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Adoptionism, sometimes called dynamic monarchianism, is a minority Christian belief that Jesus was born of Joseph and Mary in the normal way. Jesus was adopted as God's son (Son of God) at his baptism. By Jewish-Christian accounts,[1] Jesus was chosen because of his sinless devotion to the will of God. Early Jewish Christians understood Jesus as the Messiah and the Son of God in terms of the anointing at his baptism which some see as in line with the radical monotheism of 1st century Judaism. The Jewish-Christian Gospels make no mention of a supernatural birth. Rather, they detail his experience in the River Jordan.

Adoptionism was declared heresy at the end of the 2nd century, and was rejected by the First Council of Nicaea, which wrote the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity and identifies Jesus as eternally begotten of God. [2]

Some scholars see Adoptionist concepts in the Gospel of Mark and in the writings of the Apostle Paul. Mark has Jesus as the Son of God, occurring at the strategic points of 1:1 ("The beginning of the gospel about Jesus Christ, the Son of God", but not in all versions, see Mark 1) and 15:39 ("Surely this man was the Son of God!"), but the Virgin Birth of Jesus has not been developed.[3] [4]

By the time the Gospels of Luke and Matthew were written, Jesus is portrayed as being the Son of God from the time of birth, and finally the Gospel of John portrays the Son as existing "in the beginning". [5]


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