Abacá, Musa textilis (English pronunciation: /ɑːbəˈkɑː/ ah-bə-KAH, from Spanish "abacá" for Musa textilis) is a species of banana native to the Philippines, grown widely as well in Borneo and Sumatra. It is sometimes referred to as "BacBac". The plant is of great economic importance, being harvested for its fibre, once generally called Manila hemp, extracted from the leaf sheath around the trunk. On average, the plant grows about 20 feet (6 metres) tall. The fibre was originally used for making twines and ropes as well as the Manila envelope; now most abacá is pulped and used in a variety of paper-like products including filter paper and banknotes. It is classified as a hard fibre, along with coir, henequin and sisal. The plant's name is sometimes spelled Abaká.
Abacá was first cultivated on a large scale in Sumatra in 1925 under the Dutch, who had observed its cultivation in the Philippines for cordage since the 1800s, followed up by plantings in Central America sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Commercial planting began in 1930 in British North Borneo; with the commencement of WWII, the supply from the Philippines was eliminated by the Japanese.
Other common names for abacá or Manila hemp include "Cebu hemp" and "Davao hemp".
The leaves grow from the trunk of the plant, and the bases of the leaves form a sheath (covering) around the trunk; there are approximately 25 of these, with 5 cm in diameter and from 12 to 25 leaves with overlapping petioles, covering the stalk to form a shrub, "false trunk" or pseudotrunk about 30 to 40 cm in diameter. They grow in succession, with the oldest growing from the bottom of the trunk and successively younger ones from the top. The sheaths contain the valuable fibre. The coarse fibres range from 5 to 11½ feet (1.5 to 3.5 metres) in length. They are composed primarily of the plant materials such as cellulose, lignin, and pectin. After the fibre has been separated, it is sold under the name Manila, the capital of the Philippines.
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