1000

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Year 1000 (M) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It was also the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the 1st millennium of the Christian era ending on December 31st, but the first year of the 1000s decade. Popular culture sometimes holds the year 1000 as the first year of the 11th century and the 2nd millennium, due to a tendency to group the years according to decimal values, as if a year zero were counted. According to the Gregorian Calendar, this distinction falls to the year 1001, because the 1st century was retroactively said to start with year 1. Since the calendar has no year zero, its first millennium spans from years 1 to 1000, inclusive.

Overview

Arab and Muslim world

The Arab world and the Islamic World was experiencing a Golden Age around the year 1000 and continued to flourish under the Islamic Empires (including the Ummayad, Abbasid and Fatimid caliphates), which included what is now the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and Iberian Peninsula. By 1000, Muslim traders and explorers had established a global economy across the Old World leading to a Muslim Agricultural Revolution, establishing the Arab Empire as the world's leading extensive economic power.

The scientific achievements of the Arab civilization also reaches its zenith during this time, with the emergence of the first experimental scientists and the scientific method, which would form the basis of modern science.

Most of the leading scientists around the year 1000 were Muslim scientists, including Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, Avicenna, Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), Ibn Yunus, Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, Abu Nasr Mansur, Abu al-Wafa, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Al-Muqaddasi, Ali Ibn Isa, and al-Karaji (al-Karkhi), among others.

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