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Department of French and Italian

Chair

F. Nick Nesbitt

Associate Chair

Pietro Frassica

Departmental Representative

André Benhaïm

Director of Graduate Studies

Göran M. Blix

Professor

David M. Bellos, also Comparative Literature

Pietro Frassica

Gaetana Marrone-Puglia

F. Nick Nesbitt

Thomas A. Trezise

Associate Professor

André Benhaïm

Göran M. Blix

Simone Marchesi

Volker Schröder

Assistant Professor

Kathryn A. Chenoweth

Natasha C. Lee

Efthymia Rentzou

Christy Nicole Wampole

Senior Lecturer

Florent Masse

Christine M. Sagnier

Fiorenza A. Weinapple

Lecturer

Daniela B. Antonucci

Hannah I. Freed-Thall, also Council of the Humanities

Christophe F.L. Litwin, also Council of the Humanities

Murielle M. Perrier

Sara Teardo

Associated Faculty

Bridget Alsdorf, Art and Archeology

David A. Bell, History

Christine M. Boyer, Architecture

Esther da Costa Meyer, Art and Archeology

Jeffrey Dolven, English

Anthony T. Grafton, History

Wendy Heller, Music

Daniel Heller-Roazen, Comparative Literature

Thomas Y. Levin, German

Nino Luraghi, Classics

Pedro Meira Monteiro, Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Cultures

Philip G. Nord, History

Ezra N. Suleiman, Politics


The Department of French and Italian offers a liberal arts major designed to give students a thorough grounding in the language, literature, and culture of one or more of the subjects it teaches, seen as independent disciplines or in combination with other languages and cognate subjects. Its courses provide practical instruction in the French and Italian languages; an introduction to the history and development of those languages, including the study of Romance philology, as well as the broader range of Romance literatures and cultures in the Middle Ages; the literatures and cultures of France and Italy in all periods, from medieval to contemporary; and literature in French written in other parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas.

Students are encouraged to complement their courses in French and/or Italian with related and varied courses in other literatures, art history, history, political science, sociology, comparative literature, or other humanities subjects.

In addition to serving as the focus for an education in liberal arts, the French and Italian concentrations can be the basis for graduate or professional study. In mostly small classes and seminars, allowing extensive student/teacher interaction, students become equipped to take up careers in many walks of life, including journalism, business, law, government service, and international affairs. For non-majors, the department offers a rich set of language courses, from introductory to very advanced. It also offers a popular certificate program, allowing the study of French and Italian to be combined with concentration in history, architecture, English, politics, or any other subject available at Princeton.

Information and Departmental Plan of Study

The French Language Program. An Advanced Placement score of 5 or an SAT Subject Test score of at least 760 is required to satisfy the A.B. foreign language requirement at entrance, or for admission to a 200-level course.

Students who wish to continue a language begun in secondary school must have their proficiency measured either by a College Board score or by a placement test administered prior to course registration. Placement will depend on previous training and proficiency.

The normal program for beginners seeking a basic mastery of French is the sequence 101, 102, 107, which satisfies the University's language requirement. Normally students electing a beginner's course in any language will receive credit only if two terms are completed.

Students showing particular gifts in 101 may be admitted to the accelerated, double-credit spring course, 102-7, which also satisfies the University's language requirement.

Students with advanced placement in French will be placed in either 103 or 105 and will proceed to either 107 or 108 to satisfy the University language requirement. They also may be placed directly into 108. Students who have successfully completed 107 cannot take 108.

Course credit in 107 or 108 is also available through approved summer courses abroad (see Study and Work Abroad below). Funding may be available for selected and committed students. Students must pass a placement test upon their return to satisfy the language requirement.

The Italian Language Program. An Advanced Placement score of 5 or an SAT Subject Test score of at least 760 is required to satisfy the A.B. foreign language requirement at entrance, or for admission to a 200-level course.

Students who wish to continue a language begun in secondary school must have their proficiency measured either by a College Board score or by a placement test administered prior to course registration. Placement will depend on previous training and proficiency.

The normal program for beginners seeking a basic mastery of Italian is the sequence 101, 102, 107, which satisfies the University's language requirement. Normally students electing a beginner's course in any language will receive credit only if two terms are completed.

Students showing particular gifts in 101 may be admitted to the accelerated, double-credit spring course, 102-7, which also satisfies the University's language requirement.

Students with advanced placement in Italian will be placed in 107 to fulfill the University language requirement.

Course credit in 107 is also available through approved summer courses abroad (see Study and Work Abroad below). Funding may be available for selected and committed students. Students must pass a placement test upon their return to satisfy the language requirement.

All questions concerning placement and summer study are dealt with by the language coordinator in the relevant program.

Advanced Placement

For information about advanced placement, see the French and Italian language programs described above.

Prerequisites

The normal requirement for admission to the department is successful completion of at least one, preferably two, 200-level courses, including one of the following: FRE 221, 222, or 224; ITA 208, 209, or 220. Students who have not satisfied this prerequisite by the end of sophomore year should consult with the departmental representative. Concentrators who plan to participate in one of the certificate programs, such as African studies, African American studies, European cultural studies, Latin American studies, or the study of women and gender, must also satisfy the prerequisites of that program.

Early Concentration

Qualified students are encouraged to begin departmental concentration in the sophomore year. This has the advantage of a longer period for independent work and preparation of the senior thesis; it also makes a semester or junior year abroad more feasible.

Program of Study

All students are expected to include one advanced language course (FRE 207, 215, 307, 407; ITA 207, 307) in their subject(s) of concentration. Any two of the following courses can count as one course credit for departmental requirement: FRE 221, 222, 224; ITA 208, 209, 221, 222.

Courses taught in the department place varying emphases on language, literary history and interpretation, aesthetics and literary theory, and cultural and intellectual history. Students are therefore able to pursue courses of study that are consistent with their own interests. To complement this individualized approach to students' plans of study, the department offers four distinct tracks within the concentration in French and/or Italian:

1. Concentration in one language, literature, and culture: Students concentrate in French or Italian. Eight upper-division courses are counted toward concentration. At least five of these must be in the language and subject of concentration. Up to three of the eight may be cognate courses approved by the departmental representative and drawn from other sections of the department or from other humanities and social science subjects.

2. Concentration in two languages, literatures, and cultures: Students intending to combine work in two languages, civilizations, and cultures normally take a minimum of eight upper-division courses: five in one of the languages and three in the other relevant language. The first language of concentration must be either French or Italian.

3. Concentration in literature and any other related field approved by the departmental representative: Students intending to combine work in French or Italian and another related field normally take a minimum of eight upper-division courses: five in the relevant language and literature and three in the other field. For example, students specializing in French or Italian and history, politics, or art and archaeology, might take appropriate courses in those departments, such as HIS 350, 351 or HIS 345, 365; POL 372, 381, or 391; or ART 319, 320, or 333.

4. Concentration in language, literature, and the creative arts: This track is designed for students wishing to combine work in French or Italian and a creative art, such as theater, music, dance, painting, film, and creative writing. Upon approval by the departmental representative, the student normally would take a minimum of eight upper-division courses: five in the relevant language and literature and three in the field related to the art of interest. In some cases, an original work of creation (e.g., paintings, prose, or poetry), or of performance (e.g., theater), may substitute for the senior thesis. In these cases, students will be required also to submit a substantial critical work of at least 6,000 but no more than 10,000 words (25-35 pages), in which they will position and discuss their creative work in relation to the historical and cultural context of the language in question.

Independent Work

Junior Papers. At the time of entering the department, and in all cases no later than spring of the sophomore year, students should discuss their likely area of interest with the departmental representative in order to make the attribution of junior advisers as appropriate as possible. The adviser will be assigned at the beginning of the junior year. Students should get in touch with their junior adviser and plan regular meetings.

The first junior paper, written in the fall semester, should be about 4,000 words. The second junior paper, written in the spring semester, should be between 5,000 and 8,000 words. Both junior papers may be written in English, in which case a three-page summary in the relevant language must be provided. If the paper is written in the relevant language, a three-page summary in English is required.

Students following tracks 2 or 4 may write one junior paper in one of their two subjects of concentration, and one in the other.

Senior Thesis. As the culmination of their independent work, senior students write a thesis on an approved topic. Late in their junior year, students will discuss possible areas of interest with the departmental representative. Topics chosen in the past have ranged across the field of French and Italian studies, from linguistic problems and literary techniques to close textual analysis to thematic and ideological study. Students primarily interested in culture and civilization have written on art, on political and economic issues, on education, and on a variety of social questions. For students following tracks 2, 3, and 4, joint supervision may be arranged. The senior thesis is a major commitment of a student's time and energy, and the most important yardstick for choosing a topic is willingness to spend many hours immersed in that particular set of texts or problems.

Concentrators in French and/or Italian who are also earning certificates should consult with their advisers about selecting a suitable thesis topic. The senior thesis may be written in English, in which case a three-page summary in the relevant language must be provided. If the thesis is written in the relevant language, a three-page summary in English is required.

Resources are available to assist students with the costs of senior thesis research, including, when appropriate, foreign travel.

Senior theses should not be more than 20,000 words, nor should they fall below 15,000 words.

Senior Departmental Examination

The examination, taken in May of the senior year, is designed to test aspects of the student's entire program of study in the department. A list of required and recommended readings is provided for each of the languages and literatures taught in the department, and guides students in preparing for the written examination. The format of the examination is as follows:

1. Written Component (three hours) in class, including: (a) A sight translation. This exercise will consist of the translation of a short prose text (500 words or less) from French or Italian into English. The resulting translation should reflect the linguistic command and stylistic sophistication expected from a reasonably proficient speaker of French or Italian. For concentrators following Track 2, and combining French and Italian, the original text will be given in the dominant language. (b) An essay written in the language of specialization. Students will choose one topic out of three culture/literature questions. Topics will be based on the reading lists and course offerings.

2. Oral Presentation (30 minutes). A brief (10-15 minutes) oral presentation, in the language of concentration (French or Italian), followed by a discussion. The content of the presentation will be determined and prepared by the student in concert with his/her adviser, and may reflect any aspect of the student's own general intellectual and academic experience in the department. It may therefore stem from the senior thesis, but also largely refer to the overall course of study achieved in the subject of concentration. The examining committee will be constituted by at least two permanent faculty of each section.

Note: In order to better prepare for the comprehensive examination, students are strongly encouraged to include either FRE 307 or ITA 307 in their departmental course work. To that effect the department annually offers FRE 399, the Senior Seminar in French.

Study and Work Abroad

The department strongly encourages its concentrators and certificate students to spend as much time as they can in any country, including those in Africa, where the language(s) they study is (are) widely spoken. There are several ways of doing this within the four-year undergraduate degree: by study abroad for one or two semesters; by summer study abroad; or by obtaining summer work or an internship abroad.

Junior Semester/Junior Year Abroad. Students planning to spend semester or their whole junior year abroad should seek advice from the departmental representative and from relevant faculty in choosing a suitable program of study. Further assistance is available from the Office of International Programs. Departmental and University approval is required.

Grades awarded by foreign institutions for courses that are recognized in lieu of Princeton courses are not included in the computation of departmental honors.

Students studying abroad for one or two semesters are not exempted from independent work requirements. The responsibility for consulting with advisers, as well as for meeting all normal deadlines, lies with the student.

An approved one-semester course of study abroad normally counts for two departmental course credits. Students must complete the program abroad to the standard required by the foreign institution.

Summer Language Study. The department has a special relationship with the Institut International de Langue IS Aix-en-Provence, which offers intensive four-week language courses in French at various levels. The department has established a similar relationship with the University of Macerata, offering intensive language courses in Italian. The department is able to provide financial support to a small number of students in each of these courses each year.

It also maintains ties with the Bryn Mawr College summer programs held in Avignon, in French language, literature, art, and civilization (including social, political, and economic institutions). See the departmental representative if you are interested in one of these programs.

Summer Work Abroad. Princeton-in-France is a long-established summer work program that selects students who qualify linguistically to take on the responsibilities of a paying summer job or internship in France. Travel grants and salary supplements are available to students who receive financial aid. Announcements will be made early in the fall concerning a November information meeting about the program. The application deadline is early December.

Information about other placements and internships abroad may also be obtained from the director of international internships in the Office of International Programs.

Certificate in Language and Culture

Admission. The program is open to undergraduates in all departments. Students should consult the departmental representative by the beginning of the junior year. Ordinarily, students concentrating in language and literature departments, including comparative literature, will be eligible for the certificate in language and culture provided that: (a) the linguistic base for the language and culture certificate is different from the linguistic base of the concentration; and (b) the work required for the language and culture certificate does not duplicate the requirements of the major. Students pursuing area studies certificates may earn the certificate in language and culture provided that: (a) the courses they elect to satisfy the requirements of the area studies program are different from those they elect to satisfy the requirements of the language and culture certificate program; and (b) they submit a piece of independent work in addition to the independent work that satisfies the requirements of the area studies program.

Application forms are available from the departmental office located in 303 East Pyne. A separate application must be completed for each language in which a certificate will be pursued.

Plan of Study. The Certificate in Language and Culture is available in French and Italian and involves satisfactory completion of the following course requirements:

1. Four departmental courses in the relevant language, linguistics, literature, or culture, excluding courses that do not have a language prerequisite. At least three of these courses must be at the 300 level (or higher). At the 200 level, the course must be chosen from among the following eligible courses: FRE 211, 215, 221, 222, 224; ITA 208, 209, 220. Courses below these levels are not eligible. At the discretion of the departmental representative, a student may substitute one course satisfactorily completed in a departmentally approved program of study abroad, or one course taken in summer. A 200-level course is a prerequisite for taking 300-level courses in French or Italian.

2. Independent Work. This requirement can be satisfied in one of several ways: (a) by a substantial paper on a topic agreed upon with the student's appointed adviser; (b) by a substantial paper growing out of one of the courses taken to fulfill the certificate requirement (this paper is in addition to the work required in the course; the subject and scope of this paper will be agreed upon with the student's appointed adviser); or (c) with the agreement of the student's home department, a student may submit a junior paper or a senior thesis that satisfies the requirements of both the home department and the Department of French and Italian. A junior paper or senior thesis of this sort must be based in substantial part on foreign language sources and display effective competence in utilizing the relevant language as an indispensable research tool.

Papers of types (a) and (b) are approximately 4,000 to 5,000 words in length. Students are urged to write them in the appropriate foreign language. Alternatively, they may submit the independent work in English together with a 700- to 1,000-word summary in the foreign language. Students submitting a junior paper or a senior thesis in lieu of independent work [in line with option (c) above] must also submit the summary in the foreign language.


Courses


FRE 101 Beginner's French I   Fall

An audio-visual approach is used to develop the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing French in a cultural context. The main emphasis is on acquiring competence through aural/oral practice. Classroom activities include videos, comprehension and grammar exercises, conversation, and skits. Five classes; laboratory required. No credit is given for 101 unless followed by 102. Staff

FRE 102 Beginner's French II   Spring

A continuation of 101. The audio-visual approach promotes proficiency through listening and speaking French. Growing emphasis on reading and writing. Classroom activities include videos, discussions, small group work, and comprehension and grammar exercises. A midterm interview with instructor, and a final oral presentation. Five classes; laboratory required. Prerequisite: 101. Students who complete 102 normally place into 107. Staff

FRE 103 Intensive Beginner's and Intermediate French   Fall, Spring

An intensive course that covers 101 and 102 in one semester. Designed for students who have previously studied French but whose preparation is either too remote or insufficient for direct placement in intermediate French. An audio-visual approach is used to develop concurrently the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing French in a cultural context. Classroom activities include videos, discussions, small group work, comprehension and grammar exercises, and conversation. Five classes; laboratory required. Normally followed by 107. Staff

FRE 105 Intermediate French   Fall

Designed for students who have a satisfactory foundation in French but are not yet qualified for 108. Grammar review, composition, reading of standard French texts, and practice in listening and speaking. Three classes, laboratory as deemed necessary. Prerequisites: two to five years of secondary school French and a satisfactory score on the placement test. Normally followed by 108. C. Sagnier

FRE 107 Intermediate/Advanced French   Fall, Spring

A continuation of 102. Develops an active command of spoken and written French through class discussion and compositions. Continued presentation and review of grammar. Acquisition of reading skills through short readings. Five classes. Normally open only to students who have successfully completed 102 or 103. Staff

FRE 108 Advanced French   Fall, Spring

An intensive course aimed at developing an active command of the language. Syllabus includes the reading of literary texts, and class exercises emphasize comprehension and oral proficiency. Three classes. Prerequisite: 105 or satisfactory score on placement test. M. Perrier

FRE 207 Studies in French Language and Style   Fall, Spring

Intensive practical training in oral and written French through a study of French culture and society. Strong emphasis on discussion. Film series. Recommended as preparation for advanced courses in French literature and civilization. Three classes. Prerequisite: 107 or 108. Staff

FRE 207F Accelerated Summer Study in France  

A four-week summer intensive language course, equivalent to 207, taught in France, at the IS Aix-en-Provence, with additional instruction from resident Princeton faculty. Emphasis on French-language writing and speaking skills, with supplemental work in literature. Admission by application and interview. Prerequisite: 107, 102-7, or 108, or equivalent. Five four-hour classes, two preceptorials. C. Sagnier

FRE 211 French Theater Workshop (also THR 211)   Fall, Spring LA

An intensive practical training in French through an introduction to acting techniques and an exploration of the French dramatic canon. Emphasis is placed on improving students' oral skills through pronunciation and diction exercises and the performance of scenes from French playwrights. Course culminates in the performance of students' work. Prerequisite: FRE 107, 108, or the equivalent. FRE 207 recommended as a co-requisite. Two 90-minute classes. F. Masse

FRE 215 France Today: Culture, Politics, and Society   Spring

Intensive language practice and readings from French textbooks for students of economics and politics, focusing on the concepts and vocabulary of the modern international economy. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French, or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. C. Sagnier

FRE 221 The Rise of France: French Literature, Culture, and Society from the Beginnings to 1789   Fall LA

A study of the evolution of French literature, culture, and society from the beginnings to the Revolution: the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, Neo-Classicism, and the Enlightenment. The distinguishing cultural and social ideals of these four periods will be defined and analyzed, and representative cultural productions (the cathedrals, the châteaux of the Loire, Versailles, etc.) will be discussed in context. A few major literary texts will constitute primary readings. Prerequisites: 107, 108, or equivalent. 207 recommended as a corequisite. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

FRE 222 The Making of Modern France: French Literature, Culture, and Society from 1789 to the Present   Spring LA

A historical survey of the main features of French society, literature, and culture from the period of the French Revolution (1789-99) to the present. Weekly lectures cover political, intellectual, and cultural history, while precepts and readings focus on representative literary texts (drama, lyric poetry, and fiction) as well as examples of French art and film. Prerequisites: 107, 108, or equivalent. 207 recommended as a corequisite. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

FRE 224 French Literature: Approaches to the Language of Literary Texts   Fall, Spring LA

The application of various critical methods to the interpretation of texts (short fiction, drama, and poetry) from all periods. Topics will include themes, narrative and rhetorical strategies, authorial voice, implicit reader, and genre theory. Two 90-minute classes. Prerequisite: 107, 108 or equivalent. 207 recommended as a corequisite. A. Benhaïm

FRE 307 Advanced French Language and Style   Fall, Spring LA

Intensive practice of written and spoken French through close analysis of grammatical and syntactic structures, literary translation, and the stylistic study of representative literary works from the Middle Ages to the present. Prerequisite: a 200-level French course or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

FRE 313 Contemporary French Civilization   Fall LA

The evolution of 20th-century French institutions and their relationship to intellectual and social movements since World War I. New directions taken by French thought will be stressed through the study of individuals, selected from representative fields, whose influence led to the restructuring of contemporary French civilization. Two 90-minute classes. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. Staff

FRE 317 Visions of Paris   Spring LA

A study of Paris as urban space, object of representation, and part of French cultural identity. Topics include Paris in the Ancien Régime; Revolutionary and Napoleonic Paris; the transformation of Paris in the 19th century; Paris as a site of European art and literature; modern and multicultural Paris in the 1900s; and challenges in the new millennium. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. One 90-minute lecture, one 90-minute preceptorial. A. Benhaïm

FRE 321 The Invention of Literature and Culture in France (also GSS 330)   Fall, Spring LA

The birth of literature in the Middle Ages in France is accompanied by remarkable inventiveness. From the glamour of troubadour love songs to the somber passion of heroic poetry, from the refinements of chivalric romance to the bawdy of (fabliaux), from intricate lyric forms to complex prose romances, medieval writers not only practiced but constantly re-created the emergent concept of "literature," elaborating, as they did so, such legendary tales as those of Roland, Tristan, Lancelot, and the grail. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. One 90-minute lecture, one 90-minute preceptorial. Staff

FRE 326 Versailles: Court and Culture from Louis XIV to Marie-Antoinette (see ECS 326)

FRE 327 Tales of Hospitality: France, North Africa, and the Mediterranean (also COM 357)   Fall EM

An exploration of the concept of hospitality, individual and collective, in French, Mediterranean, and Maghrebi (i.e., North African: Arab, Berber, and Jewish) cultures. Draws on materials from literature and the arts, politics and law, philosophy and religion. Issues studied include immigration, citizenship, alienation, and, more generally, the meaning of welcoming a stranger. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. One 90-minute lecture, one 90-minute preceptorial. A. Benhaïm

FRE 330 Landmarks of French Culture and History (also AFS 330/AAS 326)   Spring LA

An interdisciplinary study of places, periods, persons, or questions that helped define French cultural identity, from its origins to the present. Areas of study could include the Hundred Years' War; Versailles and the culmination of the French monarchy; the French Revolution; Napoleon and the New Empire; the Belle Epoque; the Figure of the Intellectual from Zola to B.-H. Lévy; the sociocultural revolution of May 1968; colonization, its discontents, and its aftermaths; France in the age of globalization; Franco-American relations; etc. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. A. Benhaïm

FRE 331 French Renaissance Literature and Culture   Fall LA

Readings from the works of Rabelais, the Pléiade poets, Marguerite de Navarre, Montaigne, and d'Aubigné in the light of contemporary artistic, political, and cultural preoccupations. Themes will include the rhetoric of love, education, humanism, recurrent mythologies, and utopias. Two 90-minute classes. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. Staff

FRE 332 Topics in the French Middle Ages and Renaissance (also MED 333)   Spring LA

The continuities of French culture and its preeminence over much of Europe from its 11th-century beginnings through the 16th century. Emphasis on medieval and Renaissance literary works (in modernized versions) in their relationship to topics such as "love'' (fin'amor), saintliness, national identity, humanism, and so on. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. One 90-minute lecture, one 90-minute preceptorial. Staff

FRE 341 The Classical Age   Fall LA

An introduction to the literature and culture of the 17th century, known in France as le grand siècle. Readings range from the dramatic masterpieces of Corneille, Molière, and Racine to La Fontaine's Fables and Perrault's Contes, to be studied in relationship to their historical context. Formal and thematic analysis with an emphasis on moral, social, and political tensions and conflicts. Two 90-minute classes. Prerequisite: a 200-level French course or instructor's permission. V. Schröder

FRE 347 Jewish Identities in France since 1945 (also JDS 367)   LA

France has the largest Jewish community in Europe as well as a strong tradition of cultural assimilation. This course explores literary and film works that represent or refract the experience of Jews in France in the last 60 years. Problems that arise include the diversity in the cultural backgrounds of the French Jewish community, the conflict between "Jewish literature" and French republican ideology, and the role of Holocaust narratives in literary and cultural production. Prerequisite: a 200-level French course or instructor's permission. One 90-minute lecture, one 90-minute preceptorial. D. Bellos

FRE 351 The Enlightenment in France (also CHV 351)   Spring LA

Examines the challenge to the political and cultural authority of the ancien régime from new ideas, values, and rhetorics. The emphasis may fall on the work of an individual writer or group of writers, a genre or subgenre (the epistolary novel, the popular scientific essay), or the role of literary institutions (journalism, salons, censorship). Two 90-minute classes. Prerequisite: a 200-level French course or instructor's permission. N. Lee

FRE 352 Topics in 17th- and 18th-Century French Literature (also GSS 352)   Spring LA

Topics will range from single authors and major texts (for example, the Encyclopedie) to literary genres and questions of culture (preciosite, comedy and/or tragedy, historiography, epistolary writing, etc.). Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. Staff

FRE 353 The Ancient Regime: Society and Culture in France, 1624-1789   Fall, Spring LA

The age of French political and cultural hegemony is characterized by the construction of the modern state, the imposition of strict social discipline, and the rationalization of large areas of human behavior. These processes will be studied in political and philosophical writings, plays, novels, poems, and memoirs. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. N. Lee

FRE 355 Representations of History   HA

This course examines three crucial moments in French history and culture: the rise to power of Louis XIV, the French Revolution, and the Vichy regime under German occupation. The class will discuss the representation of these forms of government through archival documents, historical accounts, memoirs, films, and fiction. Perequisite: 200-level French course, or permission of instructor. One 90-minute lecture, one preceptorial. M. Huet

FRE 357 Literature, Culture, and Politics (also TRA 357)   Fall, Spring LA

Literary texts represent and often question relations of power and cultural norms, but as a form of knowledge, literature is itself implicated in power relations. Topics range from the work of a writer or group of writers who composed both fiction and political theory or commentary to the function of censorship and of literary trials. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. One 90-minute lecture, one 90-minute preceptorial. G. Blix

FRE 361 French Romanticism   LA

A thematic, artistic, and cultural study of the vision and sensibility shaped by the French Revolution and the new bourgeois-industrial society. The course in alternate years will stress poetry and theater or prose fiction, as well as the history of ideas. Close analysis of texts is combined with a broader perspective. Two 90-minute classes. Prerequisite: a 200-level French course or instructor's permission. E. Rentzou

FRE 362 The 19th-Century French Novel   Spring LA

Major literary and cultural themes in the tradition of the French novel. Special attention to fictional techniques and innovations in the works of Stendhal, Balzac, Flaubert, and Zola. Emphasis on literary form in relation to intellectual, artistic, and historical background. One 90-minute lecture, one 90-minute preceptorial. Prerequisite: a 200-level French course or instructor's permission. Alternates with 363. G. Blix

FRE 363 The 20th-Century French Novel   Fall LA

A study of major themes, forms, and techniques in modern fiction. Close analysis of works by Proust, Gide, Mauriac, Malraux, Céline, Sartre, and Camus. The nouveau roman and experiments in contemporary fiction will be examined as well as the cultural, moral, and political problems of our times. One 90-minute lecture, one 90-minute preceptorial. Prerequisite: a 200-level French course or instructor's permission. Alternates with 362. D. Bellos

FRE 364 Modern French Poetry   Fall, Spring LA

Postromantic poetry, including works by Baudelaire, the symbolists (Verlaine, Rimbaud, Mallarmé), such modernists as Valéry, Apollinaire, and the surrealists. Special emphasis is placed on close textual analysis, as well as on symbolist, surrealist, and contemporary poetics. Two 90-minute seminars. Prerequisite: a 200-level French course or instructor's permission. Staff

FRE 365 French Theater   Fall LA

Plays by Molière, Corneille, Racine, Beaumarchais, Marivaux, Hugo, Feydeau, Jarry, Claudel, Giraudoux, Anouilh, Sartre, Genet, Ionesco, and Beckett, along with consideration of mise en scène, techniques of acting, theories of Artaud, and evolution of such traditions as théâtre de moeurs, boulevard comedy, and theater of the absurd. Two 90-minute classes. Prerequisite: a 200-level French course or instructor's permission. V. Schröder

FRE 366 Modern French Fiction   Spring LA

Innovations in the theory and practice of French narrative from the 1850s to the present, considered in cultural, historical, and intellectual context. Works by Flaubert, Proust, Gide, Céline, Camus, Sarraute, Yourcenar, and others will be read in English translation. Prerequisite: a 200-level literature course or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. T. Trezise

FRE 367 Topics in 19th- and 20th-Century French Literature and Culture (also GSS 305)   Spring LA

Topics will range from the oeuvre and context of a single author (for example, Balzac, Baudelaire, or Beckett) to specific cultural and literary problems (modernism and the avant-garde, history as literature, women's writing). Prerequisite: a 200-level French course or instructor's permission. Staff

FRE 371 World Literatures in French   Fall, Spring LA

An introduction to francophone societies and cultures in Europe, Africa, and America. Each year special attention will be paid to one of these (for example, the Caribbean, the Maghreb). Readings will include both literary works and works of historical and social analysis. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute seminars. A. Benhaïm

FRE 391 Topics in French Cinema (also VIS 347)   Spring LA

Major movements and directors in French and French-language cinema. Topics may include: early history of the cinematographe; the Golden Age of French film; Renoir, Bresson, Tati; the "New-Wave"; French women directors of the 1980s; adaptation of literary works. T. Trezise

FRE 401 Topics in French Literature and Culture   Fall, Spring LA

Issues pertaining to French literature and/or culture that transcend chronological boundaries. The specific content of the course will change each time it is offered. Possible topics include: French Autobiographical Writings, The Idea of Nationhood in France, The French Intellectual, Satire and Humor in France. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. One three-hour seminar. Staff

FRE 407 Prose Translation   Fall, Spring LA

History, theory, and practice of literary translation. One three-hour seminar. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in French or instructor's permission. D. Bellos

FRE 410 Introduction to French Literary Theory   LA

Combines a general introduction to literary theory with the in-depth study of a small number of representative original texts. The first element will be taught via a survey of the field and the second via the focused study of works on a central theme, such as "melancholy and spectrality" or "others and alterity," using authors such as Levinas, Derrida, and Kristeva. Prerequisite: 200-level French course or permission of instructor. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff

FRE 1027 Intensive Intermediate and Advanced French   Spring

An intensive double-credit course designed to help students develop an active command of the language. Focus will be on reading and listening comprehension, oral proficiency, grammatical accuracy, and the development of reading and writing skills. A solid grammatical basis and awareness of the idiomatic usage of the language will be emphasized. Students will be introduced to various Francophone cultures through readings, videos, and films. Prerequisite: 101 and permission of instructor. Five 90-minute classes. Staff

ITA 101 Beginner's Italian I   Fall

An oral-aural method is used to develop concurrently the skills of speaking, understanding, reading, and writing Italian. The main emphasis is on basic grammatical principles and vocabulary. A substantial portion of the basic grammar is covered. Five classes, laboratory. No credit is given for ITA 101 unless followed by ITA 102. F. Weinapple

ITA 102 Beginner's Italian II   Spring

A continuation of 101. The remainder of the basic grammar is covered. A number of texts from a reader will be studied. Growing emphasis on reading and writing, but much attention will continue to be given to oral Italian. Five classes, laboratory. Prepares for 107. F. Weinapple

ITA 107 Advanced Italian   Fall

Further development of general proficiency and extensive reading of standard texts. Five classes. Prerequisite: 102 or instructor's permission. Staff

ITA 207 Studies in Italian Language and Style   Fall

Intensive practice in spoken and written Italian with emphasis on vocabulary acquisition and advanced syntactical structures. Close readings and translations of contemporary Italian prose. Discussions are based on newspaper and magazine articles, television, and films. Emphasis on an audio-video approach to Italian language and culture. Prerequisite: 107 or instructor's permission. Three classes. G. Marrone-Puglia

ITA 207I Accelerated Summer Study in Italy  

A four-week summer intensive language course, equivalent to 207, taught at the University of Macerata, Italy, with additional instruction from resident Princeton faculty. Emphasis on Italian-language writing and speaking skills, with supplemental work in literature. Admission by application and interview. Prerequisite: 107 or 102-7, or equivalent. Five four-hour classes per week, plus activities and trips. P. Frassica, F. Weinapple

ITA 208 Introduction to Italy Today   Spring

Designed to develop students' ability to communicate effectively in present-day Italy. Exploration of key moments in contemporary Italy, focusing on concepts and the vocabulary of modern politics and the economy. Emphasizes Italian social, political, and economic institutions, through the analysis of cultural and social differences between Italians and Americans in such everyday concerns as money, work, and leisure. Two 90-minute classes. Prerequisite: 107 or instructor's permission. Staff

ITA 220 Italian Civilization Through the Centuries   Fall LA

This course is designed to give an overview of pivotal moments in Italian culture, such as the relationship between Church and Empire in the Middle Ages, Machiavelli's political theory during the Renaissance, and the rise and fall of Fascism in the 20th century. Through the examination of the most relevant intellectual, historic and artistic movements and their main geographical venues, students will be able to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the development of Italian history and civilization. Staff

ITA 302 Topics in Medieval Italian Literature and Culture (also MED 302)   Spring LA

Topics will range from the work of a single author (such as Boccaccio) and certain major texts to specific cultural, literary, and poetic problems (such as the medieval comune). Major figures include Giacomo da Lentini, Guido Guinizelli, Guido Cavalcanti, Petrarch, and Boccaccio. Two 90-minute seminars. Alternates with 306. Prerequisite: a 200-level Italian course or instructor's permission. S. Marchesi

ITA 303 Dante's Inferno (also MED 303)   Fall, Spring LA

Intensive study of the Inferno, with major attention paid to poetic elements such as structure, allegory, narrative technique, and relation to earlier literature, principally the Latin classics. Two 90-minute classes, one preceptorial. S. Marchesi

ITA 304 Dante's "Purgatorio" and "Paradiso" (also MED 304)   Spring LA

This course is a continuation of 303 and provides an occasion for close collaborative study of the final "cantiche" of the "Commedia". Half the semester will be devoted to the "Purgatorio," half to the "Paradiso". S. Marchesi

ITA 306 The Italian Renaissance: Literature and Society   Spring LA

Readings from the works of Ariosto, Machiavelli, Guicciardini, Tasso, Della Casa, Michelangelo, and Bembo, interpreted in light of artistic and cultural preoccupations of the time. Topics include: Tasso and the Counter-Reformation sensibility, the Renaissance epic, history and the writing of history. One three-hour seminar. Alternates with 302. Prerequisite: a 200-level Italian course or instructor's permission. P. Frassica

ITA 307 Advanced Language and Style   Fall LA

Intensive practice of written and spoken Italian through close analysis of grammatical and syntactic structures, literary translation, and the stylistic study of representative literary works from the Middle Ages to the present. Focus on rhetorical structures and on Italian linguistic change. Prerequisite: a 200-level course in Italian or instructor's permission. Two 90-minute classes. F. Weinapple

ITA 308 Topics in 20th-Century Italian Literature   Fall LA

Topics will range from the study of a single author (such as Pirandello, Montale, Pavese, D'Annunzio) to the investigation of specific literary and poetic problems. One three-hour seminar. Prerequisite: a 200-level Italian course or instructor's permission. P. Frassica

ITA 309 Topics in Contemporary Italian Civilization   Fall LA

The evolution of Italian contemporary civilization through the study of historical, sociopolitical, and cultural topics. The approach will be interdisciplinary; each year a different topic will be selected and studied as portrayed in representative samples of slides, films, and pertinent reading material. One three-hour seminar. Prerequisite: a 200-level Italian course or instructor's permission. Offered in alternate years. P. Frassica

ITA 310 Topics in Modern Italian Cinema (also VIS 443)   Spring LA

An introduction to Italian cinema from 1945 to the present. Through an interdisciplinary approach, the course will focus on sociopolitical and cultural issues as well as on basic concepts of film style and technique. Specific topics will change from year to year, and prerequisites will vary. One three-hour seminar, one film showing. G. Marrone-Puglia

ITA 311 Topics in 19th-Century Italian Literature   Fall LA

Topics will range from the study of a single author (such as Leopardi, Manzoni, Verga) to the thematic, artistic, and cultural analysis of either a genre or a literary movement (such as Romanticism, Verismo). One three-hour seminar. Prerequisite: a 200-level Italian course or instructor's permission. G. Marrone-Puglia

ITA 312 Fascism in Italian Cinema (also VIS 445)   Spring LA

A study of fascist ideology through selected films from World War II to the present. Topics include: the concept of fascist normality; racial laws; the role of women; and the Resistance and the intellectual left. Films include: Bertolucci's The Conformist, Fellini's Amarcord, Rossellini's Open City, and Benigni's Life is Beautiful. The approach is interdisciplinary and combines the analysis of sociohistorical themes with a cinematic reading of the films. One lecture, one two-hour preceptorial, one film screening. G. Marrone-Puglia

ITA 313 Marxism in Italian Cinema (also VIS 446)   Spring LA

A study of the influence of Marxist ideology on major Italian directors from the Cold War to the present. Representative films include: Bertolucci's The Last Emperor, Visconti's The Leopard, Pasolini's Teorema, Wertmuller's Seven Beauties, Pontecorvo's The Battle of Algiers. The approach will be interdisciplinary and will combine the analysis of historical and political themes with a cinematic reading of the films. One lecture, one two-hour preceptorial, one film screening. G. Marrone-Puglia

ITA 314 Risorgimento, Opera, Film   HA

Explores the way in which national identity was imagined and implemented within Italian history, culture, and cinema before, during, and after the period of Italian Unification in the 19th century. Examples are drawn from a wide range of historical, literary, artistic, and cultural media. Prerequisite: 200-level Italian course or instructor's permission. One three-hour seminar. G. Marrone-Puglia

ITA 319 The Literature of Gastronomy   LA

A study of Italian novels and poems in English translation, works of visual art, and films which thematize food as reality and metaphor, examining how eating functions within ideological and mythological structures of modern society. Topics include "Futurist" cuisine as an aesthetic experience and a prophetic vision, the theme of the "Last Supper," and the "interrupted dinner." Precepts in English and Italian. Prerequisite: instructor's permission to enroll in Italian precept. P. Frassica

ITA 401 Seminar in Italian Literature and Culture   Fall LA

Investigation of a major theme or author, with special attention to formal structures and intellectual context. Topics may range from the medieval chivalric tradition in such Renaissance masterpieces as Ariosto's Orlando Furioso to a reading of the writings of Primo Levi as these examine the issue of the annihilation of the personality. Prerequisite: a 300-level course in Italian or instructor's permission. One three-hour seminar. Staff

ITA 1027 Intensive Intermediate and Advanced Italian   Spring

An intensive, double-credit course designed to help students develop an active command of the language. Reading comprehension and oral proficiency as well as reading skills and grammatical accuracy will be developed through various activities. A solid grammatical basis and awareness of the idiomatic usage of the language will be emphasized. Students will be introduced to various cultural aspects of Italy through readings, cultural videos, and films. Prerequisite: 101 and permission of instructor. Five 90-minute classes. F. Weinapple