Alpes-Maritimes

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Alpes-Maritimes (Occitan: Aups Maritims) is a department in the extreme southeast corner of France.

Contents

History

Alpes Maritimae was created by Octavian as a Roman military district in 14 BCE, and became a full Roman province in the middle of the 1st century CE with its capital first at Cemenelum (today Cimiez, a neighborhood in Nice) and subsequently at Embrun. At its greatest extent in 297 CE, the province reached north to Digne and Briançon.

A first French département of Alpes-Maritimes existed in the same area from 1793 to 1814. Its boundaries were, however, different as it included Monaco and San Remo, but not Grasse which was then part of the départment of Var.

The department was reconstituted in 1860 when the county of Nice was annexed to France. It included the county of Nice as well as the previously (at least nominally) independent towns of Menton and Roquebrune, and the arrondissement of Grasse in the department of Var.

In 1947, following the Treaty of Paris and a referendum in the affected areas, the department was enlarged by the addition of the communes of Tende and La Brigue, which had remained Italian after the 1860 annexation, as well as by other minor adjustments to the Franco-Italian border.

Geography

The department is surrounded by the French departments of Var, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, the principality of Monaco, Italy on the east, and the Mediterranean on the south.

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