## Department of Electrical Engineering

#### Chair

Sharad Malik

#### Associate Chair

Antoine Kahn

#### Departmental Representative

Andrew A. Houck

#### Director of Graduate Studies

Peter J. Ramadge

#### Professor

Ravindra N. Bhatt

Mung Chiang

Stephen Y. Chou

Claire F. Gmachl

Niraj K. Jha

Antoine Kahn

Sanjeev R. Kulkarni

Sun-Yuan Kung

Ruby B. Lee

Bede Liu

Stephen A. Lyon

Sharad Malik

H. Vincent Poor

Paul R. Prucnal

Peter J. Ramadge

Mansour Shayegan

James C. Sturm

Sergio Verdú

Sigurd Wagner

#### Associate Professor

Jason W. Fleischer

Andrew A. Houck

#### Assistant Professor

Emmanuel A. Abbe

Paul W. Cuff

Prateek Mittal

Barry P. Rand, also Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment

Alejandro W. Rodriguez

Kaushik Sengupta

Hakan E. Tureci

Naveen Verma

David Wentzlaff

Gerard Wysocki

#### Associated Faculty

Craig B. Arnold, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

David I. August, Computer Science

Douglas W. Clark, Computer Science

Kai Li, Computer Science

Yueh-Lin Loo, Chemical and Biological Engineering

Margaret R. Martonosi, Computer Science

Jason R. Petta, Physics

Warren B. Powell, Operations Research and Financial Engineering

Jennifer Rexford, Computer Science

#### Information and Departmental Plan of Study

The Department of Electrical Engineering offers an academic program of study spanning a wide range of disciplines. This program is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET. All electrical engineering (ELE) students begin with a unifying foundation, after which areas of specialization range from devices to optoelectronics, to computer architecture and communication technology, to microprocessors. Students may select one of a set of suggested concentrations, or tailor their own in consultation with their faculty adviser to suit special interests.

Students enter the department with a variety of career objectives in mind. Some intend to enter industry directly upon graduation or to continue their studies in graduate school. Others wish to take an electrical engineering program as background for careers in other fields ranging from business to law to medicine. Sufficient flexibility is built into the undergraduate program to allow a wide variety of objectives to be achieved and to allow a student to see a wide cross section of electrical engineering before deciding on an area of concentration.

A student may also formally combine electrical engineering with studies in biology, computer science, physics, materials, neuroscience, engineering and management systems, energy and environmental studies, and several other fields.

#### General Requirements

All candidates for the B.S.E. are required to satisfy the general University requirements and the School of Engineering and Applied Science requirements. An introductory computer science course should be taken during the freshman year if possible.

Each student's academic program must have depth in at least one area plus a reasonable degree of breadth to produce a sound basis for future development. All programs are required to have a strong design component and a strong engineering science component. The specific plan of study is determined in consultation with the student's academic adviser, taking into account ABET program guidelines. All such plans must include the following:

1. *Foundations: *Electrical Engineering 201, 203, 206, 208. This requirement is normally satisfied by the end of the sophomore year. These courses are all open to qualified freshmen.

2. *Core: *Electrical Engineering 301 and 302. This requirement is normally satisfied by the end of the junior year.

3. *Mathematics: *At least one upperclass mathematics course. This may be MAE 305/MAT 391, MAE 306/MAT 392, ORF 309/MAT 380, COS 340, or other 300-level or higher mathematics courses. The course selected to satisfy this requirement may not be counted toward the concentration requirement, toward the breadth requirement, or as a departmental.

4. *Concentration: *Three courses in a chosen concentration. (See Program of Study.) For the concentration requirement, Physics 208 and 305 count as one course only.

5. *Breadth: *At least one** **departmental elective** **course in an area distinct from the area of concentration. Some COS and PHY courses are also possible. Note: ORF 309 cannot be used to satisfy this requirement.

6. *Engineering science: *An engineering course with a significant scientific component must be taken outside ELE to satisfy this requirement. Many courses can be used to satisfy this requirement; note, however, that a course composed largely of mathematics or applied mathematics does not satisfy the requirement. The course used for satisfying the engineering science requirement cannot also be used for satisfying the concentration requirement or the breadth requirement, nor can it be counted as a departmental requirement. The following is a non-exhaustive list of possibilities: CBE: 245, 246, 341, 415, 445, 447; COS: 217, 226, 320, 402, 423, 425, 444, 451, 487; CEE: 205, 303, 305, 471; MAE: 206, 221, 222, 324, 328, 344, 345, 433, 434; MSE: 301, 302; ORF: 307, 311, 405, 406, 417.

7. *Design: *At least one upperclass electrical engineering course with substantial design content beyond ELE 302 must be selected. These courses include 352, 375, 404, 454, 461, 462, 475, 482, and COS 426, 436. This requirement may also be satisfied with junior or senior independent work with a substantial design component. (See Independent Work.)

8. *Balance and completeness: *ELE students must take at least two upperclass technical courses in each of the last four terms. These 300-level-or-higher courses are called departmental courses. Of the eight departmental courses, at least five must be ELE courses. The remaining three courses can be taken in CEE, CHM, CBE, COS, EEB, ELE, MAE, MAT, MOL, MSE, ORF, or PHY. Courses outside electrical engineering counted toward this requirement must be closely related to the student's academic program.

9. *Oral presentation: *Each student must give a presentation to an audience based on some technical work done in a class or in an independent project. The independent-work poster presentation does not meet the oral presentation requirement.

10. *Independent work: *Each student is required to complete at least one term of independent work, normally in the senior year. Independent work cannot be used to fulfill the breadth or concentration requirements.

11. *Senior thesis option: *A two-term independent work project may be recommended for a senior thesis by a committee of two faculty members (adviser plus one other). A senior thesis must include an oral presentation to the two faculty, and submission of bound copies as per University regulations. **Starting with the class of 2016**, a two-term senior independent project leading to a senior thesis will be required in Electrical Engineering.

#### Program of Study

Each student must develop depth in a coherent area of concentration in the department. Concentrations may be interdisciplinary and include courses from other departments in the School of Engineering and Applied Science, as well as from related fields such as biology, chemistry, neuroscience, physics, and others. However, the courses must form a coherent theme, and normally, two of the courses will be ELE courses or designated equivalents. ORF 309/MAT 380 may be used to satisfy either the upperclass mathematics requirement or the concentration requirement, but not both.

Graduate courses (500 level) are open to undergraduates after the completion of a permission form containing the signatures of the instructor and departmental representative.

#### Independent Work

Independent projects or research projects outside normal, structured lecture or laboratory courses are a valuable educational experience. The projects are intellectually challenging but also extremely fulfilling. All electrical engineering majors are required to complete at least one term of independent study, normally in the senior year. Independent work cannot be used to fulfill the breadth or concentration requirements. Each student doing independent work will be required to give a poster and/or an oral presentation during a department-organized session given at the end of each term. A two-term independent-work project may be recommended for a senior thesis by a committee of two faculty members (adviser plus one other). A senior thesis must include an oral presentation to the two faculty, and submission of bound copies as per University regulations. **Starting with the class of 2016**, a two-term senior independent project leading to a senior thesis will be required in Electrical Engineering.

**Interdisciplinary Programs. **Interested students may combine their work in electrical engineering with that in other departments through interdisciplinary certificate programs such as engineering and management systems, engineering physics, materials science and engineering, neuroscience, engineering biology, environmental studies, applied and computational mathematics, and the Woodrow Wilson School (the last by application only). Students fulfilling a certificate program will receive a special certificate upon graduation. Concentrators should consult with their advisers to develop an ELE program that best combines their ELE interest with the interdisciplinary program. Additional materials on a certificate program may be obtained by contacting the director of the program.

**Further Information. **Additional information on the departmental academic program and requirements is given in the *Electrical Engineering Handbook, *available from the departmental undergraduate office, Room B304, Engineering Quadrangle. Prospective concentrators in electrical engineering should consult the departmental representative as early as possible for purposes of planning an academic program.

### Courses

ELE 102 New Eyes for the World: Hands-On Optical Engineering (also EGR 103) Not offered this year STL

This lab course introduces students to modern topics of engineering optics. Teams of students will carry out four different projects: holography, lasers, free-space optical communication, and nanotechnology. Teaches the foundations and broader societal issues of these technologies. The laboratory sessions involve hands-on training as well as experimentation and exploration. Skills acquired in this course include computer programming of user interfaces, data acquisition and interpretation, wet chemical processing, and electronics design assembly. One 90-minute lecture, one three-hour laboratory.
*
C. Gmachl*

ELE 201 Information Signals Spring STL

Signals that carry information, e.g. sound, images, sensors, radar, communication, robotic control, play a central role in technology and engineering. This course teaches mathematical tools to analyze, manipulate, and preserve information signals. We discuss how continuous signals can be perfectly represented through sampling, leading to digital signals. Major focus points are the Fourier transform---how, when, and why to use it, linear time-invariant systems, modulation, and stability. We use MatLab for design projects, such as a "Shazam" music ID system. Three lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: knowledge of elementary calculus
*
P. Cuff*

ELE 203 Electronic Circuit Design, Analysis and Implementation Fall STL

Introduction to electronic theory and practice. DC and AC circuit analysis theorems and passive and active components, from resistors/capacitors/inductors to operational amplifiers. Feedback, sinusoidal steady state analysis, frequency response, resonance, diodes, transistors. Creative circuit design using light and sound outputs. Final project on bio-sensing, including design and testing of an electrocardiogram circuit to sense real heartbeats. SPICE circuit simulation is introduced and leveraged in the labs and project. Three lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: knowledge of freshman physics and elementary calculus
*
P. Prucnal*

ELE 206 Contemporary Logic Design (also COS 306) Fall STL

Logic circuits are at the heart of modern computing and communication chips. These deliver valuable societal solutions in several key areas: in information retrieval and processing using smart phones and cloud computing; in smart sensing and control as in emerging chips for human health care; and in critical security applications such as protecting infrastructures like the internet and energy production/distribution systems. Foundational aspects of logic design; contemporary design principles and practices. Three lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: an introductory programming course, or equivalent programming experience.
*
S. Malik*

ELE 208 Electronic and Photonic Devices Spring STL

Explores ways in which semiconductor devices harness and control electrons and photons to generate, store or transmit information. The basics of semiconductor electronics and photonics are introduced. We look at diodes, transistors, LEDs, solar-cells, and lasers, which form the foundations of integrated circuits, microchips, displays, cameras, etc.. Nanotechnology, a recent addition to devices and systems, is introduced. Laboratory: fundamentals of micro- and nano-fabrication, fabrication of Si integrated circuits, semiconductor light emitters, quantum devices. Three lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: CHM 201 or 203, PHY 102 or 104.
*
C. Gmachl**,
C. Silvestre*

ELE 218 Learning Theory and Epistemology (see PHI 218)

ELE 222A The Computing Age (also EGR 222A) Not offered this year

The past several decades have seen an exponential growth in computing as reflected in modern computers as well as consumer products such as music/video players and cell phones. This course will explore the reasons for this growth through studying the core principles of computing. It will cover representation of information including video and music, the design of computers and consumer devices, and their efficient implementation using computer chips. Finally, it will examine the technological factors that will likely limit future growth and discuss the societal impact of this outcome. Two 90-minute lectures, one preceptorial.
* Staff*

ELE 222B The Computing Age (also EGR 222B) Not offered this year STL

The past several decades have seen an exponential growth in computing as reflected in modern computers as well as consumer products such as music/video players and cell phones. This course will explore the reasons for this growth through studying the core principles of computing. It will cover representation of information including video and music, the design of computers and consumer devices, and their efficient implementation using computer chips. Finally, it will examine the technological factors that will likely limit future growth and discuss the societal impact of this outcome. Two 90-minute lectures, one three-hour laboratory.
* Staff*

ELE 301 Designing Real Systems Fall

This course focuses on the science, engineering, and design of the highly integrated systems that dominate many of today's devices. Analysis of systems, subsystems, and basic principles will be covered, with an emphasis on hardware-software optimization, sampling and digitization, signal and noise, feedback and control, and communication. Prerequisites: ELE 201, ELE 203, ELE 206.
*
J. Fleischer*

ELE 302 Building Real Systems Spring

Comprehensive laboratory-based course in electronic system design and analysis. Covers formal methods for the design and analysis of moderately complex real-world electronic systems. Course is centered around a semester-long design project involving a computer-controlled vehicle designed and constructed by teams of two students. Integrates microprocessors, communications, and control. Three lectures, one laboratory; open laboratory during final month. Prerequisites: 206 and 301 or permission of instructor.
*
A. Kahn**,
A. Houck*

ELE 341 Solid-State Devices Fall

The physics and technology of solid-state devices. Topics include: p-n junctions and two terminal devices, transistors, silicon controlled rectifiers, field effect devices, silicon vidicon and storage tubes, metal-semiconductor contacts and Schottky barrier devices, microwave devices, junction lasers, liquid crystal devices, and fabrication of integrated circuits. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: 208 or the equivalent.
*
A. Kahn*

ELE 342 Principles of Quantum Engineering Spring

Fundamental principles of solid-state and optoelectronic device operation. Principles of quantum mechanics (Schroedinger equation, operator and matrix methods) important to a basic understanding of solid-state and quantum electronics. Topics in statistical mechanics, including distribution functions, density of states, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein statistics. Applications to atoms, molecules, lasers, and solids, with special emphasis on semiconductors. Three hours of lectures.
*
M. Shayegan*

ELE 351 Electromagnetic Field Theory and Optics Fall

Electromagnetic field theory with emphasis on engineering applications. Review of static fields, Maxwell's equations, wave propagation, reflection and refraction, dielectric and metallic waveguides, fiber optics and practical concepts in lightwave communications systems. Three hours of lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: PHY 104.
*
G. Wysocki*

ELE 352 Physical Optics Spring

Fundamental and practical aspects of physical optics. Lenses and ray optics, lens maker's formula, wave propagation, Fourier optics, Gaussian beams are all considered. Design and use of practical optical systems including optical beam steering in medicine, fiber optics. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: PHY 104.
*
J. Fleischer*

ELE 375 Computer Architecture and Organization (see COS 375)

ELE 381 Networks: Friends, Money and Bytes (also COS 381) Fall

This course is oriented around 20 practical questions in the social, economic, and technological networks in our daily lives. How does Google sell ad spaces and rank webpages? How does Netflix recommend movies and Amazon rank products? How do I influence people on Facebook and Twitter? Why doesn't the Internet collapse under congestion, and does it have an Achilles heel? Why does each gigabyte of mobile data cost $10, but Skype is free? How come Wi-Fi is slower at hotspots than at home, and what is inside the cloud of iCloud? In formulating and addressing these questions, we introduce the fundamental concepts behind the networking industry.
*
M. Chiang*

ELE 386 Cyber Security (also EGR 386) Spring

The technology underlying secure transactions and safe interactions in a public Internet and wireless world. Humans interact daily with each other, with information, and with services through cyberspace. Topics include policy, economic, and social issues related to cyber security needs such as confidentiality, data integrity, user authentication, trust, non-repudiation, availability, privacy and anonymity, case studies in electronic commerce, denial of service attacks, viruses and worms, digital rights management, surveillance, and cyber-terrorism. Two 90-minute lectures.
*
R. Lee*

ELE 391 The Wireless Revolution: Telecommunications for the 21st Century (also EGR 391) Not offered this year STN

This interdisciplinary course addresses technological, regulatory, economic, and social issues arising in the rapidly developing field of wireless communications. The course introduces students to a major technological trend that will be a significant force in worldwide commercial and social development throughout the 21st century. Prerequisites: MAT 103 or permission of instructor. Two 90-minute lectures.
* Staff*

ELE 396 Introduction to Quantum Computing Spring

This course will introduce the matrix form of quantum mechanics and discuss the concepts underlying the theory of quantum information. Some of the important algorithms will be discussed, as well as physical systems which have been suggested for quantum computing. Three lectures. Prerequisite: Linear algebra at the level of MAT 202, 204, 217, or the equivalent.
*
S. Lyon*

ELE 397 Junior Independent Work Fall

Provides an opportunity for a student to concentrate on a "state-of-the-art" project in electrical engineering. Topics may be selected from suggestions by faculty members or proposed by the student. The final choice must be approved by the faculty member.
*
N. Jha*

ELE 398 Junior Independent Work Spring

Provides an opportunity for a student to concentrate on a "state-of-the-art" project in electrical engineering. Topics may be selected from suggestions by faculty members or proposed by the student. The final choice must be approved by the faculty member.
*
N. Jha*

ELE 404 Electronic Circuits for Biomedical Application Spring

Start by analyzing biological systems to understand the origins of some of the signals that they present. Develop circuit models of these systems to determine what instrumentation circuits are required at the interface so that the signals can be reliably acquired. Study analog circuit topologies based on MOSFETs for low-noise instrumentation and processing of the signals. Study digital topologies based on MOSFETs for extensive computations on the biological signals. Analyze the trade-offs between the analog and digital topologies. Emphasis is on design and analysis using circuit simulators.
*
N. Verma*

ELE 431 Solar Energy Conversion (also ENV 431/EGR 431/ENE 431) Fall QR

Principles, designs, and economics of solar conversion systems. Quantity and availability of solar energy. Physics and chemistry of solar energy conversion: solar optics; quantum processes; optical excitation; and transport of excitations, electronic, and ionic charge. Methods for conversion: photovoltaics; photoelectrochemistry; photocatalysis; photosynthesis; and solar thermal conversion. Energy collection, transport and storage. Economics: life cycle costing; and societal value of renewable energy. Three one-hour lectures, one preceptorial. Prerequisites: MAT 104, PHY 104, and CHM 207.
*
S. Wagner*

ELE 441 Solid-State Physics I (also ENE 441) Fall

An introduction to the properties of solids. Theory of free electrons--classical and quantum. Crystal structure and methods of determination. Electron energy levels in a crystal: weak potential and tight-binding limits. Classification of solids--metals, semiconductors, and insulators. Types of bonding and cohesion in crystals. Lattice dynamics, phonon spectra, and thermal properties of harmonic crystals. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: 342, or PHY 208 and 305, or equivalent.
*
M. Shayegan*

ELE 442 Solid-State Physics II (also ENE 442) Spring

Electronic structure of solids. Electron dynamics and transport. Semiconductors and impurity states. Surfaces and interfaces. Dielectric properties of insulators. Electron-electron, electron-phonon, and phonon-phonon interactions. Anharmonic effects in crystals. Magnetism. Superconductivity. Alloys. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisites: 441 or equivalent.
*
R. Bhatt*

ELE 453 Optical Electronics Fall

Electromagnetic waves. Gaussian beams. Optical resonators. Interaction of light and matter. Lasers. Mode locking and Q-switching in lasers. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisites: 351 or 352 or PHY 304 or permission of instructor.
*
H. Türeci*

ELE 454 Photonics and Light Wave Communications Spring

Introduction to fiber-optic communication systems. Optical detectors and receivers. Design and performance of direct detection systems. Coherent light wave systems. Multichannel WDM communication systems. Optical amplifiers. Soliton communication systems. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: 351 or 352.
*
P. Prucnal*

ELE 455 Mid-Infrared Technologies for Health and the Environment (also CEE 455/MAE 455/MSE 455) Not offered this year

This course is designed to give juniors, seniors, and interested graduate students a comprehensive and interdisciplinary introduction into mid-infrared sensing, its applications, and its technological foundations. Topics include: materials, light sources, lasers and detectors for the mid-infrared; spectroscopy and sensing; sensing systems and sensor networks. It addresses such important issues as global warming, policy making, engineering solutions to global challenges, environmental sensing, breath analysis and health applications, and sensing in homeland security. Two 90-minute lectures.
*
M. Zondlo*

ELE 461 Design with Nanotechnologies Fall

Introduction to nanotechnologies; threshold logic/majority logic and their applications to RTDs, QCA and SETs; nanowire based crossbars and PLAs; carbon nanotube based circuits; double-gate CMOS-based circuits; reversible logic for quantum computing; non-volatile memory; nanopipelining; testing; and defect tolerance. Two 90-minute lectures. Prerequisite: ELE 206.
*
N. Jha*

ELE 462 Design of Very Large-Scale Integrated (VLSI) Systems (also COS 462) Fall

The implementation of digital systems using integrated circuit technology. Emphasis on structured design methodologies for VLSI systems. Topics include: design rules for metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits, implementation of common digital components, tools for computer-aided design, novel architectures for VLSI systems. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: 206.
*
N. Verma*

ELE 465 Switching and Sequential Systems Fall

Theory of digital computing systems. Topics include logic function decomposition, reliability and fault diagnosis, synthesis of synchronous circuits and iterative networks, state minimization, synthesis of asynchronous circuits, state-identification and fault detection, finite-state recognizers, definite machines, information lossless machines. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite: 206.
*
S. Kung*

ELE 466 Digital System Testing Not offered this year

Component-level issues related to testing and design/synthesis for testability of digital systems. Topics include test generation for combinational and sequential circuits, design and synthesis for testability, and built-in self-test circuits. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisite 206.
* Staff*

ELE 469 Human-Computer Interface Technology (see COS 436)

ELE 475 Computer Architecture (also COS 475) Spring

An in-depth study of the fundamentals of modern processor and system design. Students will develop a strong practical and theoretical background in the technical and economic issues that govern the design of computer architectures and implementations. The course will emphasize the skills required to design and evaluate current and future systems. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisites: 206, 375.
*
D. Wentzlaff*

ELE 482 Digital Signal Processing Fall

The lectures will cover: (1) Basic principles of digital signal processing. (2) Design of digital filters. (3) Fourier analysis and the fast Fourier transform. (4) Roundoff errors in digital signal processing. (5) Applications of digital signal processing.
*
B. Liu*

ELE 486 Transmission and Compression of Information (also APC 486) Fall

An introduction to lossless data compression algorithms, modulation/demodulation of digital data, error correcting codes, channel capacity, lossy compression of analog and digital sources. Three hours of lectures. Prerequisites: 301, ORF 309.
*
E. Abbe*

ELE 488 Image Processing Spring

Introduction to the basic theory and techniques of two- and three-dimensional image processing. Topics include image perception, 2-D image transforms, enhancement, restoration, compression, tomography and image understanding. Applications to HDTV, machine vision, and medical imaging, etc. Three hours of lectures, one laboratory. Prerequisite: 301.
*
B. Liu*

ELE 491 High-Tech Entrepreneurship (see EGR 491)

ELE 497 Senior Independent Work Fall

Subjects chosen by the student with the approval of the faculty for independent study. A final report is required.
*
N. Jha*

ELE 498 Senior Independent Work Spring

Subjects chosen by the student with the approval of the faculty for independent study. A final report is required.
*
N. Jha*