Alfonso X of Castile

related topics
{son, year, death}
{god, call, give}
{work, book, publish}
{law, state, case}
{church, century, christian}
{war, force, army}
{government, party, election}
{group, member, jewish}
{language, word, form}
{theory, work, human}
{math, number, function}
{math, energy, light}
{album, band, music}

Alfonso X (23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284) was a Castilian monarch who ruled as the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 1252 until his death. He also was elected King of the Germans (formally King of the Romans) in 1257, though the Papacy prevented his confirmation.

He established Castilian as a language of higher learning and earned his nicknames "the Wise" or "the Learned" (Spanish: 'el Sabio', Galician: 'O Sabio') and "the Astrologer" (Spanish: 'el Astrólogo', Galician: 'O Astrólogo') through his own prolific writings, including Galician-Portuguese poetry.

Contents

Life

Born in Burgos, Alfonso was the eldest son of Ferdinand III of Castile and Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, known in Spain as Beatriz de Suabia, through whom he was a cousin of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, to whom Alfonso is often compared. His maternal grandparents were Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina.

After the election of Theobald I as king of Navarre, his father tried to arrange a marriage for Ferdinand with Theobald's daughter, Blanche of Navarre, but the move was unsuccessful. So, in 1240, he married Maior Guillen de Guzman, but the marriage was later annulled and their issue declared illegitimate. In the same period (1240–1250) he conquered several Muslim strongholds in Al-Andalus alongside his father, such as Murcia, Alicante and Cadiz.

In 1249, Alfonso X married Violante of Aragon, the daughter of King James I of Aragon and Yolande of Hungary, although betrothed already in 1246. He succeeded his father as King of Castile and León in 1252. The following year he invaded Portugal, capturing the region of Algarve. King Alfonso III of Portugal had to cease, but he gained an agreement by which, after he consented to marry Alfonso X's illegitimate daughter Beatrice, the land would be returned to their heirs. In 1263 Alfonso X returned Algarve to Portugal.

Full article ▸

related documents
Baldwin V of Jerusalem
Eric XIV of Sweden
Charles, Duke of Orléans
John Brown (servant)
Natalia Brassova
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute
Jeanne III of Navarre
Charles XIII of Sweden
Ninon de l'Enclos
Margaret I of Denmark
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
The Tie That Binds
Berengaria of Navarre
Mary of Guise
Joséphine de Beauharnais
Ptolemy of Mauretania
Rupert Brooke
Antiochus IV of Commagene
Empress Kōgyoku
James V of Scotland
Gabrielle d'Estrées
Carol II of Romania
Oscar II of Sweden
Duke of Marlborough
Afonso IV of Portugal
George Cavendish (writer)
Alessandro Manzoni
Princess of Wales
Anne of Bohemia
Amadeo I of Spain