İsmet İnönü

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Mustafa İsmet İnönü (Turkish pronunciation: [isˈmet ˈinøny]; 24 September 1884 – 25 December 1973) was a Turkish Army General,[1] Prime Minister and the second President of Turkey. In 1938, Republican People's Party gave him the title of "Milli Şef" (National Chief).[2]


Family and early life

He was born in İzmir to a family originally from Malatya with Kurdish heritage.[3][4] His father was Hacı Reşid Bey, a member of the Ottoman bureaucracy, an examining magistrate born in Malatya, and his mother was Cevriye Hanım, daughter of Russo-Turkish War refugees from Bulgaria. Due to his father's assignments, the family moved from one city to another. Thus, İsmet İnönü completed his primary education in Sivas.

For more than half his life, İsmet İnönü was known as İsmet Pasha. He changed his name in the early 1930s when President Atatürk decreed that all his countrymen had to have surnames. İsmet Pasha decided to take as his surname "İnönü", from the Central Anatolian town where he commanded the Turkish forces in his greatest battles as a general, known as the First Battle of İnönü and Second Battle of İnönü, victories which played an important role in the Turkish War of Independence.

His son, Erdal İnönü, was a Wigner medal winner mathematical physicist and a former deputy prime minister of Turkey, as well as the former leader of the Social Democracy Party and the Social Democratic Populist Party, and the honorary leader of the Social Democratic People's Party.

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