Acetic acid bacteria

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{acid, form, water}
{food, make, wine}
{specie, animal, plant}

Acetobacter
Acidicaldus
Acidiphilium
Acidisphaera
Acidocella
Acidomonas
Asaia
Belnapia
Craurococcus
Gluconacetobacter
Gluconobacter
Granulibacter
Kozakia
Leahibacter
Muricoccus
Neoasaia
Oleomonas
Paracraurococcus
Rhodopila
Roseococcus
Rubritepida
Saccharibacter
Stella
Swaminathania
Teichococcus
Zavarzinia

Acetic acid bacteria are bacteria that derive their energy from the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during fermentation. They are Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria.

The acetic acid bacteria are found in nature where ethanol is being formed as a result of yeast fermentation of sugars and plant carbohydrates. They can be isolated from the nectar of flowers and from damaged fruit. Other good sources are fresh apple cider and unpasteurized beer which has not been filter sterilized. In these liquids the acetic acid bacteria grow as a surface film due to their aerobic nature and active motility. Vinegar is produced when acetic acid bacteria act on alcoholic beverages such as wine.

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