9th century

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The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian/Common Era.


West Africa

Southeastern Nigeria

Around the 9th century the Igbo people of what is now southeastern Nigeria, develop bronze casts of humans, animals and mythical creatures. These bronzes which were used as vessels, amulets, pendants and sacrificial tools, are among some of the earliest made bronzes ever found in Nigeria. Most items were part of a burial of a nobleman, stemming form the Nri-Igbo culture in the northern part of Igboland. Long distance trading was also discovered through the thousands of glass beads found at the sites. The discovery of the bronzes were made by locals from Igbo Ukwu and they mark the start of the development of the Nri Kingdom.

Western Europe


Britain experienced a great influx of Viking peoples in the 9th century as the Viking Age continued from the previous century. The kingdoms of the Heptarchy were gradually conquered and puppet rulers were given power over these. This invasion was achieved by a huge military force known as the Great Heathen Army which was supposedly led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan Ragnarsson and Guthrum. This Danish army first arrived in Britain in 865 in East Anglia. After taking the kingdom there the army proceeded to capture the city of York (Jorvik) and establish the kingdom of Jorvik. The Danes went on to subjugate the kingdom of Northumbria and take all but the western portion of Mercia. The remaining kingdom of Wessex was the only kingdom of the Heptarchy left. Alfred the Great managed to maintain his kingdom of Wessex and push back the Viking incursions, relieving the neighbouring kingdoms from the Danes following his famous victory over them at the Battle of Ethandun in 878. Alfred re-established Anglo-Saxon rule over the western half of Mercia and the Danelaw was established which separated Mercia into halves, the eastern half remaining under the control of the Danes.

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