Abd ar-Rahman I

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Abd ar-Rahman I (Arabic: عبد الرحمن الداخل; known as "the Immigrant", also the "Falcon of Andalus" or "The Falcon of the Quraysh";[1] 731 – 788) was the founder of the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba (755),[2] a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba). The Muslims called the regions of Iberia under their dominion al-Andalus. Abd ar-Rahman's establishment of a government in al-Andalus represented a branching from the rest of the Islamic Empire, which had been usurped by the Abbasid overthrow of the Umayyads from Damascus in 750.

Variations of his name include Abd al-Rahman I and Abderraman I.



Flight from Damascus

Born near Damascus in Syria, Abd ar-Rahman, grandson of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, was the son of the Umayyad prince Mu'awiyah ibn Hisham and a Berber concubine.[3][4] He was twenty when his family, the ruling Umayyads, were overthrown by a popular revolt known as the Abbasid Revolution, occurring in the year 750. Abd ar-Rahman and a small selection of his family fled Damascus, where the center of Umayyad power had been; people moving with him include his brother Yahiya, his four-year old son Sulayman, and some of his sisters, as well as his former Greek slave (a freedman), Bedr. The family fled from Damascus to the River Euphrates. All along the way the path was filled with danger, as the Abbasids had dispatched horsemen across the region to try and find the Umayyad prince and kill him. The Abbasids were merciless with all Umayyads that they found. Abbasid agents closed in on Abd ar-Rahman and his family while they were hiding in a small village. He left his young son with his sisters and fled with Yahiya. Accounts vary, but Bedr likely initially escaped with Abd ar-Rahman. Some histories indicate that Bedr met up with Abd ar-Rahman at a later date.[5]

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