Amalric of Bena ((French) Amaury de Bène or Amaury de Chartres; (Latin) Almaricus, Amalricus, Amauricus; died c. 1204-1207) was a French theologian, after whom the Amalricians are named.
He was born in the latter part of the 12th century at Bennes, a village between Ollé and Chauffours in the diocese of Chartres.
He taught philosophy and theology at the University of Paris and enjoyed a great reputation as a subtle dialectician; his lectures developing the philosophy of Aristotle attracted a large circle of hearers. In 1204 his doctrines were condemned by the university, and, on a personal appeal to Pope Innocent III, the sentence was ratified, Amalric being ordered to return to Paris and recant his errors.
His death was caused, it is said, by grief at the humiliation to which he had been subjected. In 1209 ten of his followers were burnt before the gates of Paris, and Amalric's own body was exhumed and burnt and the ashes given to the winds. The doctrines of his followers, known as the Amalricians, were formally condemned by the fourth Lateran Council in 1215.
Amalric appears to have derived his philosophical system from Eriugena, whose principles he developed in a one-sided and strongly pantheistic form.
Three propositions only can with certainty be attributed to him:
Because of the first proposition, God himself is thought as invisible and only recognizable in his creation.
These three propositions were further developed by his followers, who maintained that God revealed Himself in a threefold revelation, the first in the Biblical patriarch Abraham, marking the epoch of the Father; the second in Jesus Christ, who began the epoch of the Son; and the third in Amalric and his disciples, who inaugurated the era of the Holy Ghost.
Hell is ignorance, therefore Hell is within all men, "like a bad tooth in a mouth";
God is identical with all that is, even evil belongs to God and proves God's omnipotence;
A man who knows that God works through everything cannot sin, because every human act is then the act of God;
A man who recognizes the truth that God works through everything is already in Heaven and this is the only resurrection. There is no other life; man's fulfilment is in this life alone.
Due to persecutions, this sect does not appear to have long survived the death of its founder. Not long after the burning of ten of their members (1210), the sect itself lost its importance, while some of the surviving Amalricians became Brethren of the Free Spirit.
According to Pierre Batiffol (1911) and George T. Knight (1914) Amalric was a believer in apocatastasis, the belief that all people would eventually be saved and this was one of the counts upon which he was declared a heretic by Pope Innocent III.
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