Andrew II of Hungary

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Andrew II the Jerosolimitan (Hungarian: Jeruzsálemi II András/Endre, Croatian: Andrija II. Arpadović Slovak: Ondrej, Serbian: Андрија II) (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235) was King of Hungary[1] (1205–1235) and Croatia (1205–1235). He was the younger son of King Béla III of Hungary, who invested him with the government of the Principality of Halych. However, the boyars of Halych rebelled against his rule and expelled the Hungarian troops. Following their father's death, Andrew continuously conspired against his brother, King Emeric of Hungary who had to grant him the government of Croatia and Dalmatia. When his brother and his infant son died, Andrew ascended the throne and started to grant royal domains to his partisans. He participated in the Fifth Crusade but he could not achieve any major military success. He was obliged to issue the Golden Bull confirming the privileges of the noblemen of Hungary and later he was also obliged to confirm the special privileges of the clergy. During his long reign, the central power and royal authority potentially weakened. He had several quarrels with his sons.


The turbulent duke

Andrew was the second son of King Béla III and his first wife, Agnes of Antioch. As younger son, Andrew had no hope to inherite the Kingdom of Hungary from his father who wanted to ensure the inheritance of his elder son, Emeric and had him crowned already in 1182.

Nevertheless, when Prince Vladimir II Yaroslavich of Halych, who had been expelled from his country by his subjects, fled to Hungary seeking for assistance in 1188, King Béla III had him arrested and occupied his principality and he invested Andrew with Halych. The child Andrew's rule in Halych must have been only nominal; he did not even visit his principality. Although, the young prince's troops could get the mastery in 1189 when the boyars of Halych rose against his rule, but shortly afterwards Prince Vladimir II Yaroslavich managed to escape from his captivity and he expelled the Hungarian troops from Halych.

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