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Department of Near Eastern Studies

Chair

M. Şükrü Hanioğlu

Departmental Representative

Michael A. Reynolds

Director of Graduate Studies

Michael A. Cook

Professor

Mark R. Cohen

Michael A. Cook

Andras P. Hamori

M. Şükrü Hanioğlu

Bernard A. Haykel

Heath W. Lowry

Hossein Modarressi

Muhammad Q. Zaman, also Religion

Associate Professor

Michael A. Reynolds

Assistant Professor

Mirjam Künkler

Emmanuel Papoutsakis

Cyrus Schayegh

Max D. Weiss, also History

Senior Lecturer

Nancy Coffin

Lecturer

Michael Barry

Gregory J. Bell

Hebatalla Elkhateeb-Musharraf

Tarak Elsayed

Erika H. Gilson

Amineh Mahallati

Hisham Mahmoud

Esther Robbins

Associated Faculty

Molly Greene, History, Hellenic Studies

Amaney A. Jamal, Politics

Michael F. Laffan, History

Thomas F. Leisten, Art and Archaeology

Lital Levy, Comparative Literature

Shaun E. Marmon, Religion


Information and Departmental Plan of Study

The Department of Near Eastern Studies offers a liberal arts major designed to give students competence in a Near Eastern language and a broad knowledge of the literatures, civilizations, and history of the ancient, medieval, and modern Near East (comprising Afghanistan, the Arab countries, Central Asia, Iran, Israel, Muslim Africa, South Asia, and Turkey). Accordingly, a plan of study is built around departmental and cognate courses in history, literature, religion, law, anthropology, politics, economics, and public policy, combined with the study of one or more Near Eastern languages (Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, or Turkish), determined by the student's interest. In addition to serving as the focal point of a broad liberal arts education, the Near Eastern studies major can be the basis for graduate or professional study. The department's multiple small classes and seminars allow extensive student/teacher interaction and equip students to take up careers in business, economics, international affairs, government, diplomacy, and journalism.

For nonmajors the Department of Near Eastern Studies offers a range of courses that are relevant to the study of history, politics, religion, comparative literature, linguistics, and anthropology. Most undergraduate courses require no knowledge of a foreign language, and the department's survey courses present comprehensive portraits of past and present Near Eastern civilizations.

Departmental Courses and Programs. Departmental concentrators who wish to acquire a broad background in Near Eastern civilization are free to study a wide variety of topics (for example, history, literature, and religion) in their courses and independent work. The department welcomes flexibility and encourages individual study plans with varying degrees of disciplinary specialization. Concentrators are required to take eight departmental or cognate courses. Language courses beyond the second-year level can be used to satisfy this requirement. No more than three cognate courses will be counted as departmentals. Frequently the department offers special courses on subjects not currently included in the regular curriculum. Recent examples include: Afghanistan and the Great Powers, 1747-2001; Food Security in the Middle East; Oil, Energy, and the Middle East; and Secularism in Muslim Central Asia. These courses are recognized as departmentals.

Advanced Placement

Advanced placement is available in all of the languages offered by the department. Students seeking advanced placement in Arabic, Persian, or Turkish should consult the departmental representative to arrange for testing with the appropriate language instructor. A student with a Hebrew Subject Test score of 740 or a high score on the departmental Hebrew placement examination given during freshman orientation week will be considered to have satisfied the A.B. foreign language requirement and to be eligible for placement in a 300-level course.

Prerequisites

A student who has completed at least one course in the department is eligible to concentrate in Near Eastern studies. This course may be a language class or a course or seminar offered in any of the disciplines covered by the department.

Early Concentration

Students who meet the prerequisite for entrance into the department may be admitted and begin their program of concentration in the second term of sophomore year.

Language Requirements

The departmental language requirement is four terms (i.e., through 107 level) of Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, or Turkish. However, students are encouraged to utilize their chosen Near Eastern language for senior thesis research and are therefore advised to begin their language training as early as possible in order to attain proficiency. Language courses beyond the second year count as departmentals, as does elementary and intermediate study of a second Near Eastern language. Much of the necessary language training for the A.B. degree can be acquired through some combination of language study at Princeton, intensive summer language study, and year abroad programs. The department will work out with each undergraduate concentrator a language training schedule appropriate to his or her planned course of study.

Independent Work

Junior independent work consists of one paper each semester. The choice of a senior thesis topic must be approved by the student's adviser.

Senior Departmental Examination

The comprehensive examination in the department consists of an oral examination based on the senior thesis and related topics.

Study Abroad

The department encourages students to consider a semester or year abroad for language and area study in the Middle East. The department also makes every effort to facilitate student participation in any of a number of excellent intensive summer language study programs in the U.S. and the Middle East. The Program in Near Eastern Studies offers an active program of support for students who wish to take advantage of such intensive study opportunities.

Certificate in Language and Culture

The Department of Near Eastern Studies offers students an opportunity to earn a certificate in one of the area's languages and cultures while concentrating in another department.

Certificate Requirements. The certificate is open to undergraduates in all departments. Students should consult the departmental representative by the middle of the sophomore year to plan a program of study. Ordinarily, students concentrating in language and literature departments, including comparative literature, will be eligible for the certificate in language and culture provided that: (a) the linguistic base for the language and culture certificate is different from the linguistic base of the concentration; and (b) the work required for the language and culture certificate does not duplicate the requirements of the major. Students pursuing area studies certificates may earn the certificate in language and culture provided that: (a) the courses they elect to satisfy the requirements of the area studies program are different from those they elect to satisfy the requirements of the language and culture certificate program; and (b) they submit a piece of independent work in addition to the independent work that satisfies the requirements of the area studies program and the home department. The requirements for work done in the Department of Near Eastern Studies are:

1. Studying one of the languages taught in the department--Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, Turkish--beyond the level required for completion of the University language requirement

2. Completing at least three departmental courses at the 200 level or higher in language, literature, or culture that involve extensive use of the designated language

3. Completeing a piece of independent work that makes substantive use of a Near Eastern language. Most often this is a substantial research paper (approximately 7,000 words) written under the supervision of a member of the department.

In addition to 300- and 400-level language courses, any graduate courses open to qualified undergraduates, such as those listed below, may be used to satisfy the departmental requirements above:

In Arabic:
NES 529 (Readings in Modern Arabic Literature)
NES 531/532 (Readings in Classical Arabic Literature)

In Hebrew:
NES 508 (Readings in Medieval Hebrew Literature)
NES 509 (Readings in Modern Hebrew Literature)
NES 523 (Readings in Judeo-Arabic)

In Persian:
NES 539/540 (Studies in Persian Literature)

In Turkish:
NES 504 (Introduction to Ottoman Turkish)

Finally, a course in which the student arranges with the instructor to do substantial reading in his or her designated language may also count toward the certificate in language and culture. This includes all the literature in translation courses. This must be arranged on a case-by-case basis with the instructor involved.

Any questions regarding the certificate in language and culture should be addressed to the departmental representative in Jones Hall.

Graduate Courses. A list of graduate courses frequently elected by undergraduates with appropriate linguistic qualifications may be found on the Department of Near Eastern Studies website.


Courses


ARA 101 Elementary Arabic I   Fall

Students in this course will develop their skills in speaking, hearing, reading, and writing Modern Standard Arabic, the form of the Arabic language shared by all Arab countries. The course covers phonics, the alphabet and numerals, as well as noun-adjective agreement and how to form sentences using past and present tense verbs. Also covered: greetings and courtesy phrases in spoken Arabic. Five classes, one hour of drill. No credit is given for ARA 101 unless followed by ARA 102. Staff

ARA 102 Elementary Arabic II   Spring

Continuation of 101. Students will expand their language skills through conversational and grammatical exercises based on the audio-visual approach. Students will be able to speak and write simply and accurately about topics such as daily activities, studies, family members, and hopes and plans for the future. Five classes, one hour of drill. N. Coffin, H. Elkhateeb-Musharraf, M. Fischer

ARA 105 Intermediate Arabic I   Fall

Building upon the skills gained in 101 and 102, this course offers further practice in speaking and listening and increases proficiency in reading and writing. Topics to be covered include use of dual and feminine plural forms; conditional sentences; use of superlatives and comparatives; and the study of case markings in formal written Arabic. Five classes, one hour of drill. Staff

ARA 107 Intermediate Arabic II   Spring

Continuation of 105. Students will expand their reading, writing, speaking, and oral comprehension skills through oral and written exercises involving more sophisticated texts derived from authentic newspaper and journal sources. Five classes, one hour of drill. G. Bell, M. Fischer

ARA 111 Colloquial Arabic I   Not offered this year

An introduction to a specific spoken dialect of the Arabic language. This course currently focuses on the Arabic dialects used in the Levant, especially Palestinian and Lebanese dialects. The material of the course is designed to promote functional usage of the language stressing vocabulary and grammar in conversation of everyday life. Four classes. N. Coffin

ARA 113 Colloquial Arabic II   Not offered this year

A continuation of ARA 111. Focusing on Arabic dialects used in the Levant, especially Palestinian and Lebanese dialects, the material of the course further develops functional usage of the language stressing vocabulary and grammar in conversation of everyday life. N. Coffin

ARA 301 Advanced Arabic I   Fall

Reading and accurate translation of numerous selections from modern Arabic works as well as reading for general understanding of simple prose, mostly from newspapers and magazines. Review of morphology, introduction to the systematic study of syntax. Speaking about the readings and about other assigned topics. English to Arabic translation. Emphasis on building vocabulary. Two 90-minute classes, two periods of drill. Staff

ARA 302 Advanced Arabic II   Spring

Continuation of 301. Class reading of more sophisticated discursive prose and short stories. Class discussion in Arabic of assigned texts not translated in class. Emphasis on the systematic study of syntax. Increased emphasis on speaking about a variety of topics. Arabic composition. Two 90-minute classes, two periods of drill. T. Elsayed, H. Mahmoud

ARA 401 Advanced Arabic Skills Workshop   Fall

This course develops to a more advanced and natural level the linguistic skills of listening, speaking, and reading through the reading and class discussion of lengthy texts, primarily literary ones. Term papers written in Arabic provide the opportunity to improve composition, and aural comprehension is honed through the use of tapes of Arabic broadcasts, and through viewing films from various parts of the Arab world. Prerequisite: 302 or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. A. Hamori

HEB 101 Elementary Hebrew I   Fall

Introductory course develops skills of reading, speaking, comprehension, and writing through various techniques, with an emphasis on a solid grammatical basis and awareness of idiomatic usage of the language. Teaching materials include ones developed in Israel. Five classes. No credit is given for HEB 101 unless followed by HEB 102. E. Robbins

HEB 102 Elementary Hebrew II   Spring

A continuation of 101, with emphasis on the development of all skills. The course will expose students to contemporary Israeli culture by using authentic material such as films, TV series, newspaper articles, and Web-based material. Class activities include role-playing, drills, group discussion, and oral presentations. Five classes. E. Robbins

HEB 105 Intermediate Hebrew I   Fall

Expansion of reading, oral, aural, and written skills, as well as coverage of more advanced grammar. Students will be gradually introduced to contemporary Israeli prose and poetry. Maximum participation by students is encouraged through discussion of readings and films. Five classes. E. Robbins

HEB 107 Intermediate Hebrew II   Spring

A continuation of 105, covering remainder of grammar. Further explores contemporary Israeli prose, poetry, and more complex essays from textbooks and photocopied material. Five classes. E. Robbins

HEB 301 Advanced Hebrew Language and Style I   Fall LA

For advanced students, this course seeks to improve further the active command of written and spoken Hebrew through work with a variety of literary texts, styles, and artistic expressions, including film. Topics are selected to explore fundamental issues of Israeli culture and society. Prerequisite: 107 or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. E. Robbins

HEB 302 Advanced Hebrew Language and Style II   Spring LA

Continuation of 301. Growing emphasis on individual and small group work. Students prepare final project of their choosing in consultation with instructor. Prerequisite: 301 or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. E. Robbins

HEB 307 Topics in Biblical Literature in Translation   Spring LA

This course traces the midrashic career of a biblical story into the medieval period. Students will examine the way in which the ancient translations, extra-canonical texts, Dead Sea texts, rabbinic literature, and early medieval Jewish exegesis responded to both textual and extra-textual stimuli so as to create a rich and polyphonic tradition of interpretation. The course also explores the theory and practice of the midrashic method of interpretation. One three-hour seminar. Staff

NES 201 Introduction to the Middle East (also HIS 223)   Fall HA

An overview of the history of the Middle East from the rise of Islam to the present day with a focus on the "core" of the Middle East, i.e., the region defined by present-day Turkey and Egypt to the west, Iran to the east, and Arabia to the south. Issues raised include difficulties in the study of foreign cultures, religion and society, the interplay between local and global processes, identity formation, and the Middle East in the broader world. One lecture, two classes. M. Cook

NES 202 Contemporary Arabic Literature in Translation   LA

A survey of the literature of the modern Arab world, starting with the late 19th century and continuing up to within the last five years. Narrative (novel and short story), theater, poetry, as well as (briefly) folk literature will be treated. Works are assigned in English translation, but students who are able to read them in Arabic are welcome to do so. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Offered in alternate years. N. Coffin

NES 203 Introduction to Classical Arabic Literature in Translation   Spring LA

A survey of classical Arabic literature from the pre-Islamic period to the 15th century. Readings will cover not only belles-lettres (prose and poetry), but also historical, biographical, geographical, allegorical philosophical writings, The Thousand and One Nights, as well as the Qur'an. Works are assigned in English translation, but students who are able to read them in Arabic are welcome to do so. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Offered in alternate years. Staff

NES 205 The Art and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East and Egypt (see ART 200)

NES 214 Masterworks of Hebrew Literature in Translation (also JDS 214)   Not offered this year LA

An introduction to modern Hebrew literature, represented by selected translations from major works of the last hundred years, in prose (Agnon, Almog, Izhar, Kahana-Carmon, Mendele, Oz, and Yehoshua) and in poetry (Alterman, Amichai, Bialik, Rabikovitch, Zach, and others). Two 90-minute classes. Staff

NES 220 Jews, Muslims, and Christians in the Middle Ages (also HIS 220/JDS 220)   Fall HA

An introduction to the history and culture of the Jews in the Middle Ages (under Islam and Christendom) covering, comparatively, such topics as the interrelationship between Judaism and the other two religions, interreligious polemics, political (legal) status, economic role, communal self-government, family life, and cultural developments. Two 90-minute classes. M. Cohen

NES 230 Early Islamic Art and Architecture (see ART 230)

NES 232 The Arts of the Islamic World (see ART 232)

NES 235 In the Shadow of Swords: Martyrdom and Holy War in Islam (see REL 235)

NES 236 Introduction to Islam (see REL 236)

NES 240 Muslims and the Qur'an (also REL 240)   Fall EM

A broad-ranging introduction to pre-modern, modern, and contemporary Islam in light of how Muslims have approached their foundational religious text, the Qur'an. Topics include: Muhammad and the emergence of Islam; theology, law and ethics; war and peace; mysticism; women and gender; and modern debates on Islamic reform. This course examines the varied contexts in which Muslims have interpreted their sacred text, their agreements and disagreements on what it means, and more broadly, their often competing understandings of Islam and of what it is to be a Muslim. Three classes. M. Zaman

NES 245 The Islamic World from its Emergence to the Beginnings of Westernization (also HIS 245)   Spring HA

Begins with the formation of the traditional Islamic world in the seventh century and ends with the first signs of its transformation under Western impact in the 18th century. The core of the course is the history of state formation in the Middle East, but other regions and themes make significant appearances. The course can stand on its own or serve as background to the study of the modern Islamic world. Two 90-minute classes. M. Cook

NES 265 Political and Economic Development of the Middle East (also POL 268)   Spring SA

Provides a framework for understanding the political and economic issues that both challenge and encourage development in the Middle East and Northern Africa. Students will think creatively about the issues raised by designing a development project aimed at tackling a specific problem in a Middle Eastern country. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Künkler

NES 268 Political Islam (also POL 376)   Not offered this year HA

For decades scholars predicted that as nations modernized, religion and its corresponding institutions would become increasingly irrelevant. No phenomenon has discredited the secularization thesis more than the powerful resurgence of Islamist movements that began in the 1970s. Given the rapid social and economic development experienced by most Muslim countries, why has political Islam emerged as the most potent force of political opposition in all of these countries? To address this question, the course examines the origins and discourse of political Islam and the goals and organization of Islamist groups. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff

NES 269 The Politics of Modern Islam (also POL 353)   Fall HA

An examination of the political dimensions of Islam, involving a study of the nature of Islamic political theory, the relationship between the religious and political establishments, the characteristics of an Islamic state, the radicalization of Sunni and Shi'i thought, and the compatibility of Islam and the nation-state, democracy, and constitutionalism, among other topics. Students will be introduced to the complex and polemical phenomenon of political Islam, using examples drawn mainly, though not exclusively, from cases and writings from the Middle East. Two lectures, one preceptorial. B. Haykel

NES 300 Israeli History through Film (see JDS 300)

NES 305 Modern Worlds of Islam (see HIS 336)

NES 315 War and Politics in the Modern Middle East   Fall SA

Drawing on case studies of Middle Eastern wars, this course examines the changing nature of warfare from the second half of the 20th century through the present day. It begins with Clausewitz's theory of war and examples of conventional state warfare in the Middle East, then moves on to cases of insurgency and so-called fouth generation warfare and uses them to test Clausewitz's ideas and less state-centric alternatives. Two 90-minute classes. M. Reynolds

NES 322 Politics of the Middle East (see POL 364)

NES 331 The Ancient Near East   Not offered this year HA

A survey of the history of the Ancient and Pre-Islamic Near East. Focuses on the civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria-Palestine, and Anatolia from the beginning of writing until the Persian period, as well as on the Christian communities of the Near East before the emergence of Islam. Some attention will also be given to the history of these communities in the Islamic period. Emphasizes the socio-cultural, religious, and intellectual developments in the region as they are revealed by archaeological and literary evidence. Knowledge of ancient languages is not required. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

NES 334 Modern Islamic Political Thought (also REL 334)   Fall EM

An examination of major facets of Islamic political thought from the late 19th century to the present in a broadly comparative framework and against the backdrop of medieval Islamic thought. Topics include: the "fragmentation" of religious authority and its consequences for Muslim politics; conceptions of the shari'a and of the Islamic state; and Islamist discourses on gender, violence, and relations with non-Muslims. One three-hour seminar. M. Zaman

NES 336 Pilgrimage, Travel, and Sacred Space: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in the Land of Islam (see REL 336)

NES 337 The Middle East in the 20th Century (also HIS 334)   Fall HA

An introduction to the political, social and cultural history of the Arabic-speaking Middle East, in addition to Iran, Israel, and Turkey from the late 19th century until the turn of the 21st century. Topics covered include: the end of the Ottoman and Qatar Empires; the integration of the Middle East into the world economy; the establishment of the Middle East state system; the development of political institutions, ideologies and religious revivalist movements; nationalism; women's movements; gender; the spread of political Islam; as well as literature, film and other forms of media.Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Weiss

NES 338 The Arab-Israeli Conflict (also JDS 338)   Spring HA

The history of the Arab-Israeli conflict up to 1967. Due to its contentious theme, it stresses historiographic problems and primary sources; also, it looks at Israeli and Palestinian societies as much as at the conflict between them. Questions include the ideological vs. practical roots of, and religious/secular elements in, Zionism and Palestinian nationalism; politico-economic links between the two societies; breaks in their social and/or ethnic composition; the effects of collective traumas and warfare on socio-political structures and gender; and the role of foreign powers and regional states. Two lectures, one preceptorial. C. Schayegh

NES 339 Introduction to Islamic Theology (also REL 339)   Fall HA

A general survey of the main principles of Islamic doctrine. Focuses on the Muslim theological discourse on the concepts of God and God's attributes, man and nature, the world to come, revelation and prophethood, diversity of religions, and the possibility and actuality of miracles. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi

NES 340 Muslim South Asia (also REL 338)   Spring HA

Religious, cultural, and political developments in South Asia, home to nearly a third of the world's Muslim population, have long exerted considerable influence on the greater Muslim world. This seminar is concerned with religio-political thought and movements in Muslim South Asia from the 18th century to the present. Topics include: Sufi ethics; the impact of colonialism on Islamic thought and institutions; evolving Islamist trends from late colonial times to the present; and debates on Islamic law and the position of women in India and Pakistan. One three-hour seminar. M. Zaman

NES 343 Southeast Asia's Global History (see HIS 342)

NES 345 Introduction to Islamic Law   Spring SA

A survey of the history of Islamic law, its developments, and the attempts of the Muslim jurists to come to terms with the challenges of modern time. The course will focus on the issues of constitutional, public, international, and personal laws that have the greatest relevance to the modern era. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi

NES 347 Islamic Family Law   SA

Examines the outlines of Islamic family law in gender issues, sexual ethics, family structure, family planning, marriage and divorce, parenthood, and child guardianship and custody. Provides a general survey of the Islamic legal system: its history and developments, structure and spirit, and the attempts of the Muslim jurists to adapt law to changing times. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi

NES 348 Islamic Ritual Laws   SA

Examines the outlines of Islamic ritual law. Starting with a general survey of pre-modern Islamic legal discourse, the course focuses on such issues as Islamic festivals, religious birth and death rituals, the concepts of worship and sacrifice, and various Islamic acts of devotion in matters such as prayer, fasting, almsgiving, and annual pilgrimage to Mecca. One three-hour seminar. H. Modarressi

NES 355 Between Swords and Stones: Jerusalem, a History (see JDS 355)

NES 356 Monotheistic Superheroes in the Islamic Tradition (see REL 335)

NES 358 Modern Turkey   Not offered this year HA

An examination of changes currently affecting the Republic of Turkey, including internal and external problems precipitated by factors such as rapid urbanization, growing ethnic conscience, and regional instability. Two 90-minute classes. H. Lowry

NES 363 Islamic Social and Political Movements (also ANT 363)   Not offered this year SA

An introduction to the vast number of Islam-inspired sociopolitical movements. An attempt is made to present the contemporary movements in the light of the Islamic tradition of rebellion and revolution. Islamic movements will be surveyed against the historical and social context in which they occurred, with emphasis on the Arab World and Iran. Questions will be raised about the ways in which these movements have been approached and interpreted. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

NES 365 Modern Iran   Not offered this year HA

A general introduction to Iran in the period from the establishment of the Qajar dynasty in the late 18th century to the present day. Particular emphasis will be given to the social and cultural development of Iran under the stimulus of its contacts with the West. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Offered in alternate years. C. Schayegh

NES 399 Modern Israel (see JDS 399)

NES 416 Nation, State, and Empire: The Ottoman, Romanov, and Hapsburg Experiences (also HIS 434)   Not offered this year HA

An exercise in comparative history and the application of theoretical constructs to historical events. Examines a range of theories of nationalism, state, and empire; applies them to the historical records of three multi-ethnic dynastic empires--the Ottoman, Russian, and Austro-Hungarian; explores the ways in which theories can both elucidate and obscure historical processes. Questions of the nature of empire, the rise of nationalism, and the processes of imperial collapse, among others, will be explored. One three-hour seminar. M. Reynolds

NES 428 Representation of Faith and Power: Islamic Architecture in Its Context (see ART 438)

NES 433 Imperialism and Reform in the Middle East and the Balkans (also HIS 433)   Fall HA

The major Near Eastern abd Balkan diplomatic crises, the main developments in internal Near Eastern history, and the Eastern Question as perceived by the Great Powers. The focus will be on the possible connections between diplomatic crises and the process of modernization. One three-hour seminar. M. Hanioglu

NES 435 The Madrasa: Islam, Education, and Politics in the Modern World (also REL 435)   Spring EM

Since 9/11, madrasas have often been viewed as sites of indoctrination into Islamic radicalism. This seminar seeks to examine the broad range of institutions to which the term "madrasa" refers in modern Muslim societies, as well as other related institutions of Islamic education. Addresses the transformations they have undergone since the 19th century, and how these institutions shape and are shaped by Muslim politics in varied contexts. One three-hour seminar. M. Zaman

NES 437 The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1800 (also HIS 337/HLS 337)   Fall HA

An analysis of political, economic, and social institutions with emphasis on the problems of continuity and change, the factors allowing for and limiting Ottoman expansion, and Ottoman awareness of Europe. Two 90-minute classes. H. Lowry

NES 438 The Late Ottoman Empire   Not offered this year HA

An examination of the Westernization movement; administrative reforms; Young Ottoman, Young Turk, and ethnic-nationalist movements; great diplomatic crises of the 19th and 20th centuries; emergence of modern Turkish republic; and the consequences of the Ottoman collapse. Two 90-minute classes. Offered in alternate years. M. Hanioglu

NES 458 Zionism: From Ideology to Practice (see JDS 458)

NES 466 Special Topics in Public Affairs (see WWS 466)

PER 101 Elementary Persian I   Fall

Introduction to Persian language and culture. By the end of the semester, students will have an overview of Persian grammar and will able to read and converse in Persian at a basic level. Class activities include group discussions, skits, short stories, oral presentations, and comprehension and grammar drills. Class instruction is supplemented with other media such as movies and online Persian news media. Five classes. No credit is given for PER 101 unless followed by PER 102. A. Mahallati

PER 102 Elementary Persian II   Spring

Continuation of 101 with a greater emphasis on reading, writing, and comprehension. By the end of the semester, most instruction will be delivered in Persian, and students will be able to communicate comfortably using everyday language and read more elaborate prose. Class instruction is supplemented with other media such as movies and online Persian news media. Five classes. A. Mahallati

PER 105 Intermediate Persian I   Fall

An introduction to modern Persian prose and poetry. The course introduces advanced grammar while developing communication skills through the discussion of modern and classic novels, movies, and online Persian media (news, weblogs, etc). This class will be conducted mainly in Persian. Prerequisite: 102 or instructor's permission. Five classes. A. Mahallati

PER 107 Intermediate Persian II   Spring

Continuation of 105. Reading and discussion of selected works by major authors. This class will be conducted mainly in Persian. Five classes. A. Mahallati

PER 301 Introduction to Classical Persian Literature   Fall LA

An introduction to the language of classical Persian literature. Intensive reading and discussion of texts by major poets and writers from Rudaki to Hafez. Texts will vary from year to year. Prerequisite: 107 or instructor's permission. Three classes. Staff

PER 302 Advanced Persian Reading I   Fall

Aimed at developing proficiency in reading and communication in Persian, using materials written for native speakers. Texts used include classical Persian novels, modern works, and Persian translations of classical Western works such as Le Petit Prince and Les Miserables. This class will be conducted entirely in Persian. Prerequisite: two years of Persian or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. A. Mahallati

PER 303 Advanced Persian Reading II: Modern Persian Prose   Spring

Continuation of 302. This course is designed to improve students' proficiency in the reading and comprehension of a variety of Persian texts. Prerequisite: two years of Persian or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. A. Mahallati

TUR 101 Elementary Turkish I   Fall

A performance-oriented, multimedia introductory course in modern spoken and written Turkish. Based on authentic input, grammatical properties of the language are introduced. Language skills are developed through communicative activities in class and individualized work with interactive learning aids. Five classes; laboratory required. No credit is given for TUR 101 unless followed by TUR 102. E. Gilson

TUR 102 Elementary Turkish II   Spring

A continuation of 101. Coverage of basic grammar. There will be a growing emphasis on Turkish culture, reading, and increasing vocabulary. Final exam includes an oral interview. Five classes; laboratory work required. Prerequisite: 101. Students who complete 102 normally place into 105. E. Gilson

TUR 105 Intermediate Turkish I   Fall

Building on students' knowledge, this course aims to further all language skills through extensive exposure to current news, authentic multimedia sources, and close reading of graded authentic materials. Weekly modules to reinforce more complex language structures. Prerequisite: 102 or permission of the instructor. Five classes; laboratory work recommended as needed. E. Gilson

TUR 107 Intermediate Turkish II   Spring

A continuation of 105. Emphasis on developing all language skills and cultural understanding. Review of grammar as needed. In addition to exposure to current events, students will be introduced to modern Turkish literature, with close reading of selected prose and poetry. Final exam includes an oral interview. Five classes; laboratory work recommended as needed. E. Gilson