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Program in Environmental Studies

Director

Lars O. Hedin

Executive Committee

Steven L. Bernasek, Chemistry  

Kelly K. Caylor, Civil and Environmental Engineering  

Michael A. Celia, Civil and Environmental Engineering  

William A. Gleason, English

Lars O. Hedin, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton Environmental Institute  

Melissa S. Lane, Politics

Michael Oppenheimer, Woodrow Wilson School, Geosciences  

Catherine A. Peters, Civil and Environmental Engineering  

Robert M. Pringle, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Bess B. Ward, Geosciences  


The Program in Environmental Studies (ENV) offers a vibrant, multidisciplinary forum for engaging the scientific, political, humanistic, and technological dimensions of the greatest environmental challenges facing the world today. Through this certificate program, students majoring in any discipline may pursue either a generalist track in environmental studies, or a specialist track that explores one of the following topic areas: (1) Biodiversity and Conservation, (2) Climate and Energy, (3) Earth Systems, (4) Environmental Policy, and (5) Environment and Water.

Experiential learning is integral to environmental studies at Princeton. Several of the courses offer laboratory and field work components. Additionally, the program offers many opportunities for students to apply for domestic and international internships after their freshman, sophomore, and junior years. Funding is also available for students wishing to conduct field research as a component of their independent work during the junior or senior year. Equally important to the life of the program are the colloquia and other events through which students may present their work and interact with leading scientists and policy makers in the field.

The Program in Environmental Studies is part of the Princeton Environmental Institute (PEI), the interdisciplinary center for environmental research, education, and outreach at Princeton University. PEI is committed to advancing knowledge and developing the next generation of leadership in the environmental field. The institute comprises several major interdisciplinary research centers and educational programs for undergraduate and graduate students.

Admission to the Program

The Program in Environmental Studies is open to all A.B. and B.S.E. students. Students interested in pursuing a certificate are encouraged to register as early as freshman year by completing the ENV Certificate Program Student Profile Form. Students should also meet with the director or the undergraduate administrator as soon as possible to plan a tentative course of study, including requirements for the generalist track or one of the specialist tracks.

Program of Study

Students in this certificate program, whether pursuing the generalist track or a specialist track, must complete five courses, investigate an environmental topic as an element of their departmental thesis, and participate in the senior year colloquium. Students must receive a grade of C or higher (no Pass/D/Fail) in all courses taken in fulfillment of the requirements for the ENV certificate.

1. Generalist Track

The generalist track is designed for students who wish to study multiple topics in environmental studies from a variety of perspectives (social, political, scientific, etc.).

Students following the generalist track must complete the following:

1. One of two foundation courses: ENV 201A/B or ENV 302. ENV 201A/B is recommended for students who do not have a strong quantitative background. ENV 201A is offered without a laboratory, and satisfies the University's (STN) distribution requirement. Students interested in taking a foundation course with a lab should enroll in ENV 201B, as it satisfies the University's distribution requirement for science and technology with a laboratory (STL). Please note the laboratory option is not required for the certificate. ENV 302 involves more complex quantitative analyses and is recommended for students seeking in-depth scientific exploration of environmental topics. Students should take their foundation course as early as possible in their academic careers.

2. Four ENV courses (including ENV cross-listed or cognate courses). Three of these four courses must be from different academic divisions (i.e., natural science, engineering, social science, humanities) and should be at the 300-level or higher. The fourth course may be any 200-level or higher ENV course that is designated as an ENV cognate. Students are encouraged to discuss cognate choices with the director or undergraduate administrator early in their planning process. Courses that are not designated as ENV cognates but have significant environmental content may also be accepted as cognates pending approval by the ENV director; this includes courses listed under the specialist tracks.

Cognate Areas

Humanities cognates include courses with environmental relevance from departments such as Art and Archaeology, English, and Philosophy, as well as the School of Architecture.

Social science cognates include courses with environmental relevance from departments such as Anthropology, Economics, History, Politics, and the Woodrow Wilson School.

Natural science cognates include courses with environmental relevance from departments such as Chemistry, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Geosciences, Molecular Biology, and Physics.

Engineering cognates include courses with environmental relevance from departments such as Chemical and Biological Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

Courses from each of the four cognate areas are identified on the program website.

Courses
ENV 201A Fundamentals of Environmental Studies: Population, Land Use, Biodiversity, and Energy
ENV 201B Fundamentals of Environmental Studies: Population, Land Use, Biodiversity, and Energy
ENV 202A Fundamentals of Environmental Studies: Climate, Air Pollution, Toxics, and Water
ENV 202B Fundamentals of Environmental Studies: Climate, Air Pollution, Toxics, and Water
ENV 302 Advanced Analysis of Environmental Systems
ENV 303 Introduction to Environmental Engineering (See CEE 303)
ENV 304 Disease Ecology, Economics, and Policy
ENV 305 Topics in Environmental Studies
ENV 306 Topics in Environmental Studies
ENV 310 Environmental Law and Moot Court
ENV 312 Marine Biology (see EEB 312)
ENV 316 Climate Science and Communications
ENV 319 Environmental Economics (see WWS 306)
ENV 321 Ethical and Scientific Issues in Environmental Policy (see CHV 321)
ENV 328 Energy for a Greenhouse-Constrained World (see MAE 328)
ENV 331 Environmental Geochemistry: Chemistry of the Natural Systems (see GEO 363)
ENV 333 Oil to Ozone: Chemistry of the Environment (see CHM 333)
ENV 334 Global Environmental Issues (see CEE 334)
ENV 339 Climate Change: Scientific Basis, Policy Implications (see GEO 366)
ENV 340 Environmental Challenges and Sustainable Solutions
ENV 361 Physics of the Ocean and Atmosphere (see GEO 361)
ENV 362 Biogeochemistry of the Ocean and Atmosphere (see GEO 362)
ENV 370 Sedimentology (see GEO 370)
ENV 386 Literature and Environment (see ENG 386)
ENV 406 Energy and Form (see ARC 406)
ENV 417A Ecosystems and Global Change (see EEB 417A)
ENV 417B Ecosystems and Global Change (see EEB 417B)
ENV 431 Solar Energy Conversion (see ELE 431)
ENV 433 Comparative Environmental History (see HIS 431)
ENV 474 Special Topics in Civil and Environmental Engineering (see CEE 474)
ENV 499 Environmental Change, Poverty, and Conflict (see GEO 499)

2. Specialist Tracks

Students wishing to focus their environmental studies on a particular set of environmental issues and challenges may choose one of five specialist tracks.

Students must complete two foundation courses one on environmental science and one on environmental policy by the end of their sophomore year:

Either: ENV 302: Advanced Analysis of Environmental Systems, or
EEB 321: Ecology: Species Interactions, Biodiversity, and Society
and:
WWS 350: The Environment: Science and Policy (not offered in spring 2014)

In addition to the foundational science and policy courses, students in the specialized tracks must take three additional courses at the 300-level or above, chosen from among the courses designated for the particular track they are pursuing. Except with the approval of the director or the undergraduate administrator, at least one of these three elective courses may not count toward the student's departmental concentration or another certificate. In all cases, students are encouraged to meet with the program director or undergraduate administrator in order to choose an appropriate sequence of courses.

Biodiversity and Conservation track

The Biodiversity and Conservation track is intended for students interested in conservation and understanding the biological diversity of Earth's natural ecosystems. Through courses in species interactions and biodiversity, ecosystems and climate change, conservation biology, sustainable agriculture and food security, students will investigate factors that contribute to changes in biological diversity over time, and will gain a greater understanding of the planet's ever changing and dynamic natural systems.

Courses
CEE 307/EEB 305: Field Ecohydrology
CEE 334/WWS 334/ENV 334: Global Environmental Issues
EEB 308: Conservation Biology
EEB 312: Marine Biology
EEB 321 Ecology: Species Interactions, Biodiversity, and Society
EEB 322: Advanced Ecology
EEB 323 Integrative Dynamics of Animal Behavior
EEB 324: Theoretical Ecology
EEB 328: Ecology and Epidemiology of Parasites and Infectious Diseases
EEB 332/LAS 350: Pre-Columbian Peoples of Tropical America and Their Environments
EEB 338: Tropical Biology
EEB 346: Biology of Coral Reefs
EEB 341/WWS 490: Water, Savannas and Society
EEB 350: Vertebrate Tropical Biology
EEB 352: Restoration Ecology
EEB 380: Ecology and Conservation on African Landscapes
EEB 382: Tropical Agriculture
EEB 406: Biology of African Animals and Ecosystems
EEB 417/ENV 417: Ecosystems and Climate Change
ENV 302/CEE 302/EEB 302: Advanced Analysis of Environmental Systems
ENV 304/ECO 328/EEB 304/WWS 496 Disease Ecology, Economics, and Policy
ENV 316: Climate Science and Communications
ENV 340: Environmental Challenges and Sustainable Solutions
GEO 366/ENV 339/WWS 451: Climate Change: Scientific Basis, Policy Implications
GEO 417/CEE 417/EEB 419: Environmental Microbiology
NES 470/ENV 470: Food Security in the Middle East
WWS 350: The Environment: Science and Policy

Climate and Energy track

The Climate and Energy track is designed for students interested in one of today's most complex and urgent challenges: the environmental impact of our global energy system. Students will be exposed to the interdisciplinary dimensions of climate-energy problems and examine the complex links that exist between the growth of global population and affluence, greenhouse gas emissions, ecosystem responses, and policy alternatives. Among the topics to be explored are adaptation, mitigation, and the suffering resulting from global climate change.

Courses
ARC 406/ENV 406: Energy and Form
AST 309/MAE 309/PHY 309/ENE 309: Science and Technology of Nuclear Energy: Fission and Fusion
CBE 335/MAE 338/ENV 335/ENE 335: The Energy Water Nexus
CBE 421/CHM 421/ENE 421: Catalytic Chemistry
CEE 303/ENV 303/URB 303: Introduction to Environmental Engineering
CEE 304/ENE 304/ENV 300: Environmental Implications of Energy Technologies
CEE 305/GEO 375/ENE 305: Environmental Fluid Mechanics
CEE 311/CHM 311/GEO 311/ENE 311: Global Air Pollution
CEE 334/ENV 334/WWS 334: Global Environmental Issues
CEE 477/ENE 477: Engineering Design for Sustainable Development
CHM 333/ENV 333: Oil to Ozone: Chemistry of the Environment
CHM 406: Advanced Physical Chemistry, Chemical Dynamics and Thermodynamics
EEB 417B/ENV 417B: Ecosystems and Global Change
ELE 428/MAE 428/ CEE 428: Cleaner Transport Fuels, Combustion Sensing and Emission Control
ELE 431/MAE 431/ENV 431/EGR 431/ENE 431: Solar Energy Conversion
ELE 455/CEE 455/MAE 455/MSE 455: Mid-Infrared Technologies for Health and the Environment
ENV 302/CEE 30/EEB 302: Advanced Analysis of Environmental Systems
GEO 366/ENV 339/WWS 451/ENE 366: Climate Change: Scientific Basis, Policy Implications
GEO 430: Climate and the Terrestrial Biosphere
HIS 422/NES 422: Energy and Empire
MAE 228/EGR 228/CBE 228/ENE 228: Energy Solutions for the Next Century
MAE 328/EGR 328/ENV 328/ENE 328: Energy for a Greenhouse-Constrained World
MAE 423/ENE 423: Heat Transfer
MAE 424/ENE 424: Energy Storage Systems
MAE 427/ENE 427: Energy Conversion and the Environment: Transportation Applications
NES 266/ENV 266: Oil, Energy, and the Middle East
ORF 474: Special Topics in Operations Research and Financial Engineering Energy, Commodity, and Fixed Income Markets

Earth Systems track

The Earth Systems track is designed for students interested in the atmospheric, oceanographic, and environmental aspects of Earth's natural processes and in understanding these dynamics in the context of the global environment. Students will select from among courses that address the geochemical and biological factors that modify the Earth's surface; explore the evolution of Earth as a physical system; and probe the interaction of Earth's oceans and atmosphere with the climate system.

Courses
EEB 417B/ENV 417B: Ecosystems and Global Change
ENV 302/CEE 302/EEB 302: Advanced Analysis of Environmental Systems
ENV 340: Environmental Challenges and Sustainable Solutions
CHM 333/ENV 333: Oil to Ozone: Chemistry of the Environment
GEO 361/ENV 361/CEE 360: Physics of the Ocean and Atmosphere
GEO 363/CHM 331/ENV 331: Environmental Geochemistry: Chemistry of the Natural Systems
GEO 364/ CHM 364: Earth Chemistry: The Major Realms of the Planet
GEO 365: Evolution and Catastrophes
GEO 366/ENV 339/WWS 335: Climate Change: Scientific Basis, Policy Implications
GEO 370/ENV 370/CEE 370: Sedimentology
GEO 372: Earth Materials
GEO 415: Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences
GEO 417/ ENV 363: Environmental Microbiology
GEO 418/ENV 364: Environmental Aqueous Geochemistry
GEO 419/ENV 365: Physics and Chemistry of Earth's Interior
GEO 423/CEE 423: Dynamic Meteorology
GEO 425/ENV 366: Introduction to Physical Oceanography
GEO 428: Biological Oceanography
GEO 430: Climate and the Terrestrial Biosphere
GEO 470/CHM 470: Environmental Chemistry of Soils

Environmental Policy track

The Environmental Policy track is intended for students who wish to expand their understanding of pressing environmental issues and their policy solutions. Students will address the economic, political, scientific, and social aspects of environmental policy, gaining a diverse set of skills to approach environmental problems that challenge global leaders in the 21st century.

Courses
AST 309: Science and Technology of Nuclear Energy: Fission and Fusion
CEE 334/ENV 334/WWS 334: Global Environmental Issues
CHM 333/ENV 333: Oil to Ozone: Chemistry of the Environment
CHV 321/ENV 321/WWS 371: Ethical and Scientific Issues in Environmental Policy
ECO 329/ ENV 319: Environmental Economics
EEB 417B/ENV 417B: Ecosystems and Global Change
EGR 277/SOC 277/HIS 277: Technology and Society
ENV 201A/B: Fundamentals of Environmental Studies: Population, Land Use, Biodiversity, and Energy
ENV 202A/B: Fundamentals of Environmental Studies: Climate, Air, Pollution, Toxics, and Water
ENV 302/CEE 302/EEB 302: Advanced Analysis of Environmental Systems
ENV 304/ ECO 328/EEB 304/WWS 496: Disease Ecology, Economics, and Policy
ENV 310 Environmental Law and Moot Court
ENV 316: Climate Science and Communications
ENV 340 Environmental Challenges and Sustainable Solutions
GEO 366/ENV 339/WWS 335: Climate Change: Scientific Basis, Policy Implications
GEO 499/ENV 499: Environmental Change, Poverty, and Conflict
HIS 422: History and Empire
HIS 431/ENV 433: Comparative Environmental History
MAE 228/EGR 228/CBE 228/ENE 228: Energy Solutions for the Next Century
MAE 328/EGR 328/ENV 328/ENE 328: Energy for a Greenhouse Constrained World
WWS 406/ECO 429: Issues in Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
WWS 350: The Environment: Science and Policy

Environment and Water track

The Environment and Water track is intended for students who wish to delve deeply into the scientific and technical dimensions of domestic and global water resources and management. Students will select from among courses on topics that include eco-hydrology, land surface-atmosphere interactions, the energy-water nexus, climate variability and its impact on the water cycle, as well as the biogeochemistry and remediation of contaminated water.

Courses
CBE 335/MAE 338/ENV 335: The Energy Water Nexus
CEE 304/ENE 304/ENV 300: Environmental Implications of Energy Technologies
CEE 303/ENV 303/URB 303: Introduction to Environmental Engineering
CEE 305/GEO 375/ENE 305: Environmental Fluid Mechanics
CEE 306: Hydrology
CEE 307/EEB 305: Field Ecohydrology
CEE 308: Environmental Engineering Laboratory
CEE 471/GEO 471/URB 471: Introduction to Water Pollution Technology
CEE 477: Engineering Design for Sustainable Development
CEE 487/ENV 487: Ecohydrology
CHM 406: Advanced Physical Chemistry, Chemical Dynamics and Thermodynamics
EEB 341/ENV 341: Water, Savannas and Society: Resilience and Sustainability in African Dry lands
EEB 417B/ENV 417B: Ecosystems and Global Change
ENV 202A/B: Fundamentals of Environmental Studies: Climate, Air, Pollution, Toxics, and Water
ENV 302/CEE 302/EEB 302: Advanced Analysis of Environmental Systems
ENV 340: Environmental Change and Sustainable Solutions
GEO 361/ENV 362/CEE 360: Physics of the Ocean and Atmosphere
GEO 363/CHM 331/ENV 331: Environmental Geochemistry: Chemistry of the Natural Systems
GEO 364/CHM 364: Earth Chemistry: The Major Realms of the Planet
GEO 370/ENV 370/CEE 370: Sedimentology
GEO 418/CHM 418: Environmental Aqueous Geochemistry

Program Requirements

Senior Thesis. Students in the program are expected to examine an environmental issue as a component of their senior thesis. The topic must be approved by both the director as well as the departmental representative in the student's concentration. The environmental content of the senior thesis will be reviewed as part of the senior thesis colloquium (see below). Students who find it difficult to incorporate an environmental topic into their departmental senior thesis should meet with the director of the ENV program to find a suitable alternative as early as possible in their senior year.

Senior Colloquium. All ENV students pursuing the certificate are required to participate in a faculty-led colloquium during their senior year. The senior colloquium involves a series of gatherings over the course of the academic year that offers students a unique and important forum for discussing outcomes of their independent work and exchanging perspectives on global environmental issues. One of the most important aspects of the senior colloquium is the interdisciplinary dialogue facilitated by the participation of students and faculty members from a wide range of academic departments. The culmination of the senior colloquium in the spring is PEI's Discovery Day, a poster presentation that allows students to share the final outcomes of their thesis research with fellow students, faculty, and staff.

Certificate of Proficiency

Students who meet the requirements of the program receive a certificate of proficiency in environmental studies upon graduation.

Scholar's Forum. Students in the program will also have the opportunity to participate in a self-governed Scholar's Forum, in which they interact with leading scientists and policy makers who are invited to visit throughout the academic year.


Courses


ENV 102A Climate: Past, Present, and Future (see GEO 102A)

ENV 102B Climate: Past, Present, and Future (see GEO 102B)

ENV 201A Fundamentals of Environmental Studies: Population, Land Use, Biodiversity, and Energy (also STC 201A)   Fall STN

This course explores how human activities have affected land use, agriculture, fisheries, biodiversity, and the use of energy in the USA and around the world. Students examine the fundamental principles underlying contemporary environmental issues, and use case studies to illustrate the scientific, political, economic, and social dimensions of environmental problems. Two lectures, one preceptorial. K. Caylor, D. Wilcove

ENV 201B Fundamentals of Environmental Studies: Population, Land Use, Biodiversity, and Energy (also STC 201B)   Fall STL

This course explores how human activities have affected land use, agriculture, fisheries, biodiversity, and the use of energy in the USA and around the world. Students examine the fundamental principles underlying contemporary environmental issues, and use case studies to illustrate the scientific, political, economic, and social dimensions of environmental problems. Two lectures, one preceptorial, one three-hour laboratory. K. Caylor, D. Wilcove, C. Riihimaki

ENV 202A Fundamentals of Environmental Studies: Climate, Air Pollution, Toxics, and Water   Not offered this year STN

This course will focus on the environmental consequences of human activities and their interactions with natural systems on global scales, focusing on four main areas of current environmental concern: climate and global change; the atmosphere and air pollution; toxics in the environment; and water resources exploitation and pollution. Underlying principles will be explored for each topic, with examples and case studies used to highlight interconnections between the scientific, technological, political, economic, and social dimensions of environmental issues. Two lectures, one preceptorial. B. Ward

ENV 202B Fundamentals of Environmental Studies: Climate, Air Pollution, Toxics, and Water   Not offered this year STL

This course will focus on the environmental consequences of human activities and their interactions with natural systems on global scales, focusing on four main areas of current environmental concern: climate and global change; the atmosphere and air pollution; toxics in the environment; and water resources exploitation and pollution. Underlying principles will be explored for each topic, with examples and case studies used to highlight interconnections between the scientific, technological, political, economic, and social dimensions of environmental issues. Two lectures, one preceptorial, one three-hour laboratory. B. Ward, E. Zerba

ENV 302 Advanced Analysis of Environmental Systems (also CEE 302/EEB 302)   Spring QR

Humans are increasingly affecting environmental systems throughout the world. This course uses quantitative analysis to examine three of today's most pressing issues: energy, water, and food. Each issue is examined from perspectives of natural and engineered ecosystems that depend on complex interactions among physical, chemical, and biological processes. The course is an introduction for students in the natural sciences and engineering pursuing an advanced program in environmental studies. We emphasize quantitative analyses with applications to a wide range of systems, and the design of engineered solutions to major environmental problems. L. Hedin, M. Celia

ENV 303 Introduction to Environmental Engineering (see CEE 303)

ENV 304 Disease Ecology, Economics, and Policy (also ECO 328/EEB 304/WWS 455)   Fall STN

The dynamics of the emergence and spread of disease arise from a complex interplay among disease ecology, economics, and human behavior. Lectures will provide an introduction to complementarities between economic and epidemiological approaches to understanding the emergence, spread, and control of infectious diseases. The course will cover topics such as drug-resistance in bacterial and parasitic infections, individual incentives to vaccinate, the role of information in the transmission of infectious diseases, and the evolution of social norms in healthcare practices. One three-hour lecture, one preceptorial. R. Laxminarayan, B. Grenfell

ENV 305 Topics in Environmental Studies   Fall

Special topics courses related to the broad field of environmental studies. Staff

ENV 306 Topics in Environmental Studies   Spring HA

Special topics courses related to the broad field of environmental studies. Seminar. Staff

ENV 310 Environmental Law and Moot Court   Spring SA

Examining the relationship between law and environmental policy, this course focuses on cases that have established policy principles. The first half of the seminar will be conducted using the Socratic method. The second half will allow students to reargue either the plaintiff or defendant position in a key case, which will be decided by the classroom jury. One three-hour seminar. G. Hawkins

ENV 312 Marine Biology (see EEB 312)

ENV 316 Climate Science and Communications   Spring

Climate change has the potential to wreak great havoc over the next century, threatening ecosystems, economies, and human lives. Scientists are putting enormous effort into trying to understand the causes, effects, and possible solutions to the climate-change problem. Yet the public still has only a vague idea of what climate science actually says, and much of that is badly distorted. The course will explore how to communicate to the public about climate change through print, Web, and video, in ways that are at once clear, compelling, and scientifically rigorous. One three-hour seminar. M. Lemonick, H. Cullen

ENV 319 Environmental Economics (see WWS 306)

ENV 321 Ethical and Scientific Issues in Environmental Policy (see CHV 321)

ENV 328 Energy for a Greenhouse-Constrained World (see MAE 328)

ENV 331 Environmental Geochemistry: Chemistry of the Natural Systems (see GEO 363)

ENV 333 Oil to Ozone: Chemistry of the Environment (see CHM 333)

ENV 334 Global Environmental Issues (see CEE 334)

ENV 339 Climate Change: Scientific Basis, Policy Implications (see GEO 366)

ENV 340 Environmental Challenges and Sustainable Solutions   Spring STL

Focuses on environmental challenges and sustainable solutions related to interrelationships between constructed and natural processes. Topic areas include resource conservation, sustainable practices, storm water management, and habitat restoration. The format of the course is experiential learning with problem-solving research projects, lectures, and discussions. A central theme of the projects is to track the impact of land use and sustainable practices on the ecological balance of environments in and around Princeton's campus. Two 90-minute lectures, one laboratory. E. Zerba

ENV 343 Climate Change and Extreme Weather in the Garden State   Fall

Hurricanes, intense rainstorms, and floods are becoming more common, along with frequent intense heat waves. Have you ever wondered whether the enormous scale and damage from Hurricane Sandy had anything to do with climate change? This course will examine the potential link between climate change and extreme weather, the interdependency of natural and built environments, and urgent need for sustainable management. Lectures, interactive exercises and projects blend science, policy and social issues. Real-world efforts include trips to the NJ shore to study impacts of Hurricane Sandy, active recovery endeavors and ways to prevent future losses. E. Zerba

ENV 361 Physics of Earth, the Habitable Planet (see GEO 361)

ENV 362 Biogeochemistry of the Ocean and Atmosphere (see GEO 362)

ENV 370 Sedimentology (see GEO 370)

ENV 386 Literature and Environment (see ENG 386)

ENV 401 Environmental Policy Workshop   Not offered this year

The workshop will focus on currently unresolved environmental policy questions from the perspective of the scientific evidence available to support alternative interventions and the accompanying social, economic, and political trade-offs and conflicts that require adjudication. Prerequisite: 201 or permission of instructor. B. Singer

ENV 406 Energy and Form (see ARC 406)

ENV 417A Ecosystems and Global Change (see EEB 417A)

ENV 417B Ecosystems and Global Change (see EEB 417B)

ENV 431 Solar Energy Conversion (see ELE 431)

ENV 433 Comparative Environmental History (see HIS 431)

ENV 474 Special Topics in Civil and Environmental Engineering (see CEE 474)

ENV 499 Environmental Change, Poverty, and Conflict (see GEO 499)