Rome; East Asia since 1600; Europe since 1700; Latin America; Middle Ages; Near East; Russia; United Kingdom; United States; History of Science and Technology; Women and Gender; Intellectual and Cultural History; Modern Imperialism and Colonialism; and War, Revolution, and the State. The senior thesis will ordinarily be written in the field of concentration, and the senior departmental examination will always be written in the field of concentration. Students should select courses so as to create a coherent program in their field.

Course Advising. Before preregistration each term, each history student must consult with one of the department's designated undergraduate advisers.

Departmental Distribution Requirements. University regulations stipulate that undergraduates may not take more than 12 departmental courses. Departmental regulations stipulate that undergraduates must pass at least 10 courses, including HIS 400, in order to receive the A.B. degree. History courses taken in the freshman and sophomore years are numbered among the 10 to 12 required for graduation. Of the departmental courses, one must be a course in European history (including Russia); one a course in United States history; one a course in non-Western history; and one a course in premodern history. No one course may satisfy more than one of these distribution requirements. In addition, concentrators in the history of the U.S. are required to take at least two courses in pre-20th-century U.S. history. Courses fulfilling the non-Western, premodern, and pre-20th-century U.S. history requirements are listed on the department's website under "Distribution Requirements."

Cognates. The history department encourages students to take courses in other departments when they add depth and variety to their selected program of concentration. For example, a student concentrating in Russian history might identify an appropriate course in politics to take as a cognate; a student concentrating in intellectual history might take an appropriate course in philosophy as a cognate. Two such courses may be taken during the junior and senior years and counted as departmental courses provided they contribute significantly to the student's plan of study. Cognates cannot be used to fulfill departmental distribution requirements. Cognates can only be approved by the departmental representative during the course enrollment period and prior to attending the class. Courses may not be designated as cognates retroactively. Cross-listed courses (for example, CLA 217, also listed as HIS 217) are automatically considered departmental courses, not cognates.

History of Science. History majors wishing to concentrate in the history of science need not meet the departmental prerequisites or distribution requirements. But they must take 10 courses that satisfy the following pattern of requirements (note: an asterisk indicates a one-time-only topic or course):

1. Two courses in science, engineering, or mathematics in addition to those used to fill the University's science distribution requirement.

2. Four of the following courses:

*277 Technology and Society (see EGR 277)
290 The Scientific Worldview of Antiquity and the Middle Ages
291 The Scientific Revolution and European Order, 1500-1750
292 Science in the Modern World
293 Science in a Global Context: 15th to 20th Century
394 The Rise of Modern Biomedicine: Global Trends in Health and Healing, 1500-2000
*395 History of Medicine and the Body
396 History of Biology
*397 Translation in the History of Science
398 Technologies and Their Societies: Historical Perspectives
*399 In the Groove: Technology and Music in American History, from Edison to the iPod
*401 Latin American Studies Seminar: Health and Society in Latin America during the 20th Century (see LAS 405)
490 Perspectives on the Nature and Development of Science
491 Problems in the Development of the Physical Sciences
492 Problems in the Development of the Life Sciences
*493 Science and Religion: Historical Approaches
*494 Broken Brains, Shattered Minds: Disease and Experience in the History of Neuroscience
*495 The Soviet Science System
*496 Africa, Medical Pluralism, and the History of Health and Disease

With the permission of the departmental representative, one of these courses may be replaced by a cognate course from another department, for example, in philosophy or sociology of science.

3. Four other history courses.

4. The independent work and comprehensive examination requirements are the same as for all other departmental majors.

Independent Work

Junior Year. In the fall term of the junior year students are required to enroll in HIS 400 Junior Seminars. Work in the junior seminars involves exercises in defining a topic for historical research and in identifying and evaluating a body of historical literature. Each student may expect to gain experience in the use of the library and bibliographical sources, to learn the correct technical form for presenting evidence clearly, and to develop a historical presentation convincingly. Students in HIS 400 will have the opportunity to choose from a number of seminars devoted to historical events or themes of wide importance, such as "Origins of World War I," "Comparative Revolutions," "The United States and Latin America," and "Marxist Social Analysis and Historical Interpretation."

In the spring term of the junior year, in consultation with his or her adviser, the student selects a topic and writes a research paper on an independent basis. Written work equivalent to that submitted in the first term is required. The two semesters of junior independent work must be focused in two different geographical fields. Students should consult their advisers about this requirement.

Senior Year. The independent work consists of writing a thesis on an approved subject of the student's choice. The thesis usually relies on research in original source materials, but it may also involve reinterpretation of familiar materials.

Senior Departmental Examination

The senior comprehensive examination is given during the University examination period (after submission of the senior thesis). The exam is a set of take-home essays in the field of concentration designated by the student.

Study Abroad

Students in the department are encouraged to participate in those programs for foreign study recognized by the University (for further information, consult the Office of International Programs, 36 University Place, Suite 350). The department has the following policies:

1. Juniors majoring in the department may receive credit for up to four courses in history taken while abroad for either a full year or semester. These courses will require the prior approval of the departmental representative, and to secure that approval, students will be expected to produce some evidence of the work load and the material covered by the courses.

2. Sophomores intending to major in history may count one history course taken abroad toward the requirement to enter the department. The course cannot be used to substitute for the 200-level prerequisite (see above).

3. Recognizing the difficulties of doing research without Princeton's many resources, the department will try to be flexible regarding the deadlines for submission of independent work conducted abroad. Students will have to make arrangements for extensions with the department representative before leaving.

4. The department's junior seminars will be open to sophomores intending to go abroad in their junior year, thus enabling them to do their first junior paper in the fall or spring of their sophomore year and preparing them to write the second while abroad or in the resident semester of their junior year (if they elect to spend only one semester abroad). Students who meet the requirements of junior independent work while at Princeton will still be expected to undertake a full course load while abroad. Moreover, to take full advantage of the international experience, study abroad should include some research work, and we urge students to take seminars that include a research component.

5. As opportunity arises, the history department will seek to identify former students and colleagues abroad willing to act as junior advisers for Princeton students studying in their region. 

Interdepartmental Programs. Interdepartmental programs of particular interest to history department students are the Programs in African Studies, American Studies, Classics, East Asian Studies, European Cultural Studies, Hellenic Studies, Judaic Studies, Latin American Studies, Medieval Studies, Near Eastern Studies, and the Study of Women and Gender, as well as the Center for African American Studies. Students should consult the departmental representative and the director of the relevant program.


HIS 201 A History of the World since 1300   Spring HA

An overview of world history. Begins with Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire, which collided peoples, goods, and ideas across the Eurasian landmass, and traces the global transformations that connected or disconnected societies through time. The dynamism of Asia; environmental specificities of Africa and the Americas; slavery and other links across the Atlantic; the surprise onset of European predominance; colonialism, anti-colonialism, globalization. What is the past and future of Islam? How is China's staggering wealth up to 1750 and its recent ascent explained? Where did the U.S. come from and where is it going? Two lectures, one preceptorial. J. Adelman, S. Kotkin

HIS 207 History of East Asia to 1800 (also EAS 207)   Fall HA

General introduction to major themes in the cultural, intellectual, and institutional history of China and Japan, with some attention to Korea and Southeast Asia. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Collcutt, W. Peterson

HIS 208 East Asia since 1800 (also EAS 208)   Spring HA

The civilizations of East Asia at the beginning of the modern era; the impact of the West; the contrasting responses of China, Japan, and Korea to the confrontation; the development of the present societies. Assignments will be drawn from contemporary sources as well as from secondary accounts. Two lectures, one preceptorial. J. Chen, S. Garon

HIS 211 Europe from Antiquity to 1700   Fall HA

The course deals with four main topics: the Greek city-state, the Roman Empire and the rise of Christianity, the formation of medieval European society, and the Renaissance and Reformation. Emphasis will be laid on those social, political, intellectual, and religious developments that contributed most directly to forming modern European civilization. Two lectures, one preceptorial. A. Grafton

HIS 212 Europe in the World: Monarchies, Nations, and Empires from 1776 to the Present Day   Not offered this year HA

The emergence of modern societies from the Europe of the Old Regimes. Emphasis on problems and themes, including the French and Industrial Revolutions, nationalism, science and its discontents, popular culture, the mass movements of revolution and war. Intended as an introduction to Europe for students with little background in history. Two lectures, one preceptorial. D. Cannadine

HIS 216 Archaic and Classical Greece (see CLA 216)

HIS 217 The Greek World in the Hellenistic Age (see CLA 217)

HIS 218 The Roman Republic (see CLA 218)

HIS 219 The Roman Empire, 31 B.C. to A.D. 337 (see CLA 219)

HIS 220 Jews, Muslims, and Christians in the Middle Ages (see NES 220)

HIS 223 Introduction to the Middle East (see NES 201)

HIS 240 The Perception of China and Asia in the West (see EAS 240)

HIS 245 The Islamic World from its Emergence to the Beginnings of Westernization (see NES 245)

HIS 277 Technology and Society (see EGR 277)

HIS 280 Approaches to American History   Spring HA

An intensive introduction to concepts, methods, and issues in American history, especially recommended for prospective concentrators. The problems investigated in the course (the Revolution, class and cultural relations, literature and society, and others) will vary. Emphasis will be on the framing of historical questions and immersion in the actual sources of history. One lecture, two classes. J. Dun, N. Young

HIS 281 Approaches to European History   Not offered this year HA

An intensive introduction to the methods and practice of history through the close reading of sources on three different topics in European history. The class introduces students to the basic vocabulary of European historiography, focusing on the interpretation and analysis of documents, the framing of historical questions, and the construction of effective arguments. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

HIS 282 A Documents-based Approach to Asian History (also EAS 282)   Not offered this year HA

An intensive, documents-based introduction to methods and issues in Asian history, focusing on topics that embed Asia in the wider context of world history. Especially recommended for prospective concentrators. The problems investigated (Marco Polo in Asia, Jesuits in China, Russo-Japanese War, Japan's Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, etc.) will vary. Emphasis will be on interpreting primary sources, framing historical questions, and constructing historical explanations. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

HIS 290 The Scientific Worldview of Antiquity and the Middle Ages   Not offered this year HA

The emergence and development of natural philosophy in ancient Greece, with consideration of its Egyptian and Babylonian background and its subsequent articulation and modification in the medieval worlds of Islam and Western Europe. Emphasis is placed on the interplay of science and culture. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 291 The Scientific Revolution and European Order, 1500-1750   Not offered this year HA

Beliefs about the nature of the universe, the Earth, and even the human body changed drastically during the early modern period. This course examines this transformation of natural knowledge as a process of both social and intellectual reorganization. Explores how Europeans developed a new mechanistic science for astronomy, physics, and medicine with a dynamic culture of new institutions and technologies. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 292 Science in the Modern World   Not offered this year HA

The evolution of science since Newton. Emphasis is placed on the major developments of scientific theory and practice since the chemical revolution of the late 18th century. Topics considered will also include: the development of science as a discipline; the connections between science and mathematics, philosophy, and technology; and the emergence of science as an integral part of modern societies. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Gordin

HIS 293 Science in a Global Context: 15th to 20th Century   Not offered this year HA

Science and technology have literally changed the world. This course examines how, with an emphasis on understanding the place of scientific knowledge in the history of European exploration and expanding global power. How did the sciences go out into the world? How did certain disciplines and practices take shape in global interactions since 1400? How does knowledge become universal? What instruments, institutions, and activities made this possible? Two 90-minute classes. D. Burnett

HIS 303 Colonial Latin America to 1810 (also LAS 305)   Fall HA

The principal themes of Iberian imperialism and colonial society from preconquest to the eve of independence. The main issues to be covered will be: Amerindian civilization, the conquest of the Americas, social and cultural change, and evolving economic relations. Two lectures, one preceptorial. V. Candiani

HIS 304 Modern Latin America since 1810 (also LAS 304)   Spring HA

A survey of Latin America from the wars of independence to recent struggles for democracy. The focus will be on state formation in the 19th century, relations with the world economy, and changing patterns of social and political life in the 20th century. Two lectures, one preceptorial. R. Karl

HIS 305 History of the Modern Caribbean (also LAS 306)   Not offered this year HA

This course treats major themes in Caribbean social and political history cutting across the various empires, nations, and cultures that have shaped the region. It focuses on slavery and freedom during the 19th century and imperialism, authoritarianism, revolution, migration, and transnationalism in the 20th century. Race, ethnicity, and nation are explored throughout the course. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 314 Precolonial Africa   Spring HA

A survey course that begins with an overview of the continent at the end of the third century A.D. and ends with the death of Moshoeshoe in the 19th century. Focuses on several great themes of African history: long-distance trade, state formation, migration, religious conversion to either Islam or Christianity, forms of domestic slavery, and the impact of the slave trade. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Candido

HIS 315 Colonial and Postcolonial Africa   Not offered this year HA

The impact of European colonial rule on the traditional societies of Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the dominant themes will be the emergence of the intelligentsia in colonial areas as proponents of nationalism. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 316 South African History, 1497 to the Present   Spring HA

Beginning with a brief precolonial regional overview, the course examines European occupation following 1652; explores slavery, the frontier, intergroup relations, the growth of nationalism, the Boer War and unification, African resistance movements, the structure of politics, constitutional developments, and debates over race and class; and ends with the 1980s constitutional crisis. Two lectures, one preceptorial. E. Kreike

HIS 317 The Making of Modern India   Not offered this year HA

An exploration of three major themes in the history of India's emergence as a nation-state: colonial socio-economic and cultural transformations, the growth of modern collective identities and conflicts, and nationalism. Topics covered include: trade, empire, and capitalism; class, gender, and religion; Gandhi, national independence, and partition; and postcolonial state and society. Two lectures, one preceptorial. G. Prakash

HIS 318 Early Chinese History to 221 (see EAS 335)

HIS 319 The Making and Transformation of Medieval China: 300-1200 (see EAS 336)

HIS 320 Early Japanese History (see EAS 320)

HIS 321 Early Modern Japan (see EAS 321)

HIS 322 20th-Century Japan (also EAS 324)   Fall HA

An analysis of change and continuity in modern Japanese society, with emphasis on industrialization, social discontent, parliamentary democracy, war, defeat, the "economic miracle," and Japanese preoccupation with national identity in a Western-dominated world. Divided between the prewar and postwar periods. Two lectures, one preceptorial. S. Garon

HIS 324 Early Modern China (also EAS 354)   Fall HA

China between the 1570s and the 1860s, from its early involvement in the new world economy to the crises of the Opium War era. Emphasis on the history and culture of the Qing empire, its success and challenges, with attention to family and society, religion, art, and literature. Two lectures, one preceptorial. S. Naquin

HIS 325 China, 1850 to the Present (also EAS 355)   Not offered this year HA

China's transformations and continuities from the civil wars of the mid-19th century to the economic reforms of the 1980s. Topics include the opium crisis, the impact of natural disasters, the fall of the imperial dynasty, China's struggle with Western and Japanese imperialism, and experiments in government and society on mainland China and Taiwan since 1949. Two lectures, one preceptorial. J. Chen

HIS 326 Topics in Ancient History (see CLA 326)

HIS 327 Topics in Ancient History (see CLA 327)

HIS 328 Classical Historians and Their Philosophies of History (see CLA 324)

HIS 329 Roman Law (see CLA 325)

HIS 334 The Middle East in the 20th Century (see NES 337)

HIS 336 Modern Worlds of Islam   Spring HA

An introduction to Islam in modern world history. What, and where, is "the Islamic world?" What have been the major developments in Muslims' historical experiences since the 18th century? How have Muslims themselves made, experienced, and understood modern history? How have Muslims and others shaped the world in which we live, and how are relationships between "Islamic" and other worlds to be characterized? What is the relationship between Islam and modernity? How can we better understand the place of Islam in history today? Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Weiss

HIS 337 The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1800 (see NES 437)

HIS 340 Culture and Society in Late Imperial China: 1000-1900 (see EAS 340)

HIS 341 Between Resistance and Collaboration: The Second World War in Europe   Spring HA

In the broader context of conflict between fascism, communism, and liberal democracy, the course examines various patterns and methods of occupation, collaboration, and resistance during World War II in Western and Eastern Europe. Topics to be discussed include the Holocaust of European Jewry and the technology of terror; the impact of war and occupation on elites and other social strata. Students will read historical studies as well as personal narratives by eyewitnesses and participants. Two lectures, one preceptorial. J. Gross

HIS 343 The Civilization of the Early Middle Ages (also CLA 343)   Not offered this year HA

A study of the emergence of a distinctive Western European civilization out of Christian, Greco-Roman, and Germanic institutions and ideas from the decline of the Roman Empire to about A.D. 1050. Two lectures, one preceptorial. H. Reimitz

HIS 344 The Civilization of the High Middle Ages (also CLA 344)   Spring HA

An analysis of typical institutions, social and economic structures, and forms of thought and expression from about 1050 to about 1350. Emphasis is placed on the elements of medieval civilization that have influenced the subsequent history of European peoples. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 345 Europe at the Dawn of Modernity   Not offered this year HA

A study of economic, political, intellectual, and religious developments in continental Europe from about 1300 to 1600, emphasizing the tension between old institutions and new forces, and the relation between intellectual and social change, during the transition from medieval to modern times. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 346 Introduction to Byzantine Civilization (see HLS 346)

HIS 350 History of France, 1685-1800   Not offered this year HA

Beginning with the last 30 years of Louis XIV's reign, this course will trace the fate of the ancien régime through its destruction in the Revolution. The emphasis will be on social and cultural history. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 351 France, 1815 to the Present   Spring HA

The political and social history of France from Napoleon to the Fifth Republic. The impact of revolution, industrialization, and war on French society in the 19th and 20th centuries. Particular attention will be paid to movements of popular revolt and the efforts of elites--rural, bourgeois, and technocratic--to maintain control in the face of social ferment. Two lectures, one preceptorial. P. Nord

HIS 353 Intellectual History of Europe, 1760-1880   Not offered this year HA

An introduction to European thought during the age of revolution, industrialization, and national consolidation. Reflections on the relationship between the natural and social worlds will receive particular attention; lectures will treat both individual thinkers and larger cultural developments. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 354 Intellectual History of Europe since 1880   Not offered this year HA

Major themes and figures in European thought and culture in the transition from the 19th to the 20th century. Focuses on the intellectual response to new forms of personal and social experience in the age of organized capitalism and imperialism, and the attempt to come to terms with the waning of romantic and revolutionary expectations inherited from the period before 1850. Two lectures, one preceptorial. A. Rabinbach

HIS 356 Between Swords and Stones: Jerusalem, a History (see JDS 355)

HIS 358 Greeks, Turks, and Slavs: Nationalism in the Balkans (see HLS 358)

HIS 359 Modern Jewish History: 1750-Present (also JDS 359)   Fall HA

This course surveys the breadth of Jewish experience from the era of the Enlightenment to the contemporary period. Tracing the development of Jewish cultures and communities in Europe and the United States against the background of general history, the course focuses on themes such as the transformation of Jewish identity, the creation of modern Jewish politics, the impact of anti-Semitism, and the founding of the State of Israel. Two 90-minute classes. Y. Dweck

HIS 360 The Russian Empire: From Peter the Great to Nicholas II   Not offered this year HA

Eighteenth-century enlightened absolutism: reforms of Peter and Catherine the Great, shaping of national identity and a modern state. Nineteenth-century tensions between reform from above and revolution from below, with a focus on the political role of social groups and special attention to the origins of revolutionary conflict in 1905 and 1917. Two lectures, one preceptorial. E. Pravilova

HIS 362 The Soviet Empire   Not offered this year HA

An examination of the transformation of the Russian Empire into the Soviet Empire. Topics include: the unfolding of single-party revolutionary politics, the development of Stalin's personal despotism, the violent attempt to create a noncapitalist society, the monumental war with Nazi Germany, and the nature of everyday life. Two lectures, one preceptorial. S. Kotkin

HIS 365 Europe in the 20th Century   Fall HA

The history of Western and Central Europe since World War I viewed from the perspective of Europe's rapidly changing role in world history. Europe's political, social, and economic adjustment to the Russian Revolution, to the emergence of America and Russia as superpowers, and to the loss of overseas imperial possessions. Two lectures, one preceptorial. A. Rabinbach

HIS 366 Germany since 1806   Spring HA

Sets German history after the Napoleonic invasion in a context of international politics, and shows how the development of a peculiarly German idea of the nation was a response to pressures exerted by European political changes and by the European state system. Examination of how, after national unification in 1871, German domestic policy in turn affected the whole world: in German foreign policy before the First World War, in the aftermath of 1918, and during the Nazi dictatorship. Treatment of the separate courses of the two Germanies since 1945 and of their position in world politics. Two lectures, one preceptorial. H. James

HIS 367 English Constitutional History   Not offered this year HA

A study of the development of the English Constitution to 1600, with special emphasis on the institutions and ideas that form the background for American constitutional history. Two lectures, one preceptorial. W. Jordan

HIS 368 England from the Mid-15th to the Mid-17th Century   Fall HA

In the middle of the 15th century, England suffered a series of dynastic struggles for the crown. In the middle of the 17th another, rather different, civil war broke out. The course will trace the political, social, and cultural developments that rendered these apparently similar reactions to royal misrule so different from one another. In so doing, it will seek to describe and explain the origins and causes of the English Revolution. Two lectures, one preceptorial. E. Hubbard

HIS 369 Britain 1688-1815: From Revolution to Global Pre-eminence   Not offered this year HA

Explores British society, politics, and culture between the English Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Major themes include the emergence of Britain as an imperial power (equal attention will be given to Ireland, Scotland, and overseas expansion); aristocratic culture and commerce; the Enlightenment and religion; art and leisure; and changes in gender relations. Two lectures, one preceptorial. L. Colley

HIS 370 Britain 1815-1945: Dominance, Democracy, and Decline   Not offered this year HA

Thematic survey of the social, cultural, and political transformations in the lives of women and men in Britain from the Industrial Revolution to the present. Topics include Britain's rise and fall as the first "modern" society and imperial power; national identities and civil society, gender, and class; democracy and imperialism; Irish nationalism and contemporary culture. Two lectures, one preceptorial. L. Colley

HIS 371 Colonial North America   Spring HA

An overview of European colonization in North America, covering New France, New Spain, New England, the Middle Colonies, the Chesapeake area, South Carolina, and the sugar islands. Special emphasis upon social structures, labor systems, race, gender, religion, political cultures, and the problem of imperial control from Jamestown through the Great Awakening of the 1740s. Particular attention will be paid to the various and changing encounters of Africans, Native American, and Europeans, and to the importance of slavery in the colonization process. Two lectures, one preceptorial. W. Warren

HIS 372 Revolutionary America   Not offered this year HA

The Old British Empire reaches its zenith, 1740-63. Crisis and disintegration, 1763-76. America's republican experiment and its difficulties, 1776-90. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 373 The New Nation   Not offered this year HA

A survey of society, culture, and politics in the United States from the ratification of the Constitution to the Compromise of 1850. Topics include the rise of cotton slavery, Northern capitalism and class formation, the politics of cultural change, Jeffersonianism, Jacksonian democracy, and the political economy of sectionalism. Two lectures, two preceptorials. R. Wilentz

HIS 374 History of the American West   Not offered this year HA

The westward expansion of British America and of the United States, examining the de-peopling and re-peopling of successive American Wests from the 17th century to the 20th. Primary focus on the interplay of environment and culture among the different peoples vying for occupancy and opportunity in old and new Wests. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 376 The American Civil War and Reconstruction   Not offered this year HA

Surveys the causes, issues, and consequences of the nation's bloodiest conflict. Topics include slavery and antislavery, Manifest Destiny, the growing sectional conflict, the clash of arms, the transforming impact of the Civil War, the transition from slave to free labor in the South, and postslavery race relations. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 377 Gilded Age and Progressive-Era United States, 1877-1920   Spring HA

The rise of the modern corporate state in America. Primary focus on the development of big business in the years following the Civil War, accompanying social processes such as immigration and urbanization, and the political responses to these phenomena, particularly populism and progressivism. Other topics include labor, blacks and racism, women in progressive America, and the intellectual response to modernity. Concludes with the United States' entry into World War I. Two lectures, one preceptorial. R. Rix

HIS 378 American Economic History (see ECO 370)

HIS 380 The United States and World Affairs   Fall HA

The relations between the United States and other nations from the 1890s to the present, treating political, economic, and cultural aspects of American foreign policy as well as the more important diplomatic and strategic problems. Two lectures, one preceptorial. B. Simpson

HIS 381 The United States South, 1865 to the Present   Not offered this year HA

A survey of the American South from the Confederate defeat and emancipation to the present. Topics will include cultural conflict and exchange, segregation and racism, class conflict within a racist society, southern women, race and class in a political setting, southern music, the civil rights movement, and the South today. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 383 The United States since 1920   Not offered this year HA

The history of modern America, with particular focus on domestic political and social changes. Topics include the Great Depression and New Deal; the homefront of World War II and the Cold War; the civil rights movement; the Vietnam War; the sexual revolutions; suburban development; modern conservatism and the "culture wars." Two lectures, one preceptorial. K. Kruse

HIS 384 Gender and Sexuality in Modern America (also WOM 384)   Not offered this year HA

An examination of changing patterns of manhood and womanhood, with an emphasis on women's experience. Topics include housekeeping, child rearing, birth control, sexuality, work, feminism, and the role of gender in religious and political movements and economic development. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Canaday

HIS 385 The Role of Law in American Society   Fall HA

An analysis of selected problems in the development of public and private law in America. Lectures and class discussion, based on primary source materials, will emphasize law as a product of socioeconomic change rather than as a system of reasoning. Two lectures, one preceptorial. H. Hartog

HIS 386 African American History to 1863 (also AAS 366)   Not offered this year HA

An examination of the history of African Americans from 1619 to 1863. Issues to be discussed include the African origins of African Americans, the slave trade, slavery, the construction of black culture and institutions, free blacks, resistance, the abolitionist movement, and emancipation. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

HIS 387 African American History from Reconstruction to the Present (also AAS 367)   Fall HA

An analysis of the social, political, legal, and cultural dimensions of the African American experience in the United States throughout critical historical moments such as Reconstruction, suffrage, the Great Migration, war, the Great Depression, the New Deal, the Civil Rights era, the black power movement, and contemporary racial politics. Two lectures, one preceptorial. J. Guild

HIS 389 American Cultural History since 1876   Not offered this year HA

Ideas, popular values, and cultural expression in the last century. The quest for certainty, freedom, and social harmony, as seen through the writings of contemporary Americans. Two lectures, one preceptorial. D. Rodgers

HIS 394 The Rise of Modern Biomedicine: Global Trends in Health and Healing, 1500-2000   Not offered this year HA

This course explores the global roots of biomedicine beginning in the period of European expansion (16th century) and ending with the 20th-century consolidation of the World Health Organization (WHO). Particular emphasis is paid to migrations and circulations of all kinds: peoples, diseases, ideas, and practices. Two lectures, one preceptorial. K. Guenther

HIS 396 History of Biology   Not offered this year HA

An examination of the emergence of biology as a scientific discipline since 1750, focusing on the cultural context and social impact of changes in biological knowledge. Particular attention will be paid to changing conceptions of life, the institutionalization and financial support of biological research, and how interactions with the physical sciences have shaped life sciences. Two lectures, one preceptorial. A. Creager

HIS 398 Technologies and Their Societies: Historical Perspectives   Not offered this year HA

A historical inquiry into technological systems as the nexus between technical processes and human beings employing them. Exploring topics such as medieval cathedral construction and mills, steam-powered factories of the Industrial Revolution, the assembly line, and software technology, the course moves from the technical structure, limits, and possibilities of the system to the interplay between the social needs it fills and the social demands it makes. Two lectures, one preceptorial. E. Thompson

HIS 400 Junior Seminars   Fall, Spring HA

The junior seminars serve to introduce departmental majors, in the fall of their junior year, to the tools, methods, and interpretations employed in historical research and writing. Students may choose from a range of topics; assignments to specific seminars are made on the basis of these choices at the beginning of the fall term. Seminar topics tend to be cross-national and comparative. All juniors must be enrolled in one of the seminars. One three-hour seminar. Staff

HIS 402 Latin American Studies Seminar (see LAS 402)

HIS 408 Selected Topics in 20th-Century Latin America (also LAS 408)   Not offered this year HA

Research and reading on topics related to economic development and political change with attention to specific national contexts, such as authoritarian state and society in Argentina and Brazil; revolution and social change in Mexico, Cuba, and Chile; problems in Latin American foreign relations. One three-hour seminar. R. Karl

HIS 409 Topics in Hispanic Culture (Europe and America) (see SPA 401)

HIS 411 War and Society in the Modern World   Spring HA

The interrelationship of war and society from the 18th century to the nuclear age. Emphasis on the causes, conduct, and consequences of war. Particular attention is given to the American Revolution, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the American Civil War, and World Wars I and II. One three-hour seminar. P. Miles

HIS 415 Intellectual History of China to the Fifth Century (see EAS 415)

HIS 416 Intellectual History of China from the Ninth to the 19th Century (see EAS 416)

HIS 417 Gandhi: The Making of the Mahatma   Spring HA

This seminar examines Gandhi's political life extending from his campaign for the rights of Indians in South Africa to his role in the struggle for Indian independence from British rule. Focus on those historical processes that turned M. K. Gandhi into a major 20th-century figure--the Mahatma. Issues relating to imperialism and nationalism form the context in which the seminar looks at Gandhi's life and seeks to understand Gandhian ideology and its different--often conflicting--historical appropriations. One three-hour seminar. G. Prakash

HIS 433 Imperialism and Reform in the Middle East and the Balkans (see NES 433)

HIS 434 Nation, State, and Empire: The Ottoman, Romanov, and Hapsburg Experiences (see NES 416)

HIS 448 History: An Introduction to the Discipline   Fall HA

An introduction to the discipline of history aimed at, but not limited to, history majors. Through case studies, students will learn how historians of the last few generations have framed problems, found and interpreted evidence, and built arguments. Participants will both study the major recent movements in the discipline of history and reflect on and improve their own historical techniques. The course will culminate with an examination of history and memory in the early 21st century. Prerequisites: successful completion of the department's junior requirements or comparable work in another department. One three-hour seminar. A. Grafton

HIS 458 Zionism: From Ideology to Practice (see JDS 458)

HIS 460 Topics in American Legal History   Not offered this year HA

An in-depth exploration of a topic in American legal history. In some years the course will investigate an event, such as a famous or infamous trial or case. In other years the course will explore historical dimensions of a particular legal concept, such as "rights," "coercion," "dependency," the "family," or "property." One three-hour seminar. Staff

HIS 466 The History of Financial Crises (see WWS 340)

HIS 477 The Civil Rights Movement (see AAS 477)

HIS 478 The United States and the Vietnam Wars   Fall HA

The American experience in Vietnam. The chronological scope extends from the outbreak of the Second World War to the collapse of the South Vietnamese government in 1975. Topics include the U.S. involvement in the French Indochina War, the commitment of military forces in defense of South Vietnam, the character of the anti-war movement, the consequences of the Tet Offensive, and the impact of war upon American society. Although the American experience receives primary emphasis, we also consider the background and role of Vietnamese nationalist and revolutionary movements. One three-hour seminar. P. Miles

HIS 481 African American Intellectual History (see AAS 390)

HIS 482 Race and Sport (see AAS 422)

HIS 483 Black Protest in 20th-Century America (see AAS 352)

HIS 490 Perspectives on the Nature and Development of Science (also PHI 490)   Not offered this year HA

An overview of science studies, including approaches drawn from history, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and political science, with these analytic frameworks applied to specific historical and contemporary case studies. Normally taken junior year. Open to other students with instructor's permission. One three-hour seminar. R. DiSalle

HIS 491 Problems in the Development of the Physical Sciences   Not offered this year HA

A seminar emphasizing close reading of primary sources. Topics vary from year to year and may include the development of mechanics from Galileo to Newton, electrical theory from Franklin to Maxwell, the chemical revolution and its atomic aftermath, conservation and degradation of energy, and the origins of quantum theory. Open to upperclass students with instructor's permission. Seminar. Staff

HIS 492 Problems in the Development of the Life Sciences   Not offered this year HA

A seminar emphasizing close reading of primary sources. Topics vary from year to year and may include: reductionism in physiology, evolution theory, the foundation of genetics, the history of bacteriology, and topics in disease and culture. One three-hour seminar. Staff