Afonso de Albuquerque

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Afonso de Albuquerque[p][n] (or archaically spelt as Aphonso d'Albuquerque and also spelt as Affonso, Alfonso, and Alphonso; Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈfõsu dɨ aɫbuˈkɛɾk]; 1453 – December 16, 1515) was a Portuguese fidalgo, or nobleman, a naval general officer whose military and administrative activities as second governor of Portuguese India conquered and established the Portuguese colonial empire in the Indian Ocean. He is generally considered a world conquest military genius, given his successful strategy: he attempted to close all the Indian ocean naval passages to the Atlantic, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and to the Pacific, transforming it into a Portuguese mare clausum established over the Turkish power and their Muslim and Hindu allies.[1] He was responsible for building numerous fortresses to defend key points that he was taking and established a net of diplomatic relations. Shortly before his death he was awarded viceroy and "Duke of Goa" by king Manuel I of Portugal, being the first Portuguese duke not from the royal family, and the first Portuguese title landed overseas. For some time he was known as The Tirribil, The Great, The Caesar of the East, Lion of the Seas and as The Portuguese Mars.


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