Alejandro Toledo

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Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician He was President of Peru from 2001 to 2006. He was elected in 2001 defeating former President Alan García. Toledo came to international prominence after leading the opposition against President Alberto Fujimori, who held the presidency from 1990 to 2000.

After his presidential term, Toledo left Peru and went to the USA where he was a Distinguished Scholar in Residence at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University during the 2006-2008 academic years. In 2007-2008 he was a Payne Distinguished Visiting Lecturer at Stanford University's Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and a CDDRL (Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law) Visiting Scholar[1]. Simultaneously, Dr. Toledo founded and continues to serve as the President of the Global Center for Development and Democracy, which is based in Latin America, the United States, and the European Union. Dr. Toledo is currently a Distinguished Visiting Scholar at the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Washington, D.C., and also a Non-Resident Senior Fellow in Foreign Policy and Global Economy and Development at the Brookings Institution.

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Early years

Toledo is one of sixteen children of a family of indigenous campesinos of Quechua heritage[2]. He was born in the village of Ferrer, Bolognesi but registered in the nearby town of Cabana, Pallasca Province, Ancash Department. He grew up in Chimbote, a city on Peru's northern coast. His father was a bricklayer and his mother was a fishmonger. As a child, he worked shining shoes.

Toledo studied at the local state school, G.U.E. San Pedro. At age 16, with the guidance of members of the Peace Corps, Toledo enrolled at the University of San Francisco on a one-year scholarship. He completed his Bachelor's degree in economics by obtaining a partial soccer scholarship and working part-time pumping gas. Later on, he attended Stanford University, where he received a Masters in Economics, a Masters in Education, and completed his PhD in Economics of Human Resources (in 1993) at the Stanford International Development Education Center. After working abroad, he became a professor of Economics at the Universidad del Pacífico in Peru and then at ESAN (Escuela de Administración de Negocios para Graduados) in Peru.

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