Amygdalin

related topics
{disease, patient, cell}
{acid, form, water}
{food, make, wine}
{law, state, case}
{work, book, publish}
{specie, animal, plant}

Amygdalin (from Greek: ἀμυγδάλη amygdálē “almond”), C20H27NO11, is a glycoside initially isolated from the seeds of the tree Prunus dulcis, also known as bitter almonds, by Pierre-Jean Robiquet[1] and A. F. Boutron-Charlard in 1830, and subsequently investigated by Liebig and Wöhler in 1830, and others. Several other related species in the genus of Prunus, including apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and black cherry (Prunus serotina),[2] also contain amygdalin.

Since the early 1950s it has been promoted in a modified form with the trade-name laetrile as a cancer cure by Ernst T. Krebs and also called "Vitamin B17", but studies have found it to be ineffective.[3][4][5] It is also not a vitamin, and can cause cyanide poisoning.[6] The promotion of laetrile to treat cancer has been described in the scientific literature as a canonical example of quackery,[7][8][9] with Irving Lerner of the University of Minnesota describing it as "the slickest, most sophisticated, and certainly the most remunerative cancer quack promotion in medical history."[10]

Contents

Chemistry

Amygdalin is extracted from almond or apricot kernel cake by boiling in ethanol; on evaporation of the solution and the addition of diethyl ether, amygdalin is precipitated as white minute crystals. Liebig and Wöhler were already able to find three decomposition products of the newly discovered amygdalin: sugar, benzaldehyde, and prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide).[11] Later research showed that sulfuric acid decomposes it into D-glucose, benzaldehyde, and prussic acid; while hydrochloric acid gives mandelic acid, D-glucose, and ammonia.[12]

Full article ▸

related documents
Citrulline
Beta-lactam antibiotic
Cardiac glycoside
Ornithine decarboxylase
Beta-lactam
Inosine
Methylchloroisothiazolinone
Arsphenamine
Steroid
Emu oil
Yersinia
Bactericide
Butylated hydroxyanisole
7-Dehydrocholesterol
Deiodinase
Thyroxine
Vector (biology)
Bioassay
Clove
Toxin
Uridine
Biological hazard
Paregoric
Biocompatible material
Griffith's experiment
Trichomoniasis
Phosphagen
Mouthwash
Chymosin
Thoracic cavity