Al-Mansur, Almanzor or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (born: 95 AH; died: 158 AH (born: 714 AD; died: 775 AD); Arabic: ابو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور) was the second Abbasid Caliph from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD - 775 AD).
Al-Mansur was born at the home of the 'Abbasid family after their emigration from the Hejaz in 95 AH (714 AD). "His father, Muhammad, was reputedly a great-grandson of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, the youngest uncle of Mohammad; his mother was a Berber woman.". He reigned from Dhu al-Hijjah 136 AH until Dhu al-Hijjah 158 AH (754 AD–775 AD). In 762 he founded as new imperial residence and palace city Madinat as-Salam, which became the core of the Imperial capital Baghdad.
Al-Mansur was concerned with the solidity of his regime after the death of his brother, Abu'l `Abbas, who later become known as-Saffah (The Money Giver= Generous). In 755 he arranged the assassination of Abu Muslim. Abu Muslim was a loyal freed man from the eastern Iranian province of Khorasan who had led the Abbasid forces to victory over the Umayyads during the Third Islamic Civil War in 749-750. At the time of al-Mansur he was the subordinate, but undisputed ruler of Iran and Transoxiana. The assassination seems to have been made to preclude a power struggle in the empire. Though some findings suggest the Abu Muslim became incredulous and paranoid, thus assassination was necessary and arranged.
He deposed Isa bin Musa bin Muhammad bin Ali as his successor due to suspect of corruption and in his place appointed al-Mahdi as his successor and took public allegiance for him. Like his elder brother Saffah he wanted to unite the land so he get rid of all of his opposition. Al-Mansur crushed the uprising of Sanbad in the year 138 A.H., revolt of Astazsis in the year 151 A.H. and movement of al-Muqannah in the year 163 A.H. Al-Mansur many times imprisoned Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (A.S.) and martryed the Sixth Holy Imam (A.S.) by poisoning in the year 148 A.H. He killed a large number of Shi'ites (the followers of the Holy Ahlul Bayt (A.S.). .
Al-Mansur was so smart and intelligent who can memorize fast, and he died in the way to Mecca before the Hajj.
During his reign, literature and scholarly work in the Islamic world began to emerge in full force, supported by new Abbasid tolerances for Persians and other groups suppressed by the Umayyads. Although the Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik had adopted Persian court practices, it was not until al-Mansur's reign that Persian literature and scholarship were truly appreciated in the Islamic world. The emergence of Shu'ubiya among Persian scholars occurred during the reign of al-Mansur as a result of loosened censorship over Persian nationalism. Shu'ubiya was a literary movement among Persians expressing their belief that Persian art and culture was superior to that of the Arabs; the movement served to catalyze the emergence of Arab-Persian dialogues in the eighth century. Al-Mansur also founded the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.
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